TV Drama and Representation• Section A of the exam.• 30 minutes to watch clip (4 times) and make notes. – Viewing 1 – no notes – Viewing 2 – make notes – Viewing 3 – make notes – Viewing 4 – make notes• 40-45 minutes to write your response.
The Mark Scheme– Explanation/analysis/argument (20 marks)– Use of examples (20 marks)– Terminology (10 marks)
Remember your aim…….. Camera shots, angles, movement and composition. How do these things construct aEditing. representation of ? Sound. Mise-en-scene
Possible Approaches• You could structure your note around the micro concepts (Camera, Editing, Mise en Scene, Sound) to ensure you cover lots of detailed examples.• Alternatively you could pick three or four key points in the clip and structure your detailed analysis around how the micro features are used in those sections of drama.• How do the micro contribute to macro (the three macro being narrative, genre and representation).
Note Taking Split your paper into 3Technique Used Example Explain/Meaning Created/Impact on audience
In summary: Write down what technique is used Give an example from the extract Explain how meaning is being created for the specific representation(can you refer to how its working with another technique)
Additional Learning• Todorov Narrative theory – Disequilibrium – the period of instability and insecurity in a film’s narrative. Equilibrium – a state of peace and calm, which often exists at the beginning of a film’s narrative.• Enigma – the question or mystery that is posed within a film’s narrative.• Iconography – the objects within a film that are used to evoke particular meanings
Other keywords you should mention include…• Realism – do the different techniques used work to make the piece realistic?• Verisimilitude – the construction of a believable world.• Stereotypes – how we expect people and places to be• Protagonist – is the main character (the central or primary personal figure), around whom the events of the narratives plot revolve and with whom the audience is intended to most identify. Is also known as the hero• Antagonist - opponent, competitor, enemy, rival; is a character, group of characters, or institution, that represents the opposition against which the protagonist must contend. In other words, A person, or a group of people who oppose the main character, or the main characters. Is also known as the villain
Camera angle, shot, movement and composition• Angle – high, low,• Framing – inside, outside• Focus – deep, shallow• Movement – tilt, pan, track• Shot distance – ECU, CUM, MS, LS
Editing• An important factor is the way that the editing of the sequence grants or witholds narrative information from the audience in order to encourage identification or rejection of particular characters/representations.• How are screen time, p.o.v. or reaction shots distributed? How hierarchies are established, leading to certain representations being privileged where others are marginalised?• Does editing frequently shifted the viewers relationship to dominant views of gender in different scenes?• Shot/reverse shot can be used to reinforce relationships - sometimes by exaggerating opposition• Jump cuts can connote disorder• Eyeline match can provide insight to a characters private thoughts, though mainly through camera and mise en scene, actually.• Pace of editing can imply character qualities - fast pace suggests energy, for example.
Sound• Sound is typically about narrative, genre and the audiences emotional response to a scene. Then theres editing, which for me is primarily about narrative.• Choice of music can imply character qualities - fast pace suggests energy, for example (as with editing)• Crescendo implies a build-up of power or emotion, be it in dialogue or non-diegetic music.
Mise en Scene• Costume (and everything about a characters appearance including height, hair colour, makeup etc)• Body Language• Props• Location• Set Design• Lighting• Remember that everything you see has connotations - that is, messages or values which are communicated beyond the literal object being shown. For example, if a character wears glasses it carries connotations of intelligence, cleverness, or possible geekiness. Even colours have connotations - at its simplest level, black=evil and white=good.• You are looking for connotations which have something to do with gender, or age, or disability etc…• How does the content/mise en scene suggest a representation?• Is this a stereotypical view?
Additional Support1. Interpreting the question…How is the representation of age constructed in this extract?“2. What do I expect? Once you have read the questions, when you find out what representation you are being questioned on; consider societys expectations of … and consider this when watching the extract for the first time…..Is the extract challenging/subverting dominant ideologies/stereotypes?3. The importance of Binary Oppositions (Levi-Srauss) - There can be no Drama without conflict, and those conflicts are usually between two opposite things: male vs female, young vs old, rich vs poor etc. These are called binary oppositions (BINARY = two things). Ask yourself: which characters in the extract seem to be the main participants in this conflict? This will help you to avoid spending too much time writing about minor characters. You should also be able to compare one character to another4. Practise note-taking5. Ensure you understanding technical codes/knowing media language6. Relate technical codes to representation7. Backing up points with examples8. Keep it readable – leave a gap between paragraphs9. Write it in the time10. Have a system for your notes11. Be selective from the text- richest moments12. Know your terms- media language13. Constant reference to representation14. Don’t generalise – there are lots of CU’s…be specific with your use of examples from the extract15. Not every one of the above technical areas will feature in equal measure in any given extract; the examiners will bear this in mind
How to Revise• http://blackpoolmedia.wordpress.com/category/repres entation/• Watch any 5 min extract from TV Dramas you like and particularly ones you don’t – Identify terminology – Identify comments to make on all 4 areas• Choose an area of representation and practise, practise, practise......• Practise your terminology here - http://quizlet.com/2302961/textual-analysis-flash- cards/