In battle formation, the Sarissa of the first five ranks protruded into an impenetrable hedge, while the remaining ranks grounded or carried their Sarissa at a 45 degree angle to deflect missiles from overhead
Emphasis changed from the individual effort of the front rank to the entire unit
On level ground this mobile force was invincible when it bore down with locked shields and bristling points. But formation had weaknesses . Its flanks and rear were open to attack , but it was better able to maneuver over rough terrain than previous phalanx’
Flanks and rear of formation protected by Light Infantry
Peltasts ( Supporting light pike men)
Psiloi ( Included archers, slingers, and javelin men)
The cavalry had been the weakness of Greek arms . Philip made it the strength of his Army . He organized his nobles into a bodyguard called the Companions which became the hammer of Macedonian battle tactics.
Heavy Calvary – Armor, shields, Calvary Spear (9’ with iron tips)
Calvary and Light Infantry combination they added heavy infantry (Greek Mercenaries)
Light Infantry in front
Foundation was cavalry to decide the battle
NO heavy cavalry
Bows and javelins (mailed shirts and swords)
Alexander as Military Commander Bold and imaginative leadership, the courage and technical quality of his army, and the systematic development of his strategy over 2 million square miles. Alexander was among the first to recognize that commander's proper function is not to fight himself, but to direct the fighting of others. Had a keen sense of how to motivate people and how to obtain their loyalty and respect. Appointed his garrison commanders and ordered them to allow the governors to rule their respective districts according to ancient custom.