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  1. 1. Thomas Aquinas JUSTICE
  2. 2. “ Of Justice” from Summa Theologica <ul><li>What is Justice? </li></ul><ul><li>Whether Justice is always toward another? </li></ul><ul><li>Whether it is a virtue? </li></ul><ul><li>Whether the mean of Justice is the real mean? </li></ul><ul><li>Whether the act of Justice is to render to everyone his own? </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Justice? <ul><li>Aquinas follows Aristotle in the understanding of Justice: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aquinas claim that “Justice is a habit”, formed through action and experience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Justice is to render to each on his due by a constant and perpetual will.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First to understand ‘What is a Just Man?’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Justice is a virtue which one has in relationship with others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aquinas follows a distributive concept of justice. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Justice is a complete virtue- Individual and Political- Aristotle </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Justice… the perpetual and constant will to render to each one his right? <ul><li>The constant will: Aristotle “all of our actions aimed at an end” is to constantly will some act… </li></ul><ul><li>The will denotes an act. The act must be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary ( knowingly) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By choice ( for a reason) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For a due end ( aimed at something or somebody) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The will is perpetual: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>God’s will alone is perpetual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To wit, to do “ a certain thing always” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Justice’s proper matter is to render to each one his right </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A man is just because he respects the rights of others --- Obj. 6 Divine Law- “love our neighbor. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Whether Justice is always toward another? <ul><li>Justice is concerned only about our dealings with others. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The object or purpose of Justice is Political-to keep men together- According to Greek tradition. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Justice implies equality- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Justice is done out of necessity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Justice is to “rectify human acts”, only humans are capable of “purposive acts” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Justice is not of dealing within ourselves, since man’s dealings are amended by the rectification of the passions- other virtues ( Aristotelian Sense) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Whether Justice is a virtue? <ul><li>Objections: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Justice is not a virtue, since any virtue is considered an action done altruistically. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Justice is done out of necessity-what is done out of necessity is not meritorious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Through virtuous actions we gain merit, then Justice is not a virtue. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Respond: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A human virtue is what produces a good. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We attain a good through “reason” it is natural to be rational. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Justice is done out of necessity: Two kinds of necessity: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From constraint: A repression of a Natural Thing- forced by a unnatural thing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From obligation of a command- an ought- to obtain an end- it does not remove the merit. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Whether the act of Justice is to render to everyone his own? <ul><li>Objections: </li></ul><ul><li>Justice is to give , to help someone in need. </li></ul><ul><li>When we assist someone, we don’t give another what is theirs, but it is ours- Charity </li></ul><ul><li>Justice then is not given to each his own. </li></ul><ul><li>Justice has only a distributive nature (material) </li></ul><ul><li>To prevent murder, adultery and theft, is also an act of Justice </li></ul><ul><li>Justice is not sufficiently described by the original definition- distribution of things. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Whether the act of Justice is to render to everyone his own? <ul><li>Answer: </li></ul><ul><li>Justice is to ‘share’ our own profit in order to preserve equity- common equality. </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excess Defect (Action) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Profit Loss (material) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This definition is transferred to all things. </li></ul>