A private sphereslideshare

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A private sphereslideshare

  1. 1. Democracy  in  a  Digital  Age        Zizi  Papacharissi,  PhD  Professor  and  Head  Communication,  U  of  Illinois-­‐Chicago  
  2. 2. ¡  The  mythology  of  the  new   ¡  Technology  and  space   ¡  Public  and  private            fantasies  of  control  and  autonomy  A control is not a discipline. In making highways, for example, you don’t enclose peoplebut instead multiply the means of control. I am not saying that this is the highway’sexclusive purpose, but that people can drive infinitely and ‘freely’ without being confinedyet while still being perfectly controlled. This is our future. (Deleuze, 1998, p. 18)
  3. 3. ¡  Nostalgia  for  past  forms  of  civic  engagement  ¡  Limitations  to  civic  involvement  presented  by  the   representative  democracy  model  ¡  Aggregation  of  public  opinion  ¡  Declining  civic  participation  through  formal   channels  of  political  involvement  ¡  A  cynical  public  
  4. 4. ¡  Developing  across  spaces  publicly  private  and   privately  public  ¡  Resting  upon  convergent  media,  spaces  and   practices  ¡  Suggesting  newer  modes  of  citizenship  ¡  Reforming  metaphors  of  the  past  ¡  A  private  sphere  
  5. 5. ¡  Private  expressions  of  citizenship    ¡  Retrofitting  old  habits  into  new  media  ¡  Retreating  to  private  space  to  go   public  ¡  Private  and  self-­‐enclosed  individuals,   mobile  privatization  ¡  Personal  fantasies  of  autonomy,   expression  and  control  ¡  Alone,  connected  
  6. 6. ¡  Historically  sensitive  ¡  Criteria  of  visibility  and  collectivity      ¡  Expresses  economic,  social,  cultural,  political   balances  and  imbalances  of  power  Examples:   §  Public  life,  private  life  and  democracy  in  Ancient  Greece   §  Religion  and  public  vs.  private   §  Gender  relations  and  the  domestic  sphere    
  7. 7. ¡  At  present:   §  The  privatization  of  public  space  and  the  return  to   the  home  as  political  space   §  Privacy  as  commodity   §  A  trichotomy:  The  social   ▪  A  convergence  of  public  and  private,  augmented  by  the   affordances  of  technologies  of  convergence  
  8. 8. ¡  Convergence:  Technological/industrial/cultural/social  confluence  in  how  media  circulate  within  our  culture.  Multiple  media  systems  co-­‐exist,  content  flows  across  platforms,  audiences  migrate  toward  newer  entertainment  experiences,  multiple  media  industries  cross-­‐finance  and  cross-­‐promote.  A  process  and  not  a  fixed  relationship  (Jenkins,  2006)  ¡ Remixed  and  remixable  content  (Manovich,  2005)  ¡  Not  just  a  technological,  but  possessing  a  cultural  logic  of  its  own,  blurring  the  lines  between  production  and  consumption,  between  making  media  and  using  media,  and  between  active  or  passive  spectatorship  of  mediated  culture”  (Deuze,  2007,  p.  74).  ¡  Not  a  defining  characteristic  of  all  technology    ¡  Not  a  characteristic  exclusive  to  technology    
  9. 9. ¡  No  sense  of  place  ¡  Doubled-­‐up  space  ¡  Multiplied  space  ¡  Supersurfaces  
  10. 10. Convergent  Supersurfaces  Convergence  of    technologies    Convergence  of  spaces    Convergence  of  practices    Political  activity  migrates  to  architectures  that  are  technologically  sustained,  upon  the  surface  of  pre-­‐existing  civic  structures        What  happens  to  citizenship?    Structured  around  acts  of  expression  and  connection  
  11. 11. ¡  Nostalgia  for  the  past  ¡  What  is  good  citizenship?  ¡  Contemporary  citizenship  modalities   §  The  citizen  consumer   §  Cultural  citizenship   §  The  cosmopolite   §  The  monitorial  citizen   §  The  digital  citizen    A  liquid  citizen:  A  combined  model  of  flexible  citizenship  
  12. 12. ¡  Public  space,  not  Public  Sphere   §  Access   §  Reciprocity   §  Commercialization    ¡  On  the  importance  of  public  space  for  change  ‘Change life!’ ‘Change society!’ These precepts mean nothing without the production ofan appropriate space . . . new social relationships call for a new space, and vice versa. – Lefebvre (1974/1991, p. 59)
  13. 13. Reflective  of  a  Private  Sphere  at  Work  1. The networked self and the culture of remote connectivity2. A New Narcissism: Blogging3. The Rebirth of Satire and Subversion: YouTube4. Social Media News Aggregators and the Plurality of Collaborative Filtering5. The Agonistic Pluralism of Online Activism
  14. 14. ¡  Architectures  of  distance  and  proximity   enable  private  spheres  of  sociality  ¡  Social  network  sites  and  the  plurality  of   activities    they  afford:   §  Multiply  potential  audiences   §  Sustain  familiarity  of  private  and  enable  reach  of   public   §  Host  self-­‐performances  on  hybrid  spaces  that   serve  the  values  of  autonomy,  expression,  control  
  15. 15. ¡  The  self-­‐reflective  activity  of  an  autonomous  society   depends  essentially  upon  the  self-­‐reflective  activity  of   the  humans  who  form  that  society”  (Castoriadis,  2007   (trans.)  p.  151).    ¡  Narcissism,  in  moderation  ¡  Atomization  of  political  expression  and  pluralization  of   political  agenda  ¡  Deinstitutionalize  political  power,  make  democracy   more  porous,  blogging  an  act  of  dissent,  a  political  act,   not  journalism  
  16. 16. Other  examples  of  Narcissism  . . . With arguable civic merit
  17. 17. ¡  Blogging  provides  the  pulpit,  YouTube  the   irreverence  and  humor  democracy  needs  ¡  Expands  the  spectrum  of  political  activity  ¡  Enables  direct  communication  within   representative  system  
  18. 18. ¡  Traditional  habits  of  passive  spectatorship   attain  political  weight  ¡  The  act  of  reading  (returns  as)  a  political  act  ¡  The  wisdom  of  the  collaborative  hive  mind  
  19. 19. ¡  Fluidly  exercized  activism  ¡  Citizen  chooses  from  activism  menu,  to   engage  in  activities  of  variable  duration,   involvement,  impact  *depends*  ¡  Micro-­‐agonism  at  work-­‐  or  net-­‐powered   macro-­‐agonism  (networked  publics)  
  20. 20. ¡  Autonomy,  expression,  control  ¡  Defined  by  a  plasticity  of  public  and  private   boundaries  ¡  Political  and  other  expression  emanates   within  this  civic,  privée,  and  networked   cocoon  ¡  Emphasis  on  connection  over  struggle  ¡  All  develop  within  private  terrains  ¡  Private  sphere  a  metaphor  

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