Chapter 2 Presentation By QuanethiaLe’Vell De BANOKI and Zanovia JOHNSON The White Architects of Black Education
Many colonial educators in America embraced the tenets of biological determinism as legitimate explanations for societal development Social scientists looked to quantification as they attempted to construct law-like assumptions about societal & human development Based on Aristotles’ ideas that inequality was foundation of natural order, Natural difference viewed as hierarchal. Organism and races could be ranked.
Race literature of 1830’s-1850’s politically inspired defended Colonialism, slavery, exploitation of land cloaked in “science” established racial politics in the country
Science… …justified and rationalized Colonialism …Proof that social hierarchy could be established
The Nation capitalized from slave labor, sharecropping, and subservience
S.J. Gould “The Mismeasure of Man” --Illustrates 2 “scientific” views on the origins of humankind
Monogenists …believed in a single species of people originating from a single source
Polygamists Argued human races were a separate species
“The Father of Scientific Racism” Arthur de Gobineau’s ideas helped frame “scientism” on race and social development
…used Christian doctrine linked virtue to faith, …associated virtue to bloodlines using Aryans as example (their pure blood= intelligence & heroism) …Blood had to be maintained.
Race is the most important question in history Social decline due to miscegenation All derive from superior Aryan stock and are divided into races of unequal worth. Superior must fight to maintain position
Miscegenation due to war conquest and migration. If left unchecked miscegenation would undo civilization.
1735- Carolus Linnaeus –among the first to classify human beings by race. Used Skin color and personal characteristics, mental and moral traits. “SystemaNaturae” divided ppl into White (innovative, keen of mind) Black (lazy and careless) Red & Yellow.
Ernst Haeckel -- Anthropongenie situated blacks on evolutionary tree below Gorillas and chimpanzees
Surgeon Charles White -- Blacks separate species ( b/t whites and apes): feet, fingers, toes, legs, hair, cheekbones, arm length, skull size, sex organ size & body odor made Blacks animals.
Scientific racism reinforced in the medical profession Races differed anatomically, physiologically, psychologically
Samuel Cartwright- Negroes needed slavery exercise to help their low supply of red blood, small brains. Coined “drapetomania” –disease of the mind making slaves want to run away. Rx, kindness and whipping
Thomas Jefferson Notes on the State of Virginia explained some of his racist ideologies. Blacks inferior in reason and imagination (dull, tasteless). Intelligence result of biological status. Roman slaves made intellectual contributions. Blacks are distinct Blacks uninhibited: sleep & eat…too much passion so no New America Let’s send them back to Africa!
Louis Agassiz Swiss biologist Never met or saw a black person or encountered US slavery. “Center of Creation”-suggest that plants and animals were created in certain places and mostly didn’t stray far from those centers. Roots were in creationism, monogenism “all men share commonalities, but the races are different species” Difference is the key: culture, habit, intelligence, and ability. Started as biological and natural history to social and political embracing White supremacy. Cunning, tricky, cowardly. Africa never contributed to building a civilized society
Onward Polygeny: Agassiz Agassiz’s research unfolds while at Harvard “Centers of Creation” Agassiz’s views were expressed in “The Diversity of Origin of the Human Races” Agassiz’s transformation into social and political pronouncements Watkins/Kelley, 2001; http://images.google.com/imgres
He argued for restricting the activities of American Blacks. He believed mixed race children were an offense and a sin against nature. He believed the libidinous Blacks would lure the White race to degradation. He argued that interracial marriages would create feebleminded offspring with physical disabilities. And he believed that Blacks should be trained for manual labor as opposed to intellectual cultivation Watkins/Kelley, 2001
Although Agassiz’s work was popular it had to be coupled with the empiricism of others, such as Samuel George Morton of Philadelphia. Watkins/Kelley, 2001
Like Agassiz, Morton argued that there were separately created human species. His differences in primordial organization Agassiz and Morton representation Onward Polygeny: Morton Watkins/Kelley, 2001; http://images.google.com/imgres
Morton hypothesis of human skulls He hypothesized that the discrepancy between the skulls of blacks and whites would be significant. Watkins/Kelley, 2001; http://images.google.com/imgres
Shockley (1972), Jensen (1995), and Hernstein and Murray (1994) continued the tradition, as America’s brand of racism influences every aspect of social and political life. Watkins/Kelley, 2001
Darwin’s origins of variability New means of production, property relations, and divisions of wealth allowed for a new political sociology. Darwinian Revolution: Changing the Discourse Watkins/Kelley, 2001; http://images.google.com/imgres
The thought and scientific work of Charles Darwin do not underlie the rationale of Social Darwinism or modern “scientific” racism. Racism in its different manifestations Racial subjugation often masked political subjugation Social Darwinism and Colonial Conquest Watkins/Kelley, 2001
The Eugenics Movement The eugenics movement began in Europe in the mid-nineteenth century with the theorizing of Sir Francis Galton. Watkins/Kelley, 2001; http://images.google.com/imgres
Haller (1984)He divides the American eugenics movement into stages. Stage 1, 1870-1905, hereditarian explanations took root 1905-1930, theorists directly associated feeblemindedness, insanity, pauperism, and crime with heredity. Reform, correction, and charity organizations advocated custodial care and sterilization as solutions for “defective” types. Eugenics building block Watkins/Kelley, 2001
Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911) a cousin of Charles Darwin and founder of eugenics ideology. Galton: The “Scientific” Dimension of Eugenics Watkins/Kelley, 2001; ; http://images.google.com/imgres
Pearson argued, as a eugenicist, that personality and intelligence were predetermined in the germ plasma before birth. Biometrics the application of statistics Eugenics influences that improve the inborn qualities of a race Karl Pearson (1857-1936) Watkins/Kelley, 2001; Farrall, 1985, p.55; http://images.google.com/imgres
A central premise of the eugenicists was that American institutions were incapable of molding or assimilating the “inferior” races (Haller, 1984) Nativism, racism, and anti-immigrant sentiment provided fertile soil for eugenicist outlooks in America around the turn of the twentieth century (Selden, 1999). Eugenics and Race in America Watkins/Kelley, 2001
Sociologist EdwardA. Ross Another sociologist, Henry Pratt Fairchild Researcher Edward M. East Eugenics and Race in America continued Watkins/Kelley, 2001; Hasian, 1996, p.54 ; http://images.google.com/imgres
Eugenics and the American Black Galton wrote, “The average intellectual standard of the Negro race is some two grades below our own” Howard University’s Kelly Miller argued that poverty, tuberculosis, venereal decease, and other ailments would always plague Blacks because of their inherent immorality. Watkins/Kelley, 2001; http://images.google.com/imgres
Eugenics and the American Black continued Carl C. Brigham, he concluded that blacks were deficient in native or inborn intelligence and that their lack of intelligence would likely lead to a decline in the nation’s collective intelligence. Watkins/Kelley, 2001;http://images.google.com/imgres
SCIENTIFIC RACISM AND BLACK EDUCATION: RETROSPECTS AND PROSPECTS The connection of “scientific” racism(SR) to Black education and the new social sciences is far from coincidental. “Scientific” racism was indeed the centerpiece of the new social science, which presented human difference as the rationale for inequality. “Scientific” racism explained Watkins/Kelley, 2001
SCIENTIFIC RACISM AND BLACK EDUCATION: RETROSPECTS AND PROSPECTS continued Behaviourism, Psycho-Analysis and Physiological Manipulation in Education Brent Jessop
SR was a fundamental precept in the architecture of Black education. Industrial education was presented as progressive reform Watkins/Kelley, 2001
SCIENTIFIC RACISM AND BLACK EDUCATION: RETROSPECTS AND PROSPECTS continued SR provided legitimization for colonial policies. Blacks got all they could intellectually manage. The race issue saturates every aspect of our social, economic, political, educational, and personal life. Notions of racial “difference” affected the architects of Black education, as evidenced in both their thought and their actions. Watkins/Kelley, 2001