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Using triz tools for strategic thinking and decision

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تريز
Triz

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  • A Simple Theory Underlying Structured, Problem-Solving – ASIT, TRUZ, USIT and Others Ed Sickafus Thinking and teaching are different. Introspection of our personal thinking procedures reveals that our mental processes are not as logically organized as is the teaching of structured-problem solving. Recognition of this difference can open our minds to adopting new innovative applications of structured problem-solving tools.
  • A Simple Theory Underlying Structured, Problem-Solving – ASIT, TRUZ, USIT and Others Ed Sickafus The structure of structured problem-solving methods can misdirect our emphasis on the need of organization in learning and applying these methods.
  • A Simple Theory Underlying Structured, Problem-Solving – ASIT, TRUZ, USIT and Others Ed Sickafus By recognizing that emphasis on organization can distract or divert our natural mental capabilities we can begin to focus on engaging more of our mental resources toward innovative thinking. Distractions waste time during the very rapid process of intuitive thinking.
  • A Simple Theory Underlying Structured, Problem-Solving – ASIT, TRUZ, USIT and Others Ed Sickafus We have two brains, designated as the left-hemisphere (LH) and the right-hemisphere (RH). LH and RH are used here in reference to language residing in the LH. This is not the case for everyone. You may need to exchange LH and RH as you read this discussion. Typically (LH:RH::6:1) most people are LH (ca. 17 % are RH)
  • A Simple Theory Underlying Structured, Problem-Solving – ASIT, TRUZ, USIT and Others Ed Sickafus It is the product of logical thinking – an LH trait.
  • A Simple Theory Underlying Structured, Problem-Solving – ASIT, TRUZ, USIT and Others Ed Sickafus Analysis, definition, and solution are logical steps that mollify LH’s demands. Testing of the first idea that comes to mind appeases the intuitive nature of RH. RH’s intuitive insights may seem to be interruptive to LH’s overview of logical continuity and thoroughness. LH could demand structure to guarantee its preferred procedure. But thoroughness does not require strict continuity.
  • A Simple Theory Underlying Structured, Problem-Solving – ASIT, TRUZ, USIT and Others Ed Sickafus By de-emphasizing order we free our minds for more RH activity while LH assures that thoroughness is achieved.
  • Patent Analysis: Initial analysis of 200,000 patents were synthesized down to just innovative patents, not all patents were considered innovative by Altshuller. These 40,000 patents were analyzed and the following Key Discoveries were found. Initially these patents focused on mechanical, thermo-mechanical, thermo-electrical, etc Altshuller recognized that the same fundamental problem had been addressed by a number of inventions in different areas of technology He also observed that the same fundamental solutions were used over and over again, often separated by many years He reasoned that if the latter inventor had had knowledge of the earlier solution, their task would have been straightforward He sought to extract, compile & organize such information
  • First he trial ask some inventors and try to understand how they can do inventions. Soon he understand that this is the wrong way. He start to investigate history of engineering system and patent descriptions. And he arrived at the conclusion that there are objective laws of engineering system evolution. And good idea is idea that conform to the objective laws. This objective laws is the main things that control of systems evolution , so they can show us direction of problem solving. Using this idea Altshuller produce Algorithm for engineering problem solving - ARIZ. Он решил несколько задач вместе со своим другом и они написали письмо Сталину. Какова была реакция государства? Каков результат? Как вы думаете? После этого они получили по 25 лет ГУЛАГА.
  • Our first task is to state Ideality. While the most Ideal solution would be to eliminate the defects, for our purposes that is out of scope. Ideality would be that “ the pills sort themselves.” We then need to look for resources to accomplish this.

Transcript

  • 1. T HEORY of I NVENTIVE PROBLEM SOLVING
  • 2. They way we think during structured-problem solving differs from the way it is taught. Understanding this difference and how we use our mental resources can aid our innovative application of any structured methodology.
  • 3. Structured problem-solving methods are logical and organized while our natural thinking is not. Assumption A cause of methodology complexity is its logical idealization as compared with our natural method of thinking.
  • 4. Our innovative problem-solving skills can be improved with more natural thinking and the use of all our thinking resources.
  • 5. Two halves of our brains think Both perform reasoning, remembering, communication, and problem solving. But they do them differently and share their results. Example: One is better at logic and the other better at understanding metaphors.
  • 6. Communication of problem solving is orderly, like this … Definition Solution Analysis
  • 7. Typically, we begin with an immediate, intuitive, solution concept. It is tested and modified iteratively as necessary for acceptance or rejection. Idea Solution Analysis Definition Solution Definition Analysis Idea Idea Idea
  • 8. From this observation we learn that in our natural mode of thinking, while problem solving, the content of structure is important not its order. LH RH
  • 9. WHAT IS “TRIZ” ?
    • A Russian acronym for
    • T eoria R esheneya I sobretatelskih Z adach
    • ( Theory of Inventive Problem Solving)
  • 10. هنري التشلر TRIZ T Teoria R Resheniqy I Izobreatate Z Zadatch
    • ويقابلها في اللغة الإنجليزية
    • Theory OF Inventive Problem Solving
  • 11. المفاهيم الأساسية في نظرية تريز وأدواتها :   1. الاستراتيجيات الإبداعية Inventive   2. التناقضات Contradictions   3. النتاج المثالي النهائي Ideal Final Result   4. مصفوفة التناقضات Contradictions Matrix
  • 12. Origin of TRIZ
    • Problems & solutions were repeated across industries & sciences  Principles for solving Problems
    2. Patterns of technical evolution were repeated across industries & sciences  Technology Trends to evolve a technical system to the next generation 3. Innovations used scientific effects outside the field from where the original problem was found  Scientific Effects can be used to solve problems in unique ways Key Discoveries
    • Today, the followers of Altshuller
    • have analyzed / investigated over 2,800,000 patents
    200,000+ Analysis of Patents* 40,000 Innovative Patents Synthesized down to just Innovative Patents
  • 13. TRIZ
    • TRIZ: A Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (abbreviated in Russian)
    • Result of 40 years of research of more than 300 people (and still evolving)
    • TRIZ makes innovation systematic while preserving a capability to freely use human creativity.
    • TRIZ does not replace traditional method for innovation, it adds value to the existing methods and practices
    • Since TRIZ has been brought outside of the ex-USSR in 1990th, it is today recognized by several world-leading organizations such as Boeing, Lockheed Martin, NASA, Procter & Gamble, Samsung, Mitsubishi as the best practice of innovation
  • 14. They use TRIZ
  • 15. TRIZ – Theory of Innovative Problem Solving Be a systematic step by step procedure. { Teoriya Resheniya Izobreatatelskikh Zadatch } Founding Principle.. be repeatable and reliable
  • 16. Founding Principles be able to access the body of inventive knowledge TRIZ be able to add to the body of inventive knowledge be familiar enough to inventors
  • 17. Altshuller studied patents. 200 K Patents.. TRIZ
    • Found that only a small portion are true innovations
    • Remaining are straight forward improvements
    Today it is 1.4 Million Patents.. he then classified these patents
  • 18. PARALLEL UNIVERSES
    • Many industries or technologies face the same generic type of design problems.
    • It’s almost impossible to cope with all areas of technology, read all literature,….
    • Accidents or alerts sometimes change this
    • It is helpful to be aware of problem solving principles used by everyone
  • 19.
    • Triz is both a mental process and a science, as well as a selection of tools in a tool kit
  • 20.
    • Why Innovation???
    • Who remembers one of SABIC values?
    • Our commitment to continuous improvement and innovation ensures quality products, excellent services, and satisfied customers.
  • 21. Why Innovation??? In our full cost environment and the strong emphasis to contract out, we must be innovative if we want to stay relevant and keep funding coming in.
  • 22. Pattern Thinking the secret of genius
  • 23. Pattern Thinking is about finding repeating patterns list elements There is always a pattern …. … . always! find the pattern
  • 24. An Innovation Methodology
    • Develop a Strategy Pattern to create focus
    • Use Forced Innovation Technique to create the artefact(s)
    • Use Deliberate Evolution to plan and stage implementation
  • 25. G. Altshuller What is TRIZ ? TRIZ is a tool for thinking but not instead of thinking
  • 26.
    • Why TRIZ?
    • There are several methods for increasing innovation.
          • Brainstorming
          • Synectics
          • Lateral Thinking
          • Neurolinguistic Programming
          • Mind Mapping
    • These are all emotionally based.
  • 27. Why TRIZ? TRIZ is empirically based!! It is designed to overcome Psychological Inertia. Psychological Inertia is based upon habits, our education, paradigms, internal processes, past successes, past failures and “we have always done it that way”. TRIZ directs the solution path based on an empirical approach to the problem resolution.
  • 28.
    • Benefits of TRIZ?
    • Problem solving based on fixed algorithm
    • Easy algorithm to follow, repeatable
    • Better and more innovative solutions
    • Enhances credibility, wins more proposals
    • Reduces the number of trail and error solutions.
    • Saves time, money and reduces risk
    • Works on any type of problem
    • New products, failure prediction, analysis
  • 29.
    • TRIZ’s Basic Premise
    • Problems may be coded, classified, and solved methodically
    • The evolution of technology is predictable using patterns and trends repeated many times
    • TRIZ uses knowledge engineering based upon over 200,000 patents searched in the former USSR
  • 30. Fundamentals of TRIZ General Problem Specific Problem Solution to Specific Problem General Solutions concept Analogy / similarity 1 2 3 4
  • 31. General Technology development Vector Rigid Modular Programmable Autonomous Governed by the Laws of Technological System Evolution
  • 32. Problems and solutions Standard Problems: solution method is known and applicable Non-standard Problems: Solution method is unknown or inapplicable Formal solutions: Numerically calculated presentations Informal solutions (ideas, concepts, mind maps) Availability of Problem solving method Form of solution Poorly supported with systematic methods before TRIZ
  • 33. Why difficult?
    • Problems are difficult due to:
      • Strong mental inertia which prevents us from thinking “out of the box”
      • Lack of problem solving strategy
      • The needed knowledge to solve a problem can be outside of our specific domain of knowledge
      • To solve a difficult problem, it is always necessary to generate many alternatives with trial & errors method
      • What problem to solve?...
  • 34. Types of Thinking Search space Search space Convergent thinking (avoid constraints and use navigation) Solution Solution Search space Search space Divergent thinking (avoid constraints)
  • 35. Methods to boost idea generation Random Methods Systematic Methods
    • Brainstorm
    • Synectics
    • Reframing
    • Lateral thinking
    Morphological Matrix Attribute Listing Technology/Service maps TRIZ
      • Specific information-independent
      • Heavily rely on human cognitive capabilities
      • Criteria of evaluation are not included to the methods
      • Operate with specific information
      • Little dependence on cognitive capabilities
      • Re-use of past experience
      • Use metaphorical approach
  • 36. Foundations of TRIZ Genrich Altshuller (1926-1999)
    • 98% of inventions use some known solution
    • principle
    • Only 2% are pioneering inventions
    • Inventors use patterns without awareness
    • Innovation can be organized in a systematic way
    400.000 inventions (more than 1.5 mln. by today)
  • 37.
    • Problem Solving with TRIZ
      • Systematic
      • More predictable
      • Solves specific problems using general techniques
    Requires TRIZ Expertise Requires Domain Knowledge My Problem My Solution Standard Problem Standard Solution Generalize Specialize
  • 38. Evolution of TRIZ
    • A way of thinking (philosophy)
    • A set of tools
    • A process (Ideation Problem Solving Process)
    • A system (I-TRIZ system)
  • 39. TRIZ Applications Evolution Mechanics Chemistry General Technology Science Management, business Medicine Social science Art Life problems Safety and security Control of evolution Creative Education
  • 40. Focusing on Refined (high TRIZ level) Innovation Knowledge I-TRIZ Differentiations…
    • Level 4 Patterns/Lines of Evolution
    • Level 3 System of Operators
    • Separation Principles
    • Level 2 40 Inventive Principles
      • 76 Standard Solutions
      • Effects
    • Level 1 Selected Innovation Examples
    • Level 0 Patent Fund and other literature
  • 41. Algorithm for Problem Solving
    • 2) Create Ideal Final Result (IFR)
      • Eliminate the deficiencies
      • Preserve the advantages
      • Not more complicated
      • No new disadvantages
    • 1) Define the problem
      • List all requirements and constraints
      • We want this but we can’t because of this . We get this because of this .
    • 3) Determine the differences
      • Compare original system with IFR
    • 4) Create Ideality Equation
      • List differences as Benefit, Cost, Harmful
    • 5) Determine Contradictions
      • Technical or Physical contradictions
    • 6) Determine Input Parameters
      • Use 2 of 39 or other parameters
    • 7) Physical or Technical Contradiction
      • Convert between the two contradictions
      • If Technical then use Contradiction Matrix
    • 9) Examime Solutions
      • Convert generic solutions to specific
      • Does solution increase Ideality?
      • No – go to step 5
      • Does solution solve the problem?
      • Yes – IMPLEMENT
    • 8) Determine General Solution
      • Use 40 Inventive Principles
  • 42. Why does the system exist? 1 2 3 4 What are the useful and harmful interactions (system conflicts)? What system conflicts should be resolved? How can the system conflicts be resolved? Identification of the Primary Function Problem formulation and analysis Rules for selecting the promising system conflict Rules for resolving system conflicts
  • 43. Example
    • Goal: Make a faster boat
    • Problem
      • Boats must float on water to support their weight
      • Water’s viscosity increases with speed, requiring more energy, which slows down the boat
    • Contradictions (standard problem)
      • Weight of moving object
      • Speed
      • Use of energy by moving
    • Principle (standard solution)
      • Anti-Weight
        • To compensate for the weight of an object, merge it with other objects that provide lift
    • Solution
      • Raise the boat above water by using lifting surfaces under the boat (hydrofoil boat)
  • 44. مثال توضيحي MMD
  • 45. مثال للحل : مقياس الماء المتحرك
  • 46.  
  • 47.  
  • 48.  
  • 49.  
  • 50.  
  • 51.  
  • 52. Altshuller’s Patent Research (1960s) 1 2 3 4 5
  • 53. Levels of Inventiveness
      • 5 levels of inventiveness (based on patent analysis)
    TRIZ helps here Obvious solution (32%) Minor improvement (45%) Major improvement (18%) New concept (4%)
          • Breakthrough (1%)
    5 4 3 2 1
  • 54. Pshychological inertia.
    • Defined as the inability to go beyond the current realm of knowledge ( within individual or group)
    • While most solutions are to be found out there!!
  • 55. Refining the Problem Statement Initial problem definition P System Environment System P Real Problem that needs to be solved M Mechanism causing the problem
  • 56. “ Often, problems are knots with many strands, & looking at those strands can make make a problem seem different.”
  • 57. General Scenario of System Evolution New function and set of principles Step 1 Step 2 Principles rejected by current technology Principles accepted by current technology Screening 2a 2b New system generation Cross-breeding Step 5 5a 5b 5c 5c Principles and systems from other areas 5d 5e 3c 3a 3b Competition Step 3 Young System #3 Mature System #1 (Winner) Mature System #2 (Main Competitor ) Newly invented principles Alternatives (no development) 4b 4a Step 4 Competing bi-system Towing bi-system Hybridization
  • 58. Basic Concepts of TRIZ
  • 59. Example of Conflict: Watch Dilemma
      • A watch is used for time keeping
      • A watch may be used as a status symbol (e.g., gold)
      • A watch may be in contact with skin
      • Some people experience eczema when gold touches their skin
      • This may present a challenge for designers of high-end watches.
    Conflict Time Keeping Physiology Status
  • 60. النوافذ التسعة للمنظومة -Windows 9 المستقبل الحاضر الماضي النظام المحيط ؟ المنظومة ؟ النظم الجزئية التابعة لها ؟
  • 61. Basic TRIZ Model Function Tool Object Action
  • 62. Example: Efficient Support Spiles
      • Foundation supporting spiles
      • Contradiction:
        • Easy to Drive vs. Good Support
    Sharp Spile: Easy to Drive in Blunt Spile: Good for Support Compromise
  • 63. Problem Formulation
    • System conflict diagram
    Principle: Separation in Time Solution: Separate sharp and blunt effects, in time, to avoid harmful effects GROUND SHARP SPILE BUILDING MOVES EASILY INTO X SUPPORTS POORLY GROUND BLUNT SPILE BUILDING X DOESN’T MOVE INTO SUPPORTS WELL
  • 64. Example: Executive Travel Challenge
      • Executives traveling by jets
        • Private jets
        • Commercial airlines
      • Contradiction:
        • Ease of Travel vs. Economies of Travel
  • 65. System Conflict Diagram Principle: Separation in Time Solution: Separate time and budget effects, in time, to avoid harmful effects
  • 66. Example: Slowing Traffic Down
    • Police cars slow highway traffic, but police officers have more critical things to do
  • 67. System Conflict Diagram
  • 68. Eliminating the Auxiliary Tool
  • 69. Focusing on the Primary Action
    • The driver primarily sees the car surface
  • 70. Solution: A Cut-out
  • 71. Vibratory feed move pills around an internal spiral to top of vibratory bowl where the pills are discharged and slide down an incline plane onto a conveyor. As the pills go by, the inspectors identify and remove the damaged pills. Damaged Pills Conveyor Trash Can PILL INSPECTION WORKSTATION
  • 72. GOOD PILLS/BAD PILLS
    • What is IDEALITY?
    • What are the RESOURCES we have?
  • 73. Vibratory feed move pills around an internal spiral to top of vibratory bowl where the pills are discharged and slide down an incline plane onto a conveyor. As the pills go by, the inspectors identify and remove the damaged pills. Damaged Pills Conveyor Trash Can PILL INSPECTION WORKSTATION
  • 74. AN ELEGANT SOLUTION-- THE PILL INSPECT ITSELF Trash Can Change the escapement for the vibratory bowl so that the pills are ejected standing on their edge. Move the conveyor 3 inches. Pills that are round will roll at a velocity that allows them to jump to the conveyor. The pills that are chipped will slide or will roll at a lower velocity and fall into the trash. Resource: Velocity of the sliding or rolling pills Function (inspection of pills) is performed without the system (human inspectors or video inspection system).
  • 75. Trash Can المصدر المستعمل : سرعة دحرجة قرص الدواء على الحزام
  • 76. Example: A beverage can. An engineered system to contain a beverage. Operating environment is that cans are stacked for storage purposes. Resources include weight of filled cans, internal pressure of can, rigidity of can construction. Primary useful function is to contain beverage. Harmful effects include cost of materials, producing can and waste of storage space. Ideal result is a can that can support the weight of stacking to human height without damage to cans or beverage in cans. Identification of Problem – Problem Statement Theory of Inventive Problem Solving
  • 77. Using Inventive Principle 14 a., the perpendicular angle at which most can lids are welded to the can wall can be changed to a curve. Theory of Inventive Problem Solving
  • 78. Processing Sweet Peppers PATTERNS OF INVENTION
    • “ Slowly raise pressure and suddenly reduce it” OR “accumulate energy and release it”
    • A path to a solution
    • An approach to solving a problem
    • A direction towards an answer
    WHAT IS THE OPERATOR?
  • 79. 1945: Patent for processing peppers. Force air inside of the peppers. Suddenly reduce the pressure. Seeds and stems separate from pepper body.
  • 80. 1950: Patent for removing the shell of cedar nuts. Under high pressure, water is forced inside of the shells. When the pressure is suddenly reduced, the shells break away.
  • 81. 1950: Patent for removing shells from sunflower seeds. Air is forced inside the shells. When the pressure is suddenly reduced, the shells break away.
  • 82. AND 27 YEARS LATER….. 1972: Patent for breaking artificial diamonds. Diamonds are placed into a pressure chamber. High pressure forces air into micro fractures. Releasing the pressure suddenly breaks the diamonds into crystals.
  • 83. Pattern: Raise Pressue Slowly Then Suddenly Release It
    • Removing stems from bell peppers
    • Removing shells from sunflower seeds
    • Cleaning filters
    • Unpacking parts wrapped in protective paper
    • Splitting diamonds along micro-cracks
    • (+27 years after pepper patent)
    • Producing sugar powder from sugar crystals
    • And 200 more!!!
  • 84. Pattern: Raise Pressue Slowly Then Suddenly Release It Or more generally: Store up energy and suddenly release it Or more generally yet: Store up a resource for later use
  • 85.  
  • 86.  
  • 87. TRIZ – Innovation
  • 88. How do we think {innovate}? Inside the Box [ within the scheme of things } Look for analogous solutions
  • 89. Let us Distinguish To innovate! Get the RIGHT answer Question & Re-Define Create something New To Solve a Problem Extend What is Solve for NOW Get the answer RIGHT How do we think {innovate}?
  • 90. Systems
    • All artificial creations are systems
    • A system is made up of interacting parts and each of these parts, in turn, may consist of smaller parts
    • Any system is designed to perform functions
      • Pencil
      • Vehicle
      • Software
      • Service.
  • 91. TRIZ - TRIX
  • 92. TRIZ - TRIX
  • 93. ARIZ - Algorithm for Inventive Problem Solving
    • Formulate the problem.
    • Transform the problem into a model.
    • Analyze the model.
    • Resolve physical contradictions.
    • Formulate ideal solution.
  • 94. D efine V erify D esign A nalyze M easure D efine customer requirements and goals for the process, product or service. M easure and match performance to customer requirements. A nalyze and assess the design for the process, product or service. D esign and implement the array of new processes required for the new process, product or service. V erify results and maintain performance. D ESIGN FOR S IX S IGMA (DFSS)
  • 95. Kerosene Lamp Avalanche Kerosene lamp increased “bright” time - equal to increasing of manpower by 25-30%
    • 1840 – oil lamp invented
    • 1855 – kerosene invented
    • 1859 - first oil well drilled,
    • start of oil boom
  • 96. TRIZ: The Theory of Inventive Problem Solving 40 Inventive Principles with Examples A Russian engineer studied more than 300,000 patents and discerned inventive principles were often present in the most successful cases. His work gave birth to TRIZ or the Theory of Inventive Problem-Solving .
  • 97. Divide an object into independent parts. 40 TRIZ Principles Segmentation Civilization Bricks in a Wall Object Oriented Design N-Tier Architecture Packet Switching Make object easy to disassemble Increase the degree of fragmentation or segmentation. 1 Merging
  • 98.
    • Principle 1. Segmentation
    • A. Divide an object into independent parts.
    • Replace mainframe computer by personal computers.
    • Replace a large truck by a truck and trailer.
    • Use a work breakdown structure for a large project.
    • B. Make an object easy to disassemble .
    • Modular furniture
    • Quick disconnect joints in plumbing
    • C. Increase the degree of fragmentation or segmentation .
    • Replace solid shades with Venetian blinds.
    • Use powdered welding metal instead of foil or rod
    • to get better penetration of the joint.
  • 99. ازالة الشحوم
  • 100. Uniform to Non Uniform 40 TRIZ Principles Local Quality SME in Teams PDO Razor Blades Agriculture implements Tyres change an external environment Each part to do its function Each part suitable for its purpose 3 Universality
  • 101.
    • Principle 3. Local Quality
    • A. Change an object's structure from uniform to non-uniform,
    • change an external environment (or external influence) from
    • uniform to non-uniform .
      • Use a temperature, density, or pressure gradient instead of
      • constant temperature, density or pressure.
    • B. Make each part of an object function in conditions
    • most suitable for its operation .
    • Lunch box with special compartments for hot and cold
    • solid foods and for liquids.
    • C. Make each part of an object fulfill a different and useful function .
    • Pencil with eraser
    • Hammer with nail puller
    • Multi-function tool that scales fish, acts as a pliers, a wire stripper, a
    • flat-blade screwdriver, a Phillips screwdriver, manicure set, etc.
  • 102. Skew distribution 40 TRIZ Principles Asymmetry DB – File Management DB - Indexing Variable Pay Road Rollers Skew it Change the degree of Skew 4 Counter Weight
  • 103.
    • Principle 4. Asymmetry
    • A. Change the shape of an object from symmetrical to asymmetrical .
    • Asymmetrical mixing vessels or asymmetrical vanes
    • in symmetrical vessels improve mixing
    • (cement trucks, cake mixers, blenders).
    • Put a flat spot on a cylindrical shaft to attach a knob securely.
    • B. If an object is asymmetrical, increase its degree of asymmetry .
    • Change from circular O-rings to oval cross-section
    • to specialized shapes to improve sealing.
    • Use astigmatic optics to merge colors.
  • 104. Bring closer / unify 40 TRIZ Principles Merging HPC Cell based manufacture SOA TOC Assemble into one Parallel / Contiguous Processes 5 Segmentation
  • 105.  
  • 106.
    • Principle 5. Merging
    • A. Bring closer together (or merge) identical or similar objects,
    • assemble identical or similar parts to perform parallel operations .
      • Personal computers in a network
      • Thousands of microprocessors in a parallel processor computer
      • Veins in a ventilation system
      • Electronic chips mounted on both sides of a
      • circuit board or subassembly
    • B. Make operations contiguous or parallel;
    • bring them together in time .
    • Link slats together in Venetian or vertical blinds.
    • Medical diagnostic instruments that analyze
    • multiple blood parameters simultaneously
    • Mulching lawnmower
  • 107. Use everywhere 40 TRIZ Principles Universality Casio – Screw Standards Rationalize SOA Normalization Standard Object in multiple contexts 6 Local Quality
  • 108.  
  • 109.
    • Principle 6. Universality
    • Make a part or object perform multiple functions;
    • eliminate the need for other parts .
    • Handle of a toothbrush contains toothpaste
    • Child's car safety seat converts to a stroller
    • Mulching lawnmower (Yes, it demonstrates both Principles 5 and 6,
    • Merging and Universality.)
    • Team leader acts as recorder and timekeeper.
    • CCD (Charge coupled device) with micro-lenses formed on the surface
  • 110. One inside another 40 TRIZ Principles Nested Doll-Matrushka Containers Protocols Parcels Wiring Pass through Cavity 7 Extract Out
  • 111.
    • Principle 7. "Nested Doll"
    • A. Place one object inside another; place each object,
    • in turn, inside the other .
    • Measuring cups or spoons
    • Russian dolls
    • Portable audio system
    • (microphone fits inside transmitter, which fits inside amplifier case)
    • B. Make one part pass through a cavity in the other .
    • Extending radio antenna
    • Extending pointer
    • Zoom lens
    • Seat belt retraction mechanism
    • Retractable aircraft landing gear stow inside
    • the fuselage (also demonstrates Principle 15, Dynamism).
  • 112.  
  • 113.  
  • 114.  
  • 115. Counter inertia 40 TRIZ Principles Counter-Weight AJAX Cranes Compensate through other objects Compensate through environment 8 Asymmetry
  • 116.
    • Principle 8. Anti-Weight
    • A. To compensate for the weight of an object,
    • merge it with other objects that provide lift.
    • Inject foaming agent into a bundle of logs, to make it float better.
    • Use helium balloon to support advertising signs.
    • To compensate for the weight of an object,
    • make it interact with the environment
    • (e.g. use aerodynamic, hydrodynamic, buoyancy and other forces) .
      • Aircraft wing shape reduces air density above the wing,
      • increases density below wing, to create lift.
      • (This also demonstrates Principle 4, Asymmetry.)
      • Vortex strips improve lift of aircraft wings.
      • Hydrofoils lift ship out of the water to reduce drag.
  • 117.  
  • 118.  
  • 119. Prepare counter Harm 40 TRIZ Principles Prior Anti-Action FMEA / Risk Management Security / SSH Rail-sleepers Pre-stress in opposite direction Take anti-Risk Measures 9
  • 120.
    • Principle 9. Preliminary Anti-Action
    • A. I f it will be necessary to do an action with both harmful and useful effects, action should be replaced with anti-actions to control harmful effects .
      • Buffer a solution to prevent harm from extremes of pH.
    • B. Create beforehand stresses in an object that will oppose
    • known undesirable working stresses later on .
    • Pre-stress rebar before pouring concrete.
    • Masking anything before harmful exposure:
    • Use a lead apron on parts of the body not being exposed to X-rays.
    • Use masking tape to protect the part of an object not being painted
  • 121.  
  • 122. Prepare before time is due 40 TRIZ Principles Prior Action Cron Jobs Indexes DW-DM Assembly line Cooking Pre-Fab Construction Pre process activities – offline Pre Arrange and ready for event 10
  • 123.  
  • 124. Prepare emergencies before hand 40 TRIZ Principles Prior Cushioning PPA-FMEA DR-BC Redundancy Peak Demands Redundancy Risk Mitigation 11
  • 125.
    • Principle 11. Beforehand Cushioning
    • A. Prepare emergency means beforehand to compensate for the
    • relatively low reliability of an object .
    • Magnetic strip on photographic film that directs the developer
    • to compensate for poor exposure
    • Back-up parachute
    • Alternate air system for aircraft instruments
  • 126. Reduce Position changes 40 TRIZ Principles Equi-potentiality Job Rotation-Peter Principle Flexible Matrix Organization Eliminate the need to re-structure 12 Vibration
  • 127.
    • Principle 12. Equi-potentiality
    • In a potential field, limit position changes
    • (e.g. change operating conditions to eliminate the need
    • to raise or lower objects in a gravity field).
      • Spring loaded parts delivery system in a factory
      • Locks in a channel between 2 bodies of water (Panama Canal)
      • "Skillets" in an automobile plant that bring all tools to the right position
      • (also demonstrates Principle 10, Preliminary Action)