Alexander And Macendonians Slides


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Alexander And Macendonians Slides

  1. 1. Lecture # 4: Alexander the Great and the Macedonian System Capt Gillingham, USMC Rm 156 Reynolds Coliseum (919) 515-8930 [email_address] Evolution of Warfare
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Quiz </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Military Symbology </li></ul><ul><li>Issues For Consideration/Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>The Rise of Macedonia </li></ul><ul><li>The Macedonian Military System </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander’s Persian Campaign </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander as Military Commander </li></ul>
  3. 3. QUIZ
  4. 4. <ul><li>What were the organizational and tactical improvements of the Macedonian military system 350-320 B.C.? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the tactics and strategy of Alexander at the Battle of Arbela. </li></ul><ul><li>How did the principles of war apply to Alexander’s campaigns? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe Alexander's unique resolution of the land power-sea power dichotomy </li></ul><ul><li>Know and describe Alexander’s 4 Major Battles against Persia. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate Alexander as Military Commander </li></ul>Issues For Consideration
  5. 5. <ul><li>Discuss the pros & cons of the Persian strategy not adopted of attacking Alexander’s logistical support base. (Not a single house to be burned) </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss how Alexander’s land campaign influenced the Persian fleet. </li></ul><ul><li>Articulate this campaign at the three levels of war. </li></ul><ul><li>How did Alexander employ cavalry and infantry as combined arms? </li></ul><ul><li>How did Alexander’s heavy cavalry affect his enemies? </li></ul><ul><li>How did the principles of war apply to Alexander’s campaigns? </li></ul><ul><li>Know and describe Alexander’s 4 Major Battles against Persia. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate Alexander as Military Commander </li></ul>Issues For Discussion
  6. 6. Basic Military Symbology Friendly Unit Enemy Unit
  7. 7. Reconnaissance units
  8. 9. Alexander’s Rule <ul><li>Died of Malaria 13 June 323 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>33 years old </li></ul><ul><li>12 year rule </li></ul>
  9. 11. Macedonia and its occupied territories in 359 BC
  10. 12. Philip of Macedon - King of Macedonia and conqueror of Illyria, Thrace, and Greece
  11. 13. Macedonian Expansion 348 BC
  12. 14. Macedonia at Philip's death (336 BC)
  13. 15. The Macedonian Military System <ul><li>Philip had formed the first national standing army consisting of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Citizens owing military service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volunteers from the nobility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Auxiliary troops from tributary states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mercenaries employed for some special skill </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organized army to improve articulation & control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tetrarchia (platoon) - 64 men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxiarchia (company) - 128 men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Syntagma (battalion) - 256 men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chiliarchia (regiment) - 1024 men </li></ul></ul>
  14. 16. The Macedonian Army <ul><li>Philip built the first scientifically organized army on the continent of Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Professional army that was drilled until they could function as a cohesive unit </li></ul><ul><li>Fielded army </li></ul><ul><li>First use of “Combined Arms” </li></ul><ul><li>The details of the Macedonian staff system are not well-known but must have been quite thorough and extensive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Command was exercised by voice, by trumpet, and by spear movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long range communications were accomplished by smoke signals or fire beacons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Beginning of Generalship </li></ul>
  15. 17. Heavy Infantry <ul><li>Improved the Phalanx by providing longer spear (Sarissa) about 21 ft long and increasing the depth from 8 to 16 ranks </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced the need for armor especially in the rear ranks (less cost) </li></ul>
  16. 18. Heavy Infantry <ul><li>In battle formation, the Sarissa of the first five ranks protruded into an impenetrable hedge, while the remaining ranks grounded or carried their Sarissa at a 45 degree angle to deflect missiles from overhead </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis changed from the individual effort of the front rank to the entire unit </li></ul>
  17. 19. Heavy Infantry <ul><li>On level ground this mobile force was invincible when it bore down with locked shields and bristling points. But formation had weaknesses . Its flanks and rear were open to attack , but it was better able to maneuver over rough terrain than previous phalanx’ </li></ul><ul><li>Flanks and rear of formation protected by Light Infantry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peltasts ( Supporting light pike men) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psiloi ( Included archers, slingers, and javelin men) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. Hypaspists <ul><li>Lighter armor </li></ul><ul><li>Shorter Pike </li></ul><ul><li>Individual skill v. drill & formations </li></ul><ul><li>Employed with cavalry for shock action </li></ul><ul><li>This infantry served as a link between the slower moving phalanx and the faster moving cavalry </li></ul><ul><li>This “hinge” was essential to an advance in oblique order, for without it, contact between the cavalry and phalanx would almost certainly be lost </li></ul>
  19. 21. Macedonian Heavy Cavalry <ul><li>The cavalry had been the weakness of Greek arms . Philip made it the strength of his Army . He organized his nobles into a bodyguard called the Companions which became the hammer of Macedonian battle tactics. </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy Calvary – Armor, shields, Calvary Spear (9’ with iron tips) </li></ul><ul><li>Still no Stirrup </li></ul><ul><li>Shock Action </li></ul><ul><li>Discipline, organized units </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy Calvary dominated light Infantry </li></ul>
  20. 22. <ul><li>In support he formed troops of light horsemen trained for scouting, skirmishing, and screening </li></ul><ul><li>Still had “traditional” Light Calvary which relied on missile action </li></ul>Macedonian Light Cavalry
  21. 25. Alexander and his Strategy against Persian Sea Power <ul><li>Aristotle was his tutor </li></ul><ul><li>Philip was assassinated in 336 </li></ul><ul><li>Many Greek states assumed that his son (only 20) would not be a formidable leader. </li></ul><ul><li>Aroused by Darius III of Persia, who feared a strong Macedonia, many Greek states and separate tribes revolted against Alexander and Macedonian rule. </li></ul><ul><li>In less than two years, Alexander had reestablished unquestioned Macedonian rule in the area. </li></ul><ul><li>Having assured the security of his Hellenic base, Alexander now determined to conquer Persia </li></ul><ul><li>To maintain the security of his base, and to ensure communications, Alexander knew he must destroy the Persian fleet which dominated the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean. How? </li></ul>
  22. 26. Alexander Attacks Persia <ul><li>4 Major Battles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Granicus River 334 B.C. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issus 333 B.C. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arbela (Guagamela) 331 B.C. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydaspes 326 B.C. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 27. The Persian Campaign 334-323 BC
  24. 29. Persia – Darius III <ul><li>Calvary and Light Infantry combination they added heavy infantry (Greek Mercenaries) </li></ul><ul><li>Light Infantry in front </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation was cavalry to decide the battle </li></ul><ul><li>NO heavy cavalry </li></ul><ul><li>Bows and javelins (mailed shirts and swords) </li></ul>
  25. 30. Alexander as Military Commander Bold and imaginative leadership, the courage and technical quality of his army, and the systematic development of his strategy over 2 million square miles. Alexander was among the first to recognize that commander's proper function is not to fight himself, but to direct the fighting of others. Had a keen sense of how to motivate people and how to obtain their loyalty and respect. Appointed his garrison commanders and ordered them to allow the governors to rule their respective districts according to ancient custom.
  26. 31. For Next Time <ul><li>Comprehend, know and explain the organization of the Roman army, with emphasis on the legionary system </li></ul><ul><li>Know/describe the First Punic War, with emphasis on the campaigns against King Pyrrhus </li></ul><ul><li>Know and recount the major battles of the Second Punic War, to include the battles of Trebia, Lake Trasimene, and Canae </li></ul><ul><li>Know and evaluate Hannibal as a Great Captain </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehend and explain Hannibal’s failure to gain strategic victory despite tactical success </li></ul><ul><li>Know and review the Battle of Zama and Scipio’s impact on the outcome </li></ul>
  27. 32. “ Pax per potens&quot; Peace through power Questions?