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Steven jobs

  1. 1. Steve JobsFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Steve Jobs § Jobs holding a white iPhone 4§ at Worldwide Developers Conference§ 2010 Born Steven Paul Jobs February 24, 1955 [1] San Francisco, California§, U.S.[1] Residence Palo Alto, California, U.S.[2] Nationality American Alma mater§ Reed College§(dropped out in 1972) Occupation Chairman§and CEO§, Apple Inc.§[3] Salary $§1[4][5][6][7] Net worth $8.3 billion (2011)[8] Board member of The Walt Disney Company§[9] Religion Buddhism§[10] Spouse Laurene Powell§(1991–present) Children 4 SignatureSteven Paul "Steve" Jobs (born February 24, 1955) is an American business magnate§ andinventor§. He is the co-founder§ and chief executive officer§ of Apple Inc.§ Jobs also previouslyserved as chief executive of Pixar Animation Studios§; he became a member of the board ofdirectors of The Walt Disney Company§ in 2006, following the acquisition of Pixar by Disney. Hewas credited in the 1995 movie Toy Story§ as an executive producer§.[11]In the late 1970s, Jobs, with Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak§, Mike Markkula§,[12] and others,designed, developed, and marketed one of the first commercially successful lines of personalcomputers, the Apple II series§. In the early 1980s, Jobs was among the first to see thecommercial§ potential of the mouse§-driven graphical user interface§ which led to the creation of
  2. 2. the Macintosh§.[13][14] After losing a power struggle with the board of directors in 1984,[15][16]Jobs resigned from Apple and founded NeXT§, a computer platform§ development companyspecializing in the higher education and business markets. Apples subsequent 1996 buyout§ ofNeXT brought Jobs back to the company he co-founded, and he has served as its CEO§ since1997.In 1986, he acquired the computer graphics division of Lucasfilm Ltd§ which was spun off asPixar Animation Studios§.[17] He remained CEO§ and majority shareholder at 50.1% until itsacquisition by The Walt Disney company§ in 2006.[3] Consequently Jobs became Disneys largestindividual shareholder at 7% and a member of Disneys Board of Directors§.[18][19][20][21]Jobs history in business has contributed much to the symbolic image of the idiosyncratic,individualistic Silicon Valley§ entrepreneur, emphasizing the importance of design andunderstanding the crucial role aesthetics play in public appeal. His work driving forward thedevelopment of products that are both functional and elegant has earned him a devoted following.[22]
  3. 3. Contents C 1 Early years§2 Career§12.1 Beginnings of Apple Computer§22.2 NeXT Computer§32.3 Pixar and Disney§42.4 Return to Apple§3 Business life§53.1 Wealth§63.2 Stock options backdating issue§73.3 Management style§83.4 Inventions§4 Personal life§94.1 Health concerns§ § 5 Honors§ § 6 In popular culture§ § 7 See also§ § 8 Notes§ § 9 References§10 External links§110.1 Articles§210.2 Interviews§Early years§Steve Jobs at the WWDC 07
  4. 4. Jobs was born in San Francisco, California§[1] and was adopted by Paul and Clara Jobs (née§Hagopian)[23] of Mountain View, California§, who named him Steven Paul. Paul and Clara lateradopted a daughter, who they named Patti. Jobs biological parents — Abdulfattah Jandali, aSyrian§[24] graduate student who later became a political science professor,[25] and JoanneSimpson, an American graduate student[24] who went on to become a speech languagepathologist§[26] — later married, giving birth to and raising Jobs biological sister, the novelistMona Simpson§.[27][28][29][30][31][32]Jobs attended Cupertino Junior High School and Homestead High School§ in Cupertino,California§,[22] and frequented after-school lectures at the Hewlett-Packard Company§ in PaloAlto, California§. He was soon hired there and worked with Steve Wozniak§ as a summeremployee.[33] In 1972, Jobs graduated from high school and enrolled in Reed College§ inPortland, Oregon§. Although he dropped out§ after only one semester,[34] he continued auditing§classes at Reed, such as one in calligraphy§, while sleeping on the floor in friends rooms,returning Coke§ bottles for food money, and getting weekly free meals at the local Hare Krishna§temple.[16] Jobs later stated, "If I had never dropped in on that single course in college, the Macwould have never had multiple typefaces§ or proportionally spaced fonts."[16]In the autumn of 1974, Jobs returned to California and began attending meetings of the HomebrewComputer Club§ with Wozniak. He took a job as a technician at Atari§, a manufacturer of popularvideo games§, with the primary intent of saving money for a spiritual retreat to India.Jobs then traveled to India with a Reed College friend (and, later, the first Apple employee),Daniel Kottke§, in search of spiritual enlightenment. He came back a Buddhist§ with his headshaved and wearing traditional Indian clothing.[35][36] During this time, Jobs experimented withpsychedelics§, calling his LSD§ experiences "one of the two or three most important things [hehad] done in [his] life".[37] He has stated that people around him who did not share hiscountercultural roots could not fully relate to his thinking.[37]Jobs returned to his previous job at Atari and was given the task of creating a circuit board§ for thegame Breakout§. According to Atari founder Nolan Bushnell§, Atari had offered US$§100 foreach chip that was eliminated in the machine. Jobs had little interest or knowledge in circuit boarddesign and made a deal with Wozniak to split the bonus evenly between them if Wozniak couldminimize the number of chips. Much to the amazement of Atari, Wozniak reduced the number ofchips by 50, a design so tight that it was impossible to reproduce on an assembly line. At the time,Jobs told Wozniak that Atari had only given them $700 (instead of the actual $5000) and thatWozniaks share was thus $350.[38][39][40][41][42][43]CareerBeginnings of Apple ComputerSee also: History of Apple§
  5. 5. §Steve Jobs and Bill Gates§ at the fifth D: All Things Digital conference (D5) in 2007.In 1976, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak§ and Ronald Wayne§,[44] with later funding from a then-semi-retired Intel product-marketing manager and engineer A.C. "Mike" Markkula Jr.§,[12]founded Apple. Prior to co-founding Apple, Wozniak was an electronics hacker. Jobs and Wozniakhad been friends for several years, having met in 1971, when their mutual friend, Bill Fernandez,introduced 21-year-old Wozniak to 16-year-old Jobs. Steve Jobs managed to interest Wozniak inassembling a computer and selling it. As Apple continued to expand, the company began lookingfor an experienced executive to help manage its expansion.In 1978, Apple recruited Mike Scott§ from National Semiconductor§ to serve as CEO for whatturned out to be several turbulent years. In 1983, Steve Jobs lured John Sculley§ away from Pepsi-Cola§ to serve as Apples CEO, asking, "Do you want to sell sugar water for the rest of your life,or do you want to come with me and change the world?"[45][46] The following year, Apple aireda Super Bowl§ television commercial titled "1984§." At Apples annual shareholders meeting onJanuary 24, 1984, an emotional Jobs introduced the Macintosh§ to a wildly enthusiastic audience;Andy Hertzfeld§ described the scene as "pandemonium."[47] The Macintosh became the firstcommercially successful small computer with a graphical user interface§. The development of theMac was started by Jef Raskin§, and eventually taken over by Jobs.While Jobs was a persuasive and charismatic director for Apple, some of his employees from thattime had described him as an erratic and temperamental manager. An industry-wide sales slumptowards the end of 1984 caused a deterioration in Jobss working relationship with Sculley, and atthe end of May 1985 – following an internal power struggle and an announcement of significantlayoffs – Sculley relieved Jobs of his duties as head of the Macintosh division.[48]NeXT ComputerSee also: NeXT§Around the same time, Jobs founded another computer company, NeXT Computer§. Like theApple Lisa§, the NeXT workstation was technologically advanced; however, it was largelydismissed by industry as cost-prohibitive. Among those who could afford it, however, the NeXTworkstation garnered a strong following because of its technical strengths, chief among them itsobject-oriented§ software development system. Jobs marketed NeXT products to the scientific and
  6. 6. academic fields because of the innovative, experimental new technologies it incorporated (such asthe Mach kernel§, the digital signal processor§ chip, and the built-in Ethernet§ port).The NeXTcube§ was described by Jobs as an "interpersonal" computer, which he believed was thenext step after "personal" computing. That is, if computers could allow people to communicateand collaborate together in an easy way, it would solve many of the problems that "personal"computing had come up against."1990 CERN: A Joint proposal for a hypertext system is presented to the management. MikeSendall buys a NeXT cube for evaluation, and gives it to Tim [Berners-Lee]. Tims prototypeimplementation on NeXTStep is made in the space of a few months, thanks to the qualities of theNeXTStep software development system. This prototype offers WYSIWYG browsing/authoring!Current Web browsers used in "surfing the Internet" are mere passive windows, depriving the userof the possibility to contribute. During some sessions in the CERN cafeteria, Tim and I try to finda catching name for the system. I was determined that the name should not yet again be takenfrom Greek mythology. Tim proposes "World-Wide Web". I like this very much, except that it isdifficult to pronounce in French..." by Robert Cailliau, 2 November 1995. [49]During a time when e-mail for most people was plain text, Jobs loved to demo the NeXTs e-mailsystem, NeXTMail§, as an example of his "interpersonal" philosophy. NeXTMail was one of thefirst to support universally visible, clickable embedded graphics and audio within e-mail. Jobs ranNeXT with an obsession for aesthetic perfection, as evidenced by such things as the NeXTcubesmagnesium case. This put considerable strain on NeXTs hardware division, and in 1993, afterhaving sold only 50,000 machines, NeXT transitioned fully to software development with therelease of NeXTSTEP§/Intel§.Pixar and DisneyIn 1986, Jobs bought The Graphics Group (later renamed Pixar§) from Lucasfilm§s computergraphics division for the price of $10 million, $5 million of which was given to the company ascapital.[50]The new company, which was originally based at Lucasfilm§s Kerner Studios in San Rafael,California§, but has since relocated to Emeryville, California§, was initially intended to be a high-end graphics hardware developer. After years of unprofitability selling the Pixar ImageComputer§, it contracted with Disney to produce a number of computer-animated feature films,which Disney would co-finance and distribute.The first film produced by the partnership, Toy Story§, brought fame and critical acclaim to thestudio when it was released in 1995. Over the next ten plus years, under Pixars creative chief JohnLasseter§, the company would produce the box-office hits A Bugs Life§ (1998), Toy Story 2§(1999), Monsters, Inc.§ (2001), Finding Nemo§ (2003), The Incredibles§ (2004), Cars§ (2006),Ratatouille§ (2007), WALL-E§ (2008), Up§ (2009) and Toy Story 3§ (2010). Finding Nemo, TheIncredibles, Ratatouille, WALL-E, Up and Toy Story 3 each received the Academy Award for Best
  7. 7. Animated Feature§, an award introduced in 2001.In the years 2003 and 2004, as Pixars contract with Disney was running out, Jobs and Disneychief executive Michael Eisner§ tried but failed to negotiate a new partnership,[51] and in early2004 Jobs announced that Pixar would seek a new partner to distribute its films once its contractwith Disney expired.In October 2005, Bob Iger§ replaced Eisner at Disney, and Iger quickly worked to patch uprelations with Jobs and Pixar. On January 24, 2006, Jobs and Iger announced that Disney hadagreed to purchase Pixar in an all-stock transaction worth $7.4 billion. Once the deal closed, Jobsbecame The Walt Disney Company§s largest single shareholder with approximately 7% of thecompanys stock.[18] Jobss holdings in Disney far exceed those of Eisner, who holds 1.7%, andDisney family member Roy E. Disney§, who held about 1% of the companys stock and whosecriticisms of Eisner included the soured Pixar relationship and accelerated his ousting. Jobs joinedthe companys board of directors upon completion of the merger. Wikinews has related news: Disney buys Pixar§Jobs also helps oversee Disney and Pixars combined animation businesses with a seat on a specialsix-man steering committee.Return to Apple §Jobs on stage at Macworld Conference & Expo§, San Francisco, January 11, 2005.
  8. 8. See also: "1998–2005: Return to profitability" in Apple Inc.§In 1996, Apple announced that it would buy NeXT§ for $429 million. The deal was finalized inlate 1996,[52] bringing Jobs back to the company he had co-founded. He soon became Applesinterim CEO after the directors lost confidence in and ousted then-CEO Gil Amelio§ in aboardroom coup§. In March 1998, to concentrate Apples efforts on returning to profitability, Jobsimmediately terminated a number of projects such as Newton§, Cyberdog§, and OpenDoc§. In thecoming months, many employees developed a fear of encountering Jobs while riding in theelevator, "afraid that they might not have a job when the doors opened. The reality was that Jobssummary executions were rare, but a handful of victims was enough to terrorize a wholecompany."[53] Jobs also changed the licensing program for Macintosh clones§, making it toocostly for the manufacturers to continue making machines.With the purchase of NeXT, much of the companys technology found its way into Apple products,most notably NeXTSTEP§, which evolved into Mac OS X§. Under Jobss guidance the companyincreased sales significantly with the introduction of the iMac§ and other new products; sincethen, appealing designs and powerful branding have worked well for Apple. At the 2000Macworld Expo, Jobs officially dropped the "interim" modifier from his title at Apple and becamepermanent CEO. Jobs quipped at the time that he would be using the title iCEO.[54]In recent years, the company has branched out, introducing and improving upon other digitalappliances. With the introduction of the iPod§ portable music player, iTunes digital musicsoftware, and the iTunes Store§, the company made forays into consumer electronics and musicdistribution. In 2007, Apple entered the cellular phone business with the introduction of theiPhone§, a multi-touch§ display cell phone, which also included the features of an iPod and, withits own mobile browser, revolutionized the mobile browsing scene. While stimulating innovation,Jobs also reminds his employees that "real artists ship",[55] by which he means that deliveringworking products on time is as important as innovation and attractive design.Jobs is both admired and criticized for his consummate skill at persuasion and salesmanship,which has been dubbed the "reality distortion field§" and is particularly evident during his keynotespeeches (colloquially known as "Stevenotes§") at Macworld Expos§ and at Apples own WorldWide Developers Conferences.In 2005, Jobs responded to criticism of Apples poor recycling programs for e-waste§ in the lashing out at environmental and other advocates at Apples Annual Meeting in Cupertino inApril. However, a few weeks later, Apple announced it would take back iPods for free at its retailstores. The Computer TakeBack Campaign§ responded by flying a banner from a plane over theStanford University graduation at which Jobs was the commencement speaker.[16] The bannerread "Steve — Dont be a mini-player recycle all e-waste". In 2006, he further expanded Applesrecycling programs to any U.S. customer who buys a new Mac. This program includes shippingand "environmentally friendly disposal" of their old systems.[56]
  9. 9. Business lifeWealthAs of October 2009, Jobs owned 5.426 million shares of Apple, most of which was granted in2003 when Jobs was given 10 million shares. He also owned 138 million shares of Disney, whichhe had received in exchange for Disneys acquisition of Pixar.[57] Forbes§ estimated his netwealth at $5.1 billion in 2009, making him the 43rd wealthiest American.[58] After Bloomberghad accidentally published Jobs obituary in 2008, Arik Hesseldahl of BusinessWeek magazinenoted that "Jobs isn’t widely known for his association with philanthropic causes", compared toBill Gates§ efforts.[59] After resuming control of Apple in 1997, Jobs eliminated all corporatephilanthropy programs.[60]Stock options backdating issueIn 2001, Steve Jobs was granted stock options in the amount of 7.5 million shares of Apple withan exercise price of $18.30, which allegedly should have been $21.10, thereby incurring taxableincome of $20,000,000 that he did not report as income. This indicated backdating§. Appleoverstated its earnings by that same amount. If found liable, Jobs might have faced a number ofcriminal charges and civil penalties. Apple claimed that the options were originally granted at aspecial board meeting that may never have taken place. Furthermore, the investigation is focusingon false dating of the options resulting in a retroactive $20 million increase in the exercise price.The case is the subject of active criminal and civil government investigations,[61] though anindependent internal Apple investigation completed on December 29, 2006, found that Jobs wasunaware of these issues and that the options granted to him were returned without being exercisedin 2003.[62] On July 1, 2008, a $7 billion class action suit was filed against several members ofthe Apple Board of Directors for revenue lost due to the alleged securities fraud.[63][64]Management styleMuch has been made of Jobs aggressive and demanding personality. Fortune§ wrote that he "isconsidered one of Silicon Valleys leading egomaniacs§."[65] Commentaries on his temperamentalstyle can be found in Mike Moritz§s The Little Kingdom§, one of the few authorized biographiesof Jobs; The Second Coming of Steve Jobs§, by Alan Deutschman; and iCon: Steve Jobs§, byJeffrey S. Young & William L. Simon.Jef Raskin§, a former colleague, once said that Jobs "would have made an excellent king ofFrance," alluding to Jobs compelling and larger-than-life persona.[66]Jobs has always aspired to position Apple and its products at the forefront of the informationtechnology§ industry by foreseeing and setting trends, at least in innovation and style. He summedup that self-concept at the end of his keynote speech at the Macworld Conference and Expo§ inJanuary 2007 by quoting ice hockey legend Wayne Gretzky§:[67]
  10. 10. Theres an old Wayne Gretzky quote that I love. I skate to where the puck is going to be, notwhere it has been. And weve always tried to do that at Apple. Since the very very beginning. Andwe always will.—Steve JobsFloyd Norman§ said that at Pixar, Jobs was a "mature, mellow individual" and never interferedwith the creative process of the filmmakers.[68]In 2005, Steve Jobs banned all books published by John Wiley & Sons§ from Apple Stores§ inresponse to their publishing an unauthorized biography, iCon: Steve Jobs§.[69] In its 2010 annualearnings report, Wiley said it had "closed a deal ... to make its titles available for the iPad."[70]InventionsJobs is listed as either primary inventor or co-inventor in over 230 awarded patents or patentapplications related to a range of technologies from actual computer and portable devices to userinterfaces (including touch-based), speakers, keyboards, power adapters, staircases, clasps,sleeves, lanyards and packages.[71][72]Personal lifeJobs married Laurene Powell§, on March 18, 1991. Presiding over the wedding was the ZenBuddhist§ monk Kobun Chino Otogawa§.[73] The couple have a son, Reed Paul Jobs,[74] andtwo other children. Jobs also has a daughter, Lisa Brennan-Jobs§ (born 1978), from hisrelationship with Bay Area painter Chrisann Brennan.[75] She briefly raised their daughter onwelfare when Jobs denied paternity, claiming that he was sterile; he later acknowledged paternity.[75]In the unauthorized biography§, The Second Coming of Steve Jobs§, author Alan Deutschmanreports that Jobs once dated Joan Baez§. Deutschman quotes Elizabeth Holmes, a friend of Jobsfrom his time at Reed College, as saying she "believed that Steve became the lover of Joan Baezin large measure because Baez had been the lover of Bob Dylan§." In another unauthorizedbiography, iCon: Steve Jobs§ by Jeffrey S. Young & William L. Simon, the authors suggest thatJobs might have married Baez, but her age at the time (41) meant it was unlikely the couple couldhave children.Jobs is also a Beatles§ fan. He has referenced them on more than one occasion at Keynotes andalso was interviewed on a showing of a Paul McCartney§ concert. When asked about his businessmodel§ on 60 Minutes§, he replied:[76]My model for business is The Beatles: They were four guys that kept each others negativetendencies in check; they balanced each other. And the total was greater than the sum of the parts.Great things in business are not done by one person, they are done by a team of people.
  11. 11. In 1982, Jobs bought an apartment in The San Remo§, an apartment building in New York Citywith a politically progressive reputation, where Demi Moore§, Steven Spielberg§, Steve Martin§,and Princess Yasmin Aga Khan§, daughter of Rita Hayworth§, also had apartments. With the helpof I.M. Pei§, Jobs spent years renovating his apartment in the top two floors of the buildings northtower, only to sell it almost two decades later to U2§ frontman Bono§. Jobs had never moved in.[77][78]In 1984, Jobs purchased a 17,000-square-foot (1,600 m2), 14 bedroom Spanish Colonial§mansion, designed by George Washington Smith§ in Woodside, California§, also known asJackling House§. Although it reportedly remained in an almost unfurnished state, Jobs lived in themansion for almost ten years. According to reports, he kept an old BMW§ motorcycle in the livingroom, and let Bill Clinton§ use it in 1998. Since the early 1990s, Jobs has lived in a house in theOld Palo Alto neighborhood of Palo Alto. President Clinton dined with Jobs and 14 Silicon ValleyCEOs there August 7, 1996.[79]He allowed the mansion to fall into a state of disrepair, planning to demolish the house and build asmaller home on the property; but he met with complaints from local preservationists over hisplans. In June 2004, the Woodside Town Council gave Jobs approval to demolish the mansion, onthe condition that he advertise the property for a year to see if someone would move it to anotherlocation and restore it. A number of people expressed interest, including several with experience inrestoring old property, but no agreements to that effect were reached. Later that same year, a localpreservationist group began seeking legal action to prevent demolition. In January 2007 Jobs wasdenied the right to demolish the property, by a court decision.[80] The court decision wasoverturned on appeal in March 2010 and the mansion was demolished beginning February2011[81]He usually wears a black long-sleeved mock turtleneck§ made by St. Croix§, Levis§ 501 bluejeans, and New Balance 991§ sneakers.[82] He is a pescetarian§.[83]His choice of car is a silver 2006 Mercedes SL 55 AMG, which has no licence plates.[84][85]Jobs had a public war of words with Dell Computer§ CEO Michael Dell§, starting when Jobs firstcriticized Dell for making "un-innovative beige boxes."[86] On October 6, 1997, in a Gartner§Symposium, when Michael Dell was asked what he would do if he owned then-troubled AppleComputer, he said "Id shut it down and give the money back to the shareholders."[87] In 2006,Steve Jobs sent an email to all employees when Apples market capitalization§ rose above Dells.The email read:[88]Team, it turned out that Michael Dell wasnt perfect at predicting the future. Based on todaysstock market close, Apple is worth more than Dell. Stocks go up and down, and things may bedifferent tomorrow, but I thought it was worth a moment of reflection today. Steve.Health concernsIn mid-2004, Jobs announced to his employees that he had been diagnosed with a cancerous
  12. 12. tumor§ in his pancreas§.[89] The prognosis for pancreatic cancer§ is usually very grim; Jobs,however, stated that he had a rare, far less aggressive type known as islet cell§ neuroendocrinetumor§.[89] After initially resisting the idea of conventional medical intervention and embarkingon a special diet to thwart the disease, Jobs underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy§ (or "Whippleprocedure") in July 2004 that appeared to successfully remove the tumor.[90][91] Jobs apparentlydid not require nor receive chemotherapy§ or radiation therapy§.[89][92] During Jobs absence,Timothy D. Cook§, head of worldwide sales and operations at Apple, ran the company.[89] §Jobs at the 2008 Macworld Conference & Expo§.In early August 2006, Jobs delivered the keynote for Apples annual Worldwide DevelopersConference§. His "thin, almost gaunt" appearance and unusually "listless" delivery,[93][94]together with his choice to delegate significant portions of his keynote to other presenters, inspireda flurry of media and internet speculation about his health.[95] In contrast, according to an ArsTechnica§ journal report, WWDC§ attendees who saw Jobs in person said he "looked fine";[96]following the keynote, an Apple spokesperson said that "Steves health is robust."[97]Two years later, similar concerns followed Jobs 2008 WWDC keynote address;[98] Appleofficials stated Jobs was victim to a "common bug" and that he was taking antibiotics§,[99] whileothers surmised his cachectic appearance§ was due to the Whipple procedure.[100] During a Julyconference call discussing Apple earnings, participants responded to repeated questions aboutSteve Jobs health by insisting that it was a "private matter." Others, however, voiced the opinionthat shareholders had a right to know more, given Jobs hands-on approach to running hiscompany.[101] The New York Times published an article based on an off-the-record§ phoneconversation with Jobs, noting that "while his health issues have amounted to a good deal morethan a common bug, they weren’t life-threatening and he doesn’t have a recurrence ofcancer."[102]
  13. 13. On August 28, 2008, Bloomberg§ mistakenly§ published a 2500-word obituary§ of Jobs in itscorporate news service, containing blank spaces for his age and cause of death. (News carrierscustomarily stockpile up-to-date obituaries to facilitate news delivery in the event of a well-knownfigures untimely death.) Although the error was promptly rectified, many news carriers and blogsreported on it,[103][104][105] intensifying rumors concerning Jobs health.[106] Jobs respondedat Apples September 2008 Lets Rock keynote by quoting Mark Twain§: "Reports of my death aregreatly exaggerated";[107] at a subsequent media event, Jobs concluded his presentation with aslide reading "110/70", referring to his blood pressure§, stating he would not address furtherquestions about his health.[108]On December 16, 2008, Apple announced that marketing vice-president Phil Schiller§ woulddeliver the companys final keynote address at the Macworld Conference and Expo§ 2009, againreviving questions about Jobs health.[109][110][111] In a statement given on January 5, 2009§,[112] Jobs said that he had been suffering from a "hormone§ imbalance" for severalmonths.[113] On January 14, 2009, in an internal Apple memo§, Jobs wrote that in the previousweek he had "learned that my health-related issues are more complex than I originally thought"and announced a six-month leave of absence§ until the end of June 2009 to allow him to betterfocus on his health. Tim Cook§, who had previously acted as CEO in Jobs 2004 absence, becameacting CEO of Apple,[114] with Jobs still involved with "major strategic decisions."[114]In April 2009, Jobs underwent a liver transplant§ at Methodist University Hospital TransplantInstitute in Memphis§, Tennessee§.[115][116] Jobs prognosis was "excellent."[116]On January 17, 2011, one and a half years after Jobs returned from his liver transplant, Appleannounced that he had been granted a medical leave of absence. Jobs announced his leave in aletter to employees, stating his decision was made "so he could focus on his health." As during his2009 medical leave, Apple announced that Tim Cook would run day-to-day operations and thatJobs would continue to be involved in major strategic decisions at the company.[117][118]On March 2, 2011 Steve Jobs made an appearance at the iPad 2§ launch event.HonorsHe was awarded the National Medal of Technology§ from President Ronald Reagan§ in 1984 withSteve Wozniak§ (among the first people to ever receive the honor),[119] and a Jefferson Award forPublic Service§ in the category "Greatest Public Service by an Individual 35 Years or Under" (akathe Samuel S. Beard Award§) in 1987.[120]On November 27, 2007, Jobs was named the most powerful person in business by FortuneMagazine§.[121]On December 5, 2007, California Governor§ Arnold Schwarzenegger§ and First Lady MariaShriver§ inducted Jobs into the California Hall of Fame§, located at The California Museum forHistory, Women and the Arts§.[122]
  14. 14. In August 2009, Jobs was selected the most admired entrepreneur among teenagers on a survey byJunior Achievement§.[123]On November 5, 2009, Jobs was named the CEO of the decade§ by Fortune Magazine.[124]In November 2009 Jobs was ranked #57 on Forbes§: The Worlds Most Powerful People.[125]In December 2010, the Financial Times§ named Jobs its person of the year for 2010, ending itsessay by stating, "In his autobiography, John Sculley§, the former PepsiCo executive who onceran Apple, said this of the ambitions of the man he had pushed out: Apple was supposed tobecome a wonderful consumer products company. This was a lunatic plan. High-tech could not bedesigned and sold as a consumer product. How wrong can you be".[126]In popular cultureDue to his young age, great wealth, and charisma, after Apples founding Jobs became a symbol ofhis company and industry. When Time§ named the computer as the 1982 "Machine of the Year"§,it published a long profile of him as "the most famous maestro of the micro."[127][128] Jobs wasprominently featured in three films about the history of the personal computing industry: p Triumph of the Nerds§ — a 1996 three-part documentary for PBS§, about the rise of the home computer§/personal computer§. . Nerds 2.0.1§ — a 1998 three-part documentary for PBS§, (and sequel to Triumph of the Nerds) which chronicles the development of the Internet. NPirates of Silicon Valley§ — a 1999 docudrama§ which chronicles the rise of Apple and Microsoft§. He was portrayed by Noah Wyle§.See also