Questions1. What three essential sound ingredients do you need to analyse? (3 marks)2. What are the two types of sound are there in TV Drama? (2 marks)3. What is the media term for realism (2 marks; 1x for correct word and 1x for correct spelling)4. What is diegetic sound? (1 mark)5. What is non-diegetic sound? (1 mark)6. What is it called when the character on screen directly address the audience? (1 mark)7. What is incidental music used for? (1 mark)8. What might dissonant music be used for? (1 mark)9. What is it called when the sound compliments what we see on screen? (1 mark)10. What is Ambient sound also known as? (1 mark)
Answers1. Three essential ingredients are: The human voice /dialogue, sound, effects music (3 marks)2. Two types of sounds are: Diegetic and non-diegetic (2 marks)3. Verisimilitude (2 marks)4. Diegetic sound is any sound or music that happens inside the world of the story (1 mark)5. Non-diegetic sound is sound which takes place outside the world of the story (1 mark)6. Direct mode of address (1 marks)7. Incidental music is used to add emotion and rhythm to a drama. Usually not meant to be noticeable (1 mark)8. Dissonant music may be used in film to indicate an approaching (but not yet visible) menace or disaster (1 mark)9. Parallel sound = when we watch a TV drama the sound we hear usually compliments and follows what we see on screen (1 mark)10. Ambient sound = also known as natural sound (1 mark) Total: 14 marks
Editing: what’s the idea?• The general idea behind editing is the coordination of one shot with another in order to create a coherent whole…it is the task of selecting and joining camera takes.
Video Editing BasicsContinuity Editing refers to arranging the sequence ofshots to suggest a progression of events. Given the sameshots, an editor can suggest many different scenarios.Consider just these two shots:1. A man glances up in surprise2. Another man pulls a gun and fires toward the camera• In this order it appears that the first man was shot.• However, if you reverse the order of these two scenes, the first man is watching a shooting.• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B6rgwbf2lUQ
Juxtaposition and meaning• Creating meaning through the juxtaposition/sequence of the shots• Edwin S. Porter, The Great Train Robbery, 1903 Shots in sequence create meaning for audiences• From exterior shots to set, audience is encouraged to believe the events they see are immediately sequentialExterior, train Interior train Exterior, roof pulls away Cut to carriage Cut to of train
The Kuleshov Effect • Lev Kuleshov, circa 1920: intercut an actor’s face with unrelated footage taken later. • Audiences interpreted emotional responses on the actor’s face based on the juxtaposition of images. • the hunger in his face when he saw the soup • the grief when looking at the dead womanActually, the shot of the actor was years before the other shots and he never "saw" any of theitems. The simple act of juxtaposing the shots in a sequence made the relationship.
The Kuleshov Effect• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_gGl3LJ7vH• Hitchcock loves biknis - Vhttp://www.youtube.com/watch? index=3&feature=PlayList&v=hCAE0t6Kw JY&list=PLDC6A8F00C8251D25…this also refers to ‘cause and effect’- Hitcock’s reaction is the effect and the cause is the woman with the baby/the woman in the bikini…
Cause and EffectThis image begs the question; who isthe woman waving at? So this shouldcut to a scene to respond to this
The ‘Four Main Functions’ of Film Editing:1.To make sure that the production is therequired length or time;2.To remove unwanted material or mistakes;3.To alter if necessary the way or the sequencein which events will be portrayed;4.To establish the particular style and characterof a production.’ (O’Sullivan, Dutton and Rayner)
Points to considerWhen analysing editing you need to consider the following:• Narrative• Characters• Relationships• Genre• Shot choices• Continuity• Effectiveness
The Four Areas of Editing1. Graphic Relations2. Rhythmic Relations3. Temporal Relations4. Spatial Relations
Graphic Relations• Film is a visual art• Therefore film editors work to achieve visual interest by creating transitions between shots that are graphically similar or graphically dissimilar• There are two types of graphic edits…
Graphic Edit• A graphic match is achieved by joining two shots that have a similarity in terms of light/dark, line or shape, volume or depth, movement or stasis.• A graphically discontinuous edit creates a clash of visual content by joining two shots that are dissimilar in terms of one or more of the above visual principles.
Graphic MatchA simple example; the Rolo - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qoaw7iTPlZcA more developed example - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LUf7iGGf5MM
Graphic DiscontinuityGraphic discontinuity - This canbe used to create suspense butalso binary oppositions – theshow opposing representationsof class, or age, or regionalidentity
Rhythmic Relations• Film editors can manipulate the rhythms experienced by audiences (imagine the shots are rhythms in music)• They can manipulate the rhythm in two ways…
Rhythmic Relations1. Through thoughtful juxtapositions of longer and shorter shots; when there is fast action such as a car chase - there tends to be shorter length shots - and when there is an emotional, tense moment there tends to be longer shots; playing with pace will create connotations a) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2ETruidd5lQ b) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=- 1BPx5Wsm7k
Rhythmic Transitional Devices2. Through transitional devices that affect theperceiver’s sense of beat or tempo. Straight cut Fade-in/out Dissolve Wipe Flip frame Jump cut http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=iCEdSGeFCCA&feature=related
Temporal Relations• Most feature films present, in roughly two hours, a sufficient amount of a story and plot to provide the audience with everything they need in order to understand days, weeks, months or even years in characters’ lives.• In TV dramas this is even shorter; an hour or half an hour…• Playing with temporal relations shows the passing of time without having to show every single moment• Click here for example of Temporal relative editing• Elliptical editing: when editing is used to take out time from a programme that is unimportant.
Temporal Relations: Exceptions• Most narrative texts are presented in roughly chronological order, with notable exceptions: – flashbacks and flash-forwards (the former being much more typical than the latter).
Temporal Relations: Hitchcock• Hitchcock was famous for suspense in his films; he created ‘The Bomb Theory’…like dramatic irony; you as an audience may know something about a character/narrative that those in the diegesis do not…• A shot of a ticking bomb under the table in a restaurant shows the audience what is about to happen, but…• Hitchcock would draw out these scenes to create suspense for the audience; they know what is about to happen but get enjoyment from watching and waiting for it to happen;• Therefore he was elongated time/making time stand still in order to create effect
Editing Techniques to create spatial continuity• Spatial awareness is important for viewers, as spatially they need to be able to make sense of the space around the characters: – 180-degree rule; this ensures consistency of the objects in scene – Match on Action, Shot-reverse-shot and Establishing shot all reinforce spatial continuity – Eye-line shot/match:The characters gaze is directed precisely so that it corresponds to the eye-line shot; this matching keeps the spatial relations among characters and objects consistent from one shot to the next
Different Types of Edit• Cut: Shot jumps from one shot to another. Aids continuity, is the most common edit.• Cut away: Shot of something other than the main action, from outside of the frame. Sometimes shows the audience something significant.• Reaction shot: Cuts to a shot in which the subject reacts to the previous shot• Cross Cutting: Cutting from one action shot to another piece of action in a different location. Implies that the action is happening simultaneously (http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=Ts1x6uADFtM&feature=player_embedded)This is also referred to as parallel editing; where two or more storylines are shown to be taking place at one time