2010 AP® WORLD HISTORY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS                           WORLD HISTORY SECTION IINote: This exam uses the ...
Source Citation"Blame it on the rain: Decline of China dynasties linked to monsoons." CanadianBroadcasting Corporation [CB...
Source Citation"Chinese scientist disputes German theory of Tang dynasty collapse." Xinhua News Agency 14 Jan. 2007.Genera...
Document 2Source Citation:"An Shi Rebellion: Advancing to the Capital." Cultural China. Web. 9 Dec 2010.                  ...
Bentley, Jerry, and Herbert Ziegler. Traditions and Encounters: A Global Perspective on thePast. Third. New York, NY: McGr...
Source Citation:"German Theory of Tang Dynasty Collapse Debunked." china.org.cn. Xinhua News Agency, January 15, 2007. Web...
Source Citation:"Tang dynasty." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica OnlineSchool Edition.Encyclopædia Britann...
Source Citation:"Tai-tsung, Tang (600-649)." Encyclopedia of World Biography. Detroit: Gale, 1998.Gale World History In Co...
Document 6Document 7Document 8
"German Theory of Tang Dynasty Collapse Debunked."china.org.cn. Xinhua News Agency, January 15, 2007. Web. 9Dec 2010. <htt...
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  1. 1. 2010 AP® WORLD HISTORY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS WORLD HISTORY SECTION IINote: This exam uses the chronological designations B.C.E. (before the common era) and C.E. (commonera). These labels correspond to B.C. (before Christ) and A.D. (anno Domini), which are used in someworld history textbooks. Part A (Suggested writing time—40 minutes) Percent of Section II score—33 1/3Directions: The following question is based on the accompanying Documents 1-10. (The documents havebeen edited for the purpose of this exercise.) Write your answer on the lined pages of the Section II free-response booklet.This question is designed to test your ability to work with and understand historical documents. Write anessay that:• Has a relevant thesis and supports that thesis with evidence from the documents.• Uses all of the documents.• Analyzes the documents by grouping them in as many appropriate ways as possible. Does not simplysummarize the documents individually.• Takes into account the sources of the documents and analyzes the authors’ points of view. • Identifies and explains the need for at least one additional type of document.You may refer to relevant historical information not mentioned in the documents.17. Explain the factors that led to the collapse of the Tang dynasty
  2. 2. Source Citation"Blame it on the rain: Decline of China dynasties linked to monsoons." CanadianBroadcasting Corporation [CBC] 6 Nov. 2008. General Reference Center Gold. Web. 9Dec. 2010.Blame it on the rain: Decline of China dynasties linked to monsoons.Historians have pointed to a prolonged dry spell as one of the contributing factors to thedecline of Chinas Tang dynasty in the late 9th century. Now they may have the rock toprove it.An ancient stalagmite found rising from a cave floor in northwest China has allowedscientists from Lanzhou University in China to chart the rise and fall in strength of Asianmonsoons for over 1,800 years.The stalagmite, which built up from minerals in dripping water over 1,810 years, hadunusually high uranium concentrations, allowing researchers to chemically date the periodsof high and low rainfall during its lifetime.The monsoon cycles they discovered corresponded not only with known climate effects inother regions, such as glacial retreat in the Swiss Alps, but also with periods in Chinas longhistory, the researchers reported in Fridays edition of the journal Science.The monsoon, they found, was generally weak during the final decades of the Tang (618-907AD), Yuan (1271-1368) and Ming (1368-1644) dynasties, suggesting poor climate mighthave been a contributing factor in those upheavals. Likewise, they found periods when themonsoons were stronger corresponded with periods of growth in China.The 1.18 metre-long structure was found in Wanxiang cave, some 1,200 metres above sealevel, in a region where the monsoon season stretches from May to September.The researchers also found what they say is further evidence of mans role in climate change.While rising temperatures were linked to stronger monsoon periods, that relationshipappears to have changed over the past half century, with temperatures rising while monsoonperiods remain relatively weak. Document 1
  3. 3. Source Citation"Chinese scientist disputes German theory of Tang dynasty collapse." Xinhua News Agency 14 Jan. 2007.General Reference Center Gold. Web. 9 Dec. 2010.Chinese scientist disputes German theory of Tang dynasty collapse.The Tang dynasty, which spanned nearly three centuries from AD 618 to 907, is considered the mostprosperous and open epoch in Chinas history, synonymous with a flowering of art and literature and thrivingtrade with the outside world.The newly published Nature report, based on research led by German scientist Gerald Haug, claims that therehave been three periods of strong winter monsoons in the past 15,000 years.The most recent of these three periods coincides with the Tang dynasty. It was a time of unusually coldweather, prolonged drought and poor summer rains, the scientists wrote. The droughts led to crop failures thatsparked peasant uprisings which eventually led to the collapse of the dynasty.Zhang Deer, a researcher with the China Meteorological Administration, said that the researchers claim ofstrong winter monsoons in the period around 700 to 900 tallied with what Chinese scholars had deduced fromthe study of historical documents."The climate did turn cold in the later period of the dynasty. Chinese scientists have been aware of that for along time," Zhang said."The Haug team has done a first-class job in studying sedimentary cores taken from a lake in south ChinasGuangdong Province, and its good to see that their research confirms Chinese scholars theories," Zhang said."But cold weather is not necessarily linked to dry summers. Our climate analyses over nearly 500 years from1470 to 1979 found that chilly winters are often accompanied by rainy summers," Zhang said."The Haug team says the summer monsoons during the Tang dynasty were weak but the evidence for it isdebatable," he said."Historical records suggest that -- despite the freezing frosts, snow and ice in winter because of the strongmonsoons -- there was abundant summer rainfall in the later Tang period," he said.According to Zhang, the Tang dynasty went through two periods of relatively rich rainfall, one from 711 to 771and the other from 810 till the end of the dynasty.He said there was not enough evidence to support the German scientists hypothesis of a long-term drought."The decline of a dynasty is a very complicated matter. Politics, the economy and ethnic conflicts are allfactors, not just the climate and the environment," he said.An insurgency called the Anshi Rebellion lasting from 756 to 763 is commonly regarded as the turning point inthe Tang Dynastys fortunes.The wars stripped the court of troops, wealth and its credit among the people and -- even if the dynasty held onfor another 144 years -- it never recovered its previous glory, according to Chinese historians.
  4. 4. Document 2Source Citation:"An Shi Rebellion: Advancing to the Capital." Cultural China. Web. 9 Dec 2010. Document 3
  5. 5. Bentley, Jerry, and Herbert Ziegler. Traditions and Encounters: A Global Perspective on thePast. Third. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2006. 381. Print.Book Source: “Under able rulers such as Taizong, the Tang dynasty flourished. During themid eighth century, however, casual and careless leadership brought the dynasty to a crisisfrom which it never fully recovered. In 755, while the emperor neglected public affairs infavor of music and his favorite concubine, one of the dynasty’s foremost militarycommanders, An Lushan, mounted a rebellion and captured the capital at Chang’an, as willas the secondary capital at Luoyang. his revolt was short-lived: in 757 a soldier murdered AnLushan, and by 763 Tang forces had suppressed An Lushan’s army and recovered theircapitals. But the rebellion left the dynasty in a gravely weakened state. Tang commandershad to invite a nomadic Turkish people, the Uighurs, to bring an army into China to oust AnLushan from the imperial capitals. In return for their services, the Uighurs demanded he rightto sack Chang’an an Luoyang after the expulsion of the rebels.” “The Tang imperial house never regained control of affairs after this crisis. The equalfield system deteriorated, and dwindling tax receipts failed to meet dynastic needs. Imperialarmies were unable to resist the encroachments of Turkish peoples in the late eighthcentury. During the ninth century a series of rebellions devastated the Chinese countryside.One uprising, led by the military commander Huang Chao, embroiled much of eastern Chinafor almost a decade from 875 to 884. Huang Chao’s revolt reflected and fueled populardiscontent: he routinely pillaged the wealthy and distributed a portion of his plunder among
  6. 6. Source Citation:"German Theory of Tang Dynasty Collapse Debunked." china.org.cn. Xinhua News Agency, January 15, 2007. Web.9 Dec 2010. <http://citationmachine.net/index2.php?reqstyleid=1&mode=form&reqsrcid=MLAWebDocument&more=yes&nameCnt=1>.German Theory of Tang Dynasty Collapse DebunkedA Chinese meteorologist has taken issue with a study led by German scientists and published in British sciencejournal Nature, which argues that long droughts were an essential factor in the fall of the Tang dynasty.The Tang dynasty, which spanned nearly three centuries from AD 618 to 907, is considered the most prosperous andopen epoch in Chinas history, synonymous with a flowering of art and literature and thriving trade with the outsideworld.The newly-published Nature report, based on research led by German scientist Gerald Haug, claims that there havebeen three periods of strong winter monsoons in the past 15,000 years.The most recent of these three periods coincided with the Tang dynasty. It represented a spell unusually cold weather,prolonged drought and poor summer rains, the scientists wrote. The droughts led to crop failures sparking peasantuprisings which eventually led to the collapse of the dynasty.Zhang Deer, a researcher with the China Meteorological Administration, said that the researchers claim of strongwinter monsoons in the period around 700 to 900 tallied with what Chinese scholars had deduced from the study ofhistorical documents."The climate did turn cold in the later period of the dynasty. Chinese scientists have been aware of that for a longtime," Zhang said. "The Haug team has done a first-class job in studying sedimentary cores taken from a lake in southChinas Guangdong Province, and its good to see that their research confirms Chinese scholars theories. But coldweather is not necessarily linked to dry summers. Our climate analyses over nearly 500 years from 1470 to 1979found that chilly winters are often accompanied by rainy summers.""The Haug team says the summer monsoons during the Tang dynasty were weak but the evidence for it is debatable,"he said."Historical records suggest that -- despite the freezing frosts, snow and ice in winter because of the strong monsoons-- there was abundant summer rainfall in the later Tang period," he added.According to Zhang, the Tang dynasty suffered two periods of relatively rich rainfall, one from 711 to 771 and theother from 810 till the end of the dynasty.He said not enough evidence existed to support the German scientists hypothesis of a long-term drought."The decline of a dynasty is a very complicated matter. Politics, the economy and ethnic conflicts are all factors, notjust the climate and the environment," he said.An insurgency called the Anshi Rebellion lasting from 756 to 763 is commonly regarded as the turning point in theTang Dynastys fortunes. The wars stripped the court of troops, wealth and its credit among the people and -- even ifthe dynasty held on to power for another 144 years -- it never recovered its previous glory, according to Chinesehistorians.
  7. 7. Source Citation:"Tang dynasty." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica OnlineSchool Edition.Encyclopædia Britannica, 2010. Web. 8 Dec. 2010.Tang dynastyThe dynasty reached the peak of its wealth and power during the early 8th century,which was a golden age for its arts. The aristocracy, scattered, murdered, andincarcerated under the empress Wuhou, was restored and oversaw an era of reform.In the second half of the 8th century, however, rebellion broke out in the northeastand spread rapidly, forcing the emperor Xuanzong to flee west to Sichuan. Althoughthe rebellion was finally suppressed, in its wake came a period of provincialseparation and later rebellion. By 818 the emperor Xianzong had restored theauthority of the empire throughout most of the country. In the second half of the 9thcentury, the government grew weaker, and rebellions recurred; the dynasty declineduntil 907, when it collapsed into a scattering of independent kingdoms thatwithstood unification for more than 50 years. Document 4
  8. 8. Source Citation:"Tai-tsung, Tang (600-649)." Encyclopedia of World Biography. Detroit: Gale, 1998.Gale World History In Context. Web. 9 Dec. 2010.Saw Decline in Last Years of RuleBy the year 636, Tai-tsung had firmly established China as a major power in the medievalworld. In the West, stories of Chinese grandeur and cultural advances would becomelegendary through accounts handed down zcenturies later by Marco Polo and otherWesterners familiar with Chinese history. Tai-tsung contributed to the splendor of Chinaby commissioning many public works and even more palaces and vacation estates.Unfortunately, his architectural vision of the great city of Changan drained royal coffersand taxes, and tariffs were raised to pay for Tai-tsungs projects. This same decision wasin many respects responsible for the downfall of his Sui predecessors and led to adiminishing empire for Tai-tsung. Nonetheless, during Tai-tsungs lifetime the city ofChangan was unlike any other in the world. It was designed on a grid pattern withavenues wider than the length of the modern football field and organized into several self-contained neighborhoods, market areas, parks, and royal hunting grounds. Many houseswere cooled in the summer by an air conditioning system run by underground ice storagepits and many also contained bathing pools, fountains, and gardens.While the interior of the empire surrounded itself with the luxuries of profitable trade, themore remote territories experienced a resurgence in attacks by Western invaders. Unableto appease the Mongols and Turks and suffering the humiliation after Korean troopsrepelled his invading armies, Tai-tsung grew more insular and suspicious of his advisors,consulting them less and less. In addition to his military setbacks, Tai-tsung was disturbedby the line of succession to follow him. His oldest son turned away from traditionalChinese customs and adopted the life of a Turk, living in tents and garbed in Turkishgowns. The crown prince also hatched a plan with his brother against their father, thoughTai-tsung quelled their efforts and passed them both over by appointing his youngest sonas the crown prince. Tai-tsungs youngest son, though, was a sickly child and a weakruler, and saw losses to barbarian enemies in both the Northern and Western fronts.While the close of his rule saw the celebrated emperor lose a portion of his lustre, Tai-tsungs reputation in Chinese history remains secure as a magnanimous leader, responsiblefor both broadening and glorifying the empire. Recorded dialogues between himself andhis clerics survived the ages to become regularly consulted manuals of conduct for lateremperors. Document 5
  9. 9. Document 6Document 7Document 8
  10. 10. "German Theory of Tang Dynasty Collapse Debunked."china.org.cn. Xinhua News Agency, January 15, 2007. Web. 9Dec 2010. <http://citationmachine.net/index2.php?reqstyleid=1&mode=form&reqsrcid=MLAWebDocument&more=yes&nameCnt=1

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