The space between us

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The space between us

  1. 1. The Space Between Us:Stereotype Threat and Distance in Interracial ContextsPhillip A G, Claude M S, Paul G D. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2008(94): 91-107.<br />ByXie Lin<br />www.sinauonline.com<br />
  2. 2. Agenda<br />2<br />The Space Between Us: Stereotype Threat and Distance in Interracial Contexts<br />
  3. 3. Background – racial distancing<br />Avoidant behaviors and attitudes<br /> Natural, rational<br />Prejudices, stereotyping, discrimination<br /> Racial antipathy<br />interchangeable<br />3<br />The Space Between Us: Stereotype Threat and Distance in Interracial Contexts<br />
  4. 4. Background – stereotype threat<br />“racism with out racists”<br />The sense of threat that can arise when one knows that he or she can possibly be judged or treated negatively on the bass of a negative stereotype about one’s group.<br />Requires:<br />be highly identified with a domain<br /> believe he or she is being evaluated<br /> the self-concept be implicated in that evaluation<br />4<br />The Space Between Us: Stereotype Threat and Distance in Interracial Contexts<br />
  5. 5. Study 1 - hypothesis<br />To examine the effect of stereotype threat on the preferred social distance of White participants in an expected interracial contact.<br />The primary hypothesis: that racially tense conversations with Black partners would produce stereotype threat among White participants and in turn would produce physical distancing.<br />5<br />The Space Between Us: Stereotype Threat and Distance in Interracial Contexts<br />
  6. 6. Study 1 - method<br />6<br />The Space Between Us: Stereotype Threat and Distance in Interracial Contexts<br />
  7. 7. 7<br />The Space Between Us: Stereotype Threat and Distance in Interracial Contexts<br />
  8. 8. Study 1 - results<br />The Space Between Us: Stereotype Threat and Distance in Interracial Contexts<br />Participants who were assigned to discuss racial profiling with two Black partners distanced their partners more than did participants in any other condition.<br />In the condition talking with two Black partners about racial profiling, the more participants activated the stereotype of the White racist, the farther they sat from their anticipated partners.<br />8<br />
  9. 9. Study 2 - hypothesis<br />Participants would distance themselves from Black partners more than from White partners when voicing their own opinion but not when reading an assigned opinion.<br />Stable prejudice (both explicit and implicit) would have little if any influence on distance and would not attenuate the relationship between stereotype activation and distance.<br />9<br />The Space Between Us: Stereotype Threat and Distance in Interracial Contexts<br />
  10. 10. Study 2 - method<br />10<br />The Space Between Us: Stereotype Threat and Distance in Interracial Contexts<br />
  11. 11. Study 2 - results<br />The Space Between Us: Stereotype Threat and Distance in Interracial Contexts<br />When participants were assigned an opinion, there was no difference in the degree to which they distanced themselves from their Black or White participants, nor was there a relationship between stereotype activation and distance.<br />Neither explicit prejudice nor implicit prejudice predicted distance in any condition. Nor did either measure of prejudice moderate the relationship between stereotype threat and distance.<br />11<br />
  12. 12. Study 3 - hypothesis<br /> Shifting participants’ evaluative frameworks could reduce the experience of stereotype threat.<br />Giving participants learning goals would attenuate the negative consequences of stereotype threat by reducing the evaluative implications of stereotype-confirming behavior.<br />12<br />The Space Between Us: Stereotype Threat and Distance in Interracial Contexts<br />
  13. 13. Study 3 - method<br />13<br />The Space Between Us: Stereotype Threat and Distance in Interracial Contexts<br />
  14. 14. Study 3 - results<br />The Space Between Us: Stereotype Threat and Distance in Interracial Contexts<br />Participants sat farther in the Black/no-leaning-goals condition.<br />Participant sat farther away from Blacks than Whites in the no leaning goals condition.<br />Participants with learning goalssat closer to Black partners than did participants without learning goals.<br />Shifting the evaluative framework from entitative to incremental can reduce the impact of stereotype threat. <br />14<br />
  15. 15. Study 4 - hypothesis<br />Stereotype threat is consciously accessible.<br />The observed pattern of distance scores in Studies 1-3 was not due primarily to a “solo” effect rather than to stereotype threat.<br />To ensure that the findings observed in Studies 1-3 generalized when participants met the conversation partner.<br />15<br />The Space Between Us: Stereotype Threat and Distance in Interracial Contexts<br />
  16. 16. Study 4 - method<br />16<br />The Space Between Us: Stereotype Threat and Distance in Interracial Contexts<br />
  17. 17. Study 4 - results<br />The Space Between Us: Stereotype Threat and Distance in Interracial Contexts<br />The findings of Studies 1-3 could be extended to one-on-one interactions with actual partners.<br />Participants demonstrated access to their subjective experiences of stereotype threat, and reports of this experience were, in turn, predictive of behavior.<br />17<br />
  18. 18. Discussion<br />The Space Between Us: Stereotype Threat and Distance in Interracial Contexts<br />Four studies presented here provide support for the hypothesis that stereotype threat may cause Whites to distance themselves from Blacks.<br />The subjective experience of stereotyped targets deserves consideration in future research on the topic.<br />Learning goals can be a promising salve for the negative consequences of stereotype threat. <br />18<br />
  19. 19. Thank You !<br />Contact me at xielin@zju.edu.cn<br />www.sinauonline.com<br />19<br />

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