The Economics of Wilderness


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This presentation was given during the TEEB conference in Leipzig on 22 March 2012. I was trying to make the case that wilderness areas require a special attention when applying the TEEB principles, because their direct use values are very limited, very often '0'. This was the first presentation when I was trying to visualise our The Million Project saying that this would mean wilderness protection of the size of Cyprus. While we have already covered Germany with concrete to make a whole country a concrete jungle.

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  • I will speak about our roadmap to change and how we (together with you) enhance wilderness protection in Europe.
  • But do we actually deliver on this if we keep focusing only on verification?
  • Wilderness is a human concept, which can be interpreted in a very different ways depending on cultural and / or national background. Therefore the understanding of wilderness will always be very emotional. Nature conservation or protected areas in most continent started with the protection of what was left relatively untouched. The designation of protected areas got a boost in Europe after the 70s when IUCN introduced the new protected area categories (IV, V and VI) which applied much more to the European context. Wilderness was almost a forgotten category in Europe. Quite often 1% of Europe’s territory is stated as wilderness. However the existing data sets are misleading. However in order to apply the PES or develop policies, there is a need for a broadly accepted technical definition
  • Highlight that these maps were produced not on the basis of checking the actual management practice. So the maps very often present opportunities or human perceptions of European citizens
  • There is marine wilderness ...
  • Fabulous mountains also host wild areas ...
  • The Message from Prague also ask for actions quantification of the value of non-extractive economic benefits identify and promote the linkage of ecosystem services to wilderness key economic dimensions, challenges and opportunities of wilderness areas in E urope. TEEB report not penetrated yet into PA management particular importance to define the ecosystem services and potential payment methods for wilderness
  • Refer again to previous sentence regarding the European boom of PA designation, which led to forgetting about where conservation has started: to protect the relatively unspoiled areas
  • We need to argue that the more natural the area is the higher value and ecosystem services potential it has. Wilderness management is not only more sustainable in terms of financing management practice, but can potentially bring more ecosystem services value.
  • Communications is an essential part of our work to raise professional and public support for wilderness protection. Creating positive protection of wilderness could be the basis of successful protection In order to do this we use the parks of the network as examples of the best of Europe’s wilderness ‘ You can go there and experience wilderness yourself, earn about it in the field’
  • Through the partnership with PA management authorities we can help the practical implementation of the recommendation of TEEB report
  • We have to work with already protected improve management effectiveness, involve local communities in the management (visitor management), increase the public support (awareness raising through making visitation possible -> tourism model) and create new funding opportunities for protection (in the current economic decline there are budget cuts and the gap might be filled through tourism related incomes)  
  • Independently
  • We welcome not only protected areas to join our campaign for wilderness, but also researchers to develop a strategic European wilderness research agenda.
  • The Economics of Wilderness

    1. 1. THE ECONOMICS OF WILDERNESS PES in Europe’s Wilderness Areas Zoltan KUN, Executive Director PAN Parks FoundationPaanajärvi NP © Viktor Gritsuk
    2. 2. What we do • PAN Parks works to protect Europe’s wilderness, the continent’s most undisturbed areas of nature • the first European-wide organisation focusing on the protection of wilderness areasPaanajärvi NP ©Viktor Gritsuk
    3. 3. How to define wilderness? NO extractive use such as: •hunting •fishing •mining •logging •grazing •grass cutting •road and building construction is allowed in wildernessFulufjallet NP © Vitantonio Dell’Orto
    4. 4. Wilderness QualityIndex of Europe• Based on GIS datasets (road density,population density,etc...)• Managementpractice is notconsidered!
    5. 5. PAN Parks WildernessNetwork
    6. 6. Fulufjället NP © Vitantonio Dell’Orto/
    7. 7. Peneda-Geres NP © Marcos Veiga
    8. 8. Archipelago NP © Janne Görling
    9. 9. Archipelago NP © Janne Görling
    10. 10. Borjomi-Kharagauli NP © Konstantin Gabrichidze
    11. 11. Oulanka NP © Kimmo Salminen
    12. 12. Soomaa NP © Arne Ader
    13. 13. he Economics of Wilderness Why dealing with the economics of wilderness? • the EP report on wilderness Calls on the Commission and Member States to co-operate with local non-governmental organisations to promote the value of wilderness (point 6);Borjomi-Kharagauli NP © Kote Gabrichidze
    14. 14. Insert the figure about PACategories and relativenaturalness
    15. 15. Insert Braat and Ten Brink figureabout the inkage between landuse and level of ecosystemservices
    16. 16. The Economics of Wilderness Wilderness is not a priceless heritage for future generations! • Europeans are not valuing wilderness as much as they should! Oulanka NP ©Michael Hennemann
    17. 17. The Economics of Wilderness Two examples • Oulanka National Park creating jobs • The valuation of Tatra, PL, and Slovensky raj SK National Parks Oulanka NP ©Hannu Hautala
    18. 18. The Economics of Wilderness Economic impact of Finnish National Parks through visitation • 85 M EUR / year • 1,100 man-year • visitor related income in Oulanka NP 14,7 M EUR
    19. 19. The Economics of Wilderness Tatra and Slovensky raj National Park • One possible conclusion: Smaller park but better mgmt practice and more value
    20. 20. The Economics of Wilderness Making wilderness areas financially viable means seizing opportunities of emerging markets for ecosystem services • Payments for Ecosystem ServicesRila NP © Nicolas Cegalerba
    21. 21. The Economics of Wilderness To protect wilderness we need to difersify incomes • payments for carbon offset • payments for water-related and nature disaster mitigation • payments for recreational servicesArchipelago NP © HeidiArponen
    22. 22. The Economics of Wilderness Several steps are suggested for PA managers • define the wilderness attributes and their services • define stakeholders benefitting from ES • quantifying revenue and externalities including cost of inactionMajella NP © Bruno D’Amicis
    23. 23. The Million Project Building partnerships with protected areas • Making a commitment to resolve a major challenge • Improving wilderness management in partnerMajella NP ©MNP protected areas
    24. 24. The Million Project To ensure guaranteed protection of 1 million hectares of wilderness in Europe by 2015Archipelago NP © Seppo Keränen
    25. 25. A conservation partnerships • Wilderness partners: areas with wilderness committed to wilderness protection (no size criteria) • Certified PAN Parks: branded parks with min. 10,000 ha of wilderness (best of Europe’s wilderness)Majella NP © Bruno D’Amicis
    26. 26. What we have achieved so far 327,000 ha of wilderness Wilderness momentum • European Parliament’s special report on wilderness • European Commission- ‘Agenda for Wilderness’©iStock/Graeme Purdy • Wilderness in Biodiversity Strategy
    27. 27. Annual land take in Europe between2000-2006 was over 111,000ha/year
    28. 28. If continues with the current trend, we will have 5% artificial surface by 2017 4% of Europe is covered byartificial surface 1% (CR + BiH) is in 2006 (annual often quoted asincrease of 3,4%) existing wilderness in Europe The size equal to Crete was covered by concrete in 7 years (2000-2006) The Million Project aims to protect Our goal: 5% of the size of Europe must be Cyprus! wilderness
    29. 29. oin us in The Million Project! We can protect the last pieces of Europe’s wilderness together for future generations!Paanajärvi NP ©Viktor Gritsuk
    30. 30. PAN Parks works to protectEurope’s wilderness, thecontinent’s most undisturbedareas of nature