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Project managment  7
Project managment  7
Project managment  7
Project managment  7
Project managment  7
Project managment  7
Project managment  7
Project managment  7
Project managment  7
Project managment  7
Project managment  7
Project managment  7
Project managment  7
Project managment  7
Project managment  7
Project managment  7
Project managment  7
Project managment  7
Project managment  7
Project managment  7
Project managment  7
Project managment  7
Project managment  7
Project managment  7
Project managment  7
Project managment  7
Project managment  7
Project managment  7
Project managment  7
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Project managment 7

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  • 1. Project Quality Mangement 4/3/2011 Project Management Knowledge Areas Section – 3 Chapter – 8 Project Quality Management Session Objectives… 1. To identify the project quality management knowledge area‟s processes 2. How to plan quality for the project 3. How to implement quality assurance 4. How to monitor and control quality PMP Prep Course 1
  • 2. Project Quality Mangement 4/3/2011 Project Quality Management Exam Objectives… 1. What is Quality 2. Preparing for Quality 3. Planning for Quality 4. Creating the Quality Management Plan 5. Performing Quality Assurance 6. Implementing Quality Control Project Quality Management What makes quality to suffer?  Overworking the project team in order to complete the project.  ◦ May result in unacceptable work due to decline in team morale  A hurry to complete the project work by speeding through quality inspections ◦ May result in unacceptable deliverables PMP Prep Course 2
  • 3. Project Quality Mangement 4/3/2011 Project Quality Management Quality Vs Grade  Quality and Grade are not the same  Quality is the sum of the characteristics of a product that meet the specifications / expectations of the project  Grade is the category or rank given to entities having the same functional use but different characteristics  Quality management characteristics  Customer satisfaction  Prevention Act Plan  Management responsibility  Continuous improvement:- Plan Act PMP Prep Course Check Do – Do – Check – 3
  • 4. Project Quality Mangement 4/3/2011 Quality Gurus  Phillip B Crosby  Crosby devised the “Zero Defects” practice  That is, DO IT RIGHT THE FIRST TIME  He says, that costs will increase when quality planning isn‟t performed upfront, which means, rework, affecting productivity  Prevention is the KEY Quality Gurus  Joseph M Juran  Is known for his “FITNES FOR USE”  That is, stakeholders and customers‟ expectations are met or exceeded  Conformance to Specifications PMP Prep Course 4
  • 5. Project Quality Mangement 4/3/2011 Quality Gurus  W Edwards Deming  Suggested that as much as 85% of quality issues is management problem  Deming proposed that workers cannot figure out quality on their work and thus cannot perform at their best  Workers need to be shown what acceptable quality is  Deming is major contributor of Total Quality Management (TQM) Total Quality Management  Total Quality Management (TQM )  Says that the process is the problem, not people  TQM stipulates that quality must be managed in and that quality improvement should be a continuous way of doing business  Six Sigma  Is a quality management approach  Mostly used in manufacturing and services industries  Is a measurement based strategy that focuses on process improvement and variation reduction by applying Six Sigma methodologies PMP Prep Course 5
  • 6. Project Quality Mangement 4/3/2011 Six Sigma Six Sigma  It follows methodologies  DMADV  Define, Measure, Analyze, Design, and Verify  DMAIC Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control  Six Sigma aims to eliminate defects and stipulates that no more than 3.4 defects for million operations Project Quality Management  Kaizen technology: A quality philosophy of applying continuous small improvements to reduce costs and ensure consistency  Marginal analysis: The cost of the incremental improvements to a process or a product are compared against the increase in revenue made from the improvements PMP Prep Course 6
  • 7. Project Quality Mangement 4/3/2011 Project Quality Management The project team should adopt the quality policy of the organization to guide the project implementation  Project manager should document how the project will fulfill the quality policy in project management and deliverables  If quality policy is not adoptable to the project or the organization does not have a quality policy, the project team should create a quality policy for the project  Quality is planned, designed, and built in – not inspected  Plan Quality  The quality management plan addresses Quality control Quality assurance Quality improvement  PMP Prep Course The process identifies and documents the quality requirements & standards for project 7
  • 8. Project Quality Mangement 4/3/2011 Plan Quality INPUTS 1. Scope Baseline 2. Stakeholder Register 3. Cost Performance Baseline 4. Schedule Baseline 5. Risk Register 6. Enterprise Environmental Factors 7. Organizational Process Assets TOOLS & TECHNIQUES OUTPUTS 1. Cost-Benefit Analysis 2. Cost of Quality 3. Control Charts 4. Benchmarking 5. Design of Experiments 6. Statistical Sampling 7. Flowcharting 8. Proprietary Quality Management Methodologies 9. Additional Quality Planning Tools 1. Quality Management Plan 2. Quality Metrics 3. Quality Checklists 4. Process Improvement Plan 5. Project Document Updates Plan Quality  Inputs 1. Scope Baseline 2. Stakeholder Register 3. Cost Performance Baseline 4. Schedule Baseline 5. Risk Register 6. Enterprise Environmental Factors 7. Organizational Process Assets PMP Prep Course 8
  • 9. Project Quality Mangement 4/3/2011 Plan Quality  Tools and Techniques 1. Cost-Benefit analysis 2. Cost of quality (COQ) 3. Control Charts 4. Benchmarking 5. Design of experiments 6. Statistical Sampling 7. Flowcharting 8. Proprietary Quality Management Methodologies 9. Additional quality planning tools Plan Quality  Outputs 1. Quality Management Plan 2. Quality Metrics 3. Quality Checklists 4. Process Improvement Plan Process Boundaries Process Configuration Process Metrics 5. Project Document Updates PMP Prep Course 9
  • 10. Project Quality Mangement 4/3/2011 Tools & Techniques Benefit-Cost Analysis  Benefit:  Completing quality work increases productivity  Costs Completing quality work may cost little more  Gold plating Is process of adding extra features that may increase cost Cost of Quality  Cost of Quality The cost of quality is cost of all the activities within a project to ensure the quality  Cost of conformance to requirements:The cost of completing the project work to satisfy the project scope and expected quality  Cost of nonconformance The cost of completing the project without quality PMP Prep Course 10
  • 11. Project Quality Mangement 4/3/2011 Cost of Quality There are three types of Cost of Quality  1. Prevention Costs  The costs associated with satisfying customer requirements by producing a product without defects. Includes quality planning, training Cost of Quality  2. Appraisal Costs The costs expended to examine the product or process and make certain the requirements are being met. Includes inspections and testing  3. Failure Costs The costs when things don‟t work as expected. Two types or failure costs are 1. Internal Failure Costs and 2. External Failure Costs Ex. 1.Rework – 2. Liabilities, Warranty work, Lost business PMP Prep Course 11
  • 12. Project Quality Mangement 4/3/2011 Control Chart     Used to objectively define a process and variation Process containing only common causes of variation is considered stable, implying that the variation is predictable within the established control limits Processes containing special as well as common causes of variation are considered unstable. In such cases the special causes fall outside the established control limits Control charts can be plotted for tracking Production failures, defects by schedule/effort/cost and variances Control Chart No. of Defects Upper Control Limit Lower Control Limit Days Stable Process PMP Prep Course 12
  • 13. Project Quality Mangement 4/3/2011 Control Chart No. of Defects Upper Control Limit Lower Control Limit Days Unstable Process Benchmarking Is comparison among two projects, processes or performance of organizations The goal is to evaluate the differences between two projects and to make corrective actions to the current project Is also used as a measurement against industry standards, competitors‟ level of performance PMP Prep Course 13
  • 14. Project Quality Mangement 4/3/2011 Design of Experiments  The approach relies on statistical what-if scenarios to determine what variables within a project will result in the best outcome. Most often used on the product of project rather than the project Is also used as a method to identify which variables within a project or product , are causing failures Flowcharting   PMP Prep Course The flowchart shows the logical steps required to accomplish an objective. The flowchart steps through a logical sequence and checks for “YES” or „NO” branching 14
  • 15. Project Quality Mangement 4/3/2011 Flowcharting Measure attributes of Deliverable Deliverable Ready for Quality check Conformance To Requirements YES Deliverable is Ready for Dispatch NO Return to owner Quality Check Additional Quality Tools  1. Brainstorming  2. Nominal Group Techniques PMP Prep Course 15
  • 16. Project Quality Mangement 4/3/2011 Perform Quality Assurance Quality assurance (QA) is the sum of the planning and the implementations of the plan that ensures the project meets the quality demand  Involved in continuous process improvement, for improving the quality of all processes  Perform Quality Assurance INPUTS 1. Project Management Plan 2. Quality Metrics 3. Work Performance Information 4. Quality Control Measurements PMP Prep Course TOOLS & TECHNIQUES 1. Plan Quality & Perform Quality Control Tools & Techniques 2. Quality Audits 3. Process Analysis OUTPUTS 1. Organizational Process Assets Updates 2. Change Requests 3. Project Management Plan Updates 4. Project Document Updates 16
  • 17. Project Quality Mangement 4/3/2011 Perform Quality Assurance  Inputs  1. Project Management Plan  Quality Management Plan  Process Improvement Plan  2. Quality Metrics  3. Work Performance Information  4. Quality Control Measurements Perform Quality Assurance  Tools and Techniques  1. Plan Quality and Perform Quality Control Tools & Techniques  2. Quality Audits  3. Process Analysis PMP Prep Course 17
  • 18. Project Quality Mangement 4/3/2011 Perform Quality Assurance  Outputs     1. Organizational Process Assets Updates 2. Change Requests 3. Project Management Plan Updates 4. Project Document Updates Perform Quality Control    PMP Prep Course Quality Control is to monitor and measure project results to determine that the results are as per quality standards QC measures performance, scheduling and cost variances QC occurs throughout the life of project 18
  • 19. Project Quality Mangement 4/3/2011 Perform Quality Control  Project team should do the following QC activities  Conduct statistical quality control  Inspect the product to minimize errors  Study special causes to determine anomalies to quality  Check the tolerance range to determine if the results are within acceptable level of quality Perform Quality Control  Project team should know the differences between the following terms Prevention Keeping errors out of the process Attribute Sampling The result either conforms or does not conform Variable Sampling The result is rated on a continuous scale that measures the degree conformity Tolerances Control Limits Specified range of accepted results PMP Prep Course Inspection Keeping errors out of the hands of the customer Thresholds, which can indicate whether the process is out of control 19
  • 20. Project Quality Mangement 4/3/2011 Perform Quality Control INPUTS 1. Project Management Plan 2. Quality Metrics 3. Quality Checklists 4. Work Performance Measurements 5. Approved change Requests 6. Deliverables 7. Organizational Process Assets TOOLS & TECHNIQUES 1. Cause and Effect Diagrams 2. Control Charts 3. Flowcharting 4. Histogram 5. Pareto Chart 6. Run Chart 7. Scatter Diagram 8. Statistical sampling 9. Inspection 10. Approved Change Requests Review OUTPUTS 1. Quality Control Measurements 2. Validated changes 3. Validated Deliverables 4. Organizational Process Assets Updates 5. Change Requests 6. Project Management Plan Updates 7. Project Document Updates Perform Quality Control         PMP Prep Course Inputs 1. Project Management Plan 2. Quality Metrics 3. Quality Checklists 4.Work Performance Measurements 5. Approved Change Requests 6. Deliverables 7. Organizational Process Assets 20
  • 21. Project Quality Mangement 4/3/2011 Perform Quality Control       Tools and Techniques 1. Cause and Effect Diagrams 2. Control Chart 3. Flowcharting 4. Histogram 5. Pareto Chart Perform Quality Control       PMP Prep Course Tools and Techniques 6. Run Chart 7. Scatter Diagram 8. Statistical sampling 9. Inspection 10. Approved Change Requests Review 21
  • 22. Project Quality Mangement 4/3/2011 Perform Quality Control  Outputs        1. Quality Control Measurements 2.Validated Changes 3.Validated Deliverables 4. Organizational Process Assets Updates 5. Change Requests 6. Project Management Plan Updates 7. Project Document Updates Tools & Techniques  Quality Tools        PMP Prep Course 1. Cause and Effect Diagram 2. Control Charts 3. Flowcharting 4. Histogram 5. Pareto Chart 6. Run Chart 7. Scatter Diagram 22
  • 23. Project Quality Mangement 4/3/2011 Cause and Effect Diagram To visualize     clarify link identify and classify possible causes of problems in processes, products and services. Also known as Fishbone diagrams or Ishikawa diagrams Examples  Identifying sources of defect causes  Cause and Effect Diagram Product Process Cause7 Cause1 Cause3 Cause9 Cause2 Cause8 Customer Satisfaction Cause4 Cause6 Cause5 Resources PMP Prep Course 23
  • 24. Project Quality Mangement 4/3/2011 Cause and Effect Diagram     Identify a problem (effect) with a list of potential causes Write the Effect at the rightmost side of the paper Identify Major Causes of the problem, which become “Big Branches” Cause Categories are Measurement, Methods, Materials, Machines, People and Environment Cause and Effect Diagram      PMP Prep Course Fill in the “Small branches” with sub-clauses till the lowermost level Review the diagram with the work process Work on the Most important causes Collect the data related to identified Root Causes and study relationship Continue for all Root Causes 24
  • 25. Project Quality Mangement 4/3/2011    Also known as Frequency Distribution Chart A bar graph that groups the data by predetermined intervals to show the frequency of the data set Used to measure and analyze the data and identify Defect Classification, Delivery Times, Survey Findings Y-Axis Histogram X-Axis Pareto Chart      PMP Prep Course Is also known as 80 – 20 rule Provides the ability to Categorize Items, usually by content (type of defect, position, process, time, etc.) or cause (materials, operating methods, manpower, measurement, etc.) factors Identify the causes or characteristics that contribute most to a problem Decide which basic causes of a problem to work on first Understand the effectiveness of the improvement by doing pre- and post improvement charts 25
  • 26. Project Quality Mangement 4/3/2011 Pareto Chart    Define the problem clearly Collect sufficient Sample Size Sort the data in descending order by occurrence/frequency of cause/characteristics Run Chart        PMP Prep Course A graph of data in a chronological order, which displays changes and trends in the central tendency Used to monitor and quantify process outputs prior to control charts Decide which output of a process to measure Label the chart vertically and horizontally Plot the individual measurements over time Connect Data points Monitor the data points for Trends 26
  • 27. Project Quality Mangement 4/3/2011 No. of Defects Run Chart Average Days Scatter Diagram  It is used for problem solving and understanding cause-and-effect relationships  It shows if a relation exists between Two variables  Also known as Correlation Diagrams PMP Prep Course 27
  • 28. Project Quality Mangement 4/3/2011 Scatter Diagram Scatter Diagram Car Age & Price Price 3000 2000 1000 1 3 2 Age Years 4 5 Project Quality Management To Sum Up…. 1. We identified the project quality management knowledge area‟s processes 2. We know how to plan quality for the project 3. We know how to implement quality assurance 4. We know how to monitor and control quality PMP Prep Course 28
  • 29. Project Quality Mangement 4/3/2011 Questions ? PMP Prep Course 29

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