Business writing skills

  • 3,490 views
Uploaded on

Business writing skills

Business writing skills

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
3,490
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4

Actions

Shares
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
12

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Business Writing Skills English Writing 1
  • 2. Introduction Paragraph Structure Read the paragraph below and note the organization. What is the purpose of each part? A paragraph has two main parts: (1) a topic sentence and (2) the body. (2) It also sometimes has: (3) a concluding sentence. To make a healthy banana milkshake, follow these simple instructions. First, you need three cups of low-fat milk, two tablespoons of honey, and two bananas. Pour the low fat-milk and honey into the blender. After that, cut the two bananas into small pieces and add them to the milk and honey. When you finish doing that, put the top back onto the blender. Then, press the high button and let it mix for one minute before turning it off. Finally, pour the banana milkshake into a glass. If you follow the simple steps above, you are on your way to a healthy drink. Do you think that the bolded concluding sentence is necessary? Why or why not? 2
  • 3. To make a healthy banana milkshake, follow these topic sentence Simple instructions. First, you need three cups of low-fat milk, two body tablespoons of honey, and two bananas. Pour the low fat-milk and honey into the blender. After that, cut the two bananas into small pieces and add them to the milk and honey. When you finish doing that, put the top back onto the blender. Then, press the high button and let it mix for one minute before turning it off. Finally, pour the banana milkshake into a glass. concluding If you follow the simple steps above, you are on your sentence way to a healthy drink. 3
  • 4. Giving Instructions We have to tell people how to do things every day. In other words, we have to give instructions. The instructions must be clear and in sequence because when we give instructions, we want people to be able to follow them. Text A How to Make an Emergency Call Use this procedure in order to make an emergency call. First, you must dial 110. Second, you must state the problem. Third, you must give the telephone number shown on your phone. Fourth, you must give the address where help is needed, and, finally, your name and badge number. *If you follow this process, you can help someone in danger or even save a life. *Generally in a set of instructions, a concluding sentence is needed only if the reader may need to ask for further information. This type of concluding sentence is called a now what. Therefore, the example of a concluding sentence in this paragraph is optional. Text B How to Make an Emergency Call In order to make an emergency call, follow the procedure below. 1. Dial 110. 2. State the problem. 3. Give the telephone number shown on your phone. 4. Give the address where help is needed. 5. Give your name and badge number. 4
  • 5. Case Study 1 Think about something that you know how to do or make very well. For example, you could describe how to make a cup of traditional Arabic coffee. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5
  • 6. Case Study 2 Writing Activity Rewrite this text as a set of instructions in list form. Each instruction should begin with a command verb. Cooking with a Microwave In order to cook food in a microwave oven, follow these rules. You need to take off the paper or plastic wrapping that the food comes in. Then you need to make some holes in the lid so that steam can escape. You should put the food in the microwave and cook it on full power for three minutes. The food will need to sit for two minutes before you cook it anymore. After you have let it sit, you should stir the food to make sure all of it is cooked. Then you should cook the food for another three minutes. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6
  • 7. Topic Sentences The topic sentence introduces the main idea of the paragraph. In an instruction paragraph, two good ways to begin are by using “In order to” or “To.” Examples • In order to make an emergency call, follow the procedure below. • To make an emergency call, follow the procedure below. • In order to cook food in a microwave oven, follow these rules. • To cook food in a microwave oven, follow these rules. More Choices It is easy to make Arabic coffee when you follow these steps. It is easy to ________________________ when you follow these steps. these instructions. these directions these guidelines. this procedure. equipment. tools. It is easy to _________________________ if you have the right materials. ingredients. 7
  • 8. Case Study Write topic sentences for the ideas below. 1 Organizing a party ........................................................................................................................... 2 Changing a tire ........................................................................................................................... 3 Getting a credit card ........................................................................................................................... 4 Taking a good picture ........................................................................................................................... 5 Giving a successful PowerPoint presentation ........................................................................................................................... 8
  • 9. The Concluding Sentence The most important thing to remember about a concluding sentence is that, in most instructions, it is optional because of its lack of necessity. Generally, a concluding sentence is added to a paragraph giving instructions only if questions or a request for further information are probably going to come from the reader (this type of concluding sentence is called a now what), or if the writer wants to emphasize the importance of the instructions. The concluding sentence should reinforce the main idea of the paragraph. One way to do this is to state the good outcome of following the instructions. Look at the examples. Examples (Good Outcome) a If you follow the simple steps above, you will have a healthy drink. b If you follow this process, you can help someone in danger or even save a life. c If you follow these instructions, you will have hot food cooked very quickly. Examples a and c are optional. However, example b emphasizes the importance of the instructions, so it is more important to include it. More Choices When/As When you follow the steps I have mentioned, you will not have a problem making an emergency call. As you can see, making an emergency phone call is an easy process. As I have described, there are several steps involved in making an emergency phone call. 9
  • 10. Case Study 3 The Concluding Sentence Write a concluding sentence for the paragraph below. The Heimlich maneuver is a method that anyone can use to help someone who is choking on a piece of food. First, stand behind the person who is choking and put your arms around his waist. Then, make a fist with one hand and hold the fist with your other hand. Next, put your hands just below his rib cage. Finally, press your fist into the victim's abdomen with a quick upward movement. ............................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................ 10
  • 11. Adding Details The details in your paragraph help the reader in different ways. They can: 1 Identify a specific object Example: Take off the paper or plastic wrapping. Which one? Take off the paper or plastic wrapping that the food comes in. 2 Explain the reason for doing something Example: Make some holes in the lid. Why? (so that...) Make some holes in the lid so that steam can escape. Example: Stir the food. Why? (to.../in order to...) Stir the food to make sure all of it is cooked. 3 Give a time for doing something Example: Let it sit for two minutes. When? (before..., after...) Let it sit for two minutes before you cook it anymore. Example: Stir the food. When? After you have let it sit, stir the food. 11
  • 12. Case Study 4 Add details to the following sentences. Use the words inside the parentheses in your sentences. 1 Check your department's yearly calendar (in order to) ............................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................ 2 Speak to your supervisor (to) ............................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................ 3 Fill out the (which form?) form ............................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................ 4 Submit the form to the unit clerk (after) ............................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................ 5 Wait for approval (before/airline tickets) ............................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................ 12
  • 13. Transition Words Sequence Sequence, or order, is important when you give instructions. Below is a list of transitional words that you can use when writing instructions. 13
  • 14. Reducing Adverbial Clauses You can often simplify clauses beginning with before, after, while, when, or since by omitting the subject and changing the verb to -ing. Note: This can only be done if the subject of the dependent clause and the independent clause are the same. Examples a Before you call the office, check the number. Before calling the office, check the number. b After you wash the fruit carefully, put it in boxes. After washing the fruit carefully, put it in boxes. c When you fill out the form, make sure to give all the information requested. When filling out the form, make sure to give all the information requested. 14
  • 15. Case Study5 Reduce the adverbial clauses in the sentences below. 1 While you wait for the water to boil, get your teabag. ............................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................ 2 After you place the CD Rom on the tray, press the button. ............................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................ 3 Before you begin this assignment, read the directions on pp. 3-16. ............................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................ 4 When you are installing batteries, place them in the proper direction. ............................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................ 15
  • 16. Case Study 6 How to Use an ATM Machine 16
  • 17. Use the vocabulary below to write the instructions for how to use an ATM Machine. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 17
  • 18. Explaining a Process Giving instructions is different from explaining a process. When you give instructions, you are telling the reader what you want him to do. When you explain a process, you are explaining how it works. You don't want the reader to do it, but simply to understand it. Examples of Processes • how a computer is assembled • how bridges are built • how Toyota redesigns its cars Structure of a Paragraph Explaining a Process 1 Name the process. 2 State the steps clearly in sequence. 3 Use sequence words to connect the steps to each other. 4 Make sure that the steps are complete. Add details if necessary. 5 Explain each of the steps in either the active or the passive voice. 6 End with a concluding sentence. (This may be only the last step in the process.) 18
  • 19. Topic Sentences—Process Paragraphs Read the topic sentences below. They are good ways to begin a paragraph explaining a process. Examples • Sending a letter involves more steps than many people are aware of. • The process of sending a letter involves more steps than many people are aware of. • Many steps are involved in the sending of a letter. • Building a car is a very complex process. • How a car is built is a very complex process. Passive Voice The passive voice is often used when explaining a process. This is true particularly of a lot of scientific writing such as lab reports. It is also true of some business writing where emphasis on machines, processes, or results is important, not on the people who were involved. 19
  • 20. Read the paragraph again on how letters are sent and notice the use of the passive. 20
  • 21. Case Study7 1 Active: Ali ate the pizza. Passive: .............................................................................................................. 2 Active: They will see the movie. Passive: .............................................................................................................. 3 Active: The principal should speak to Khalid. Passive: .............................................................................................................. 4 Active: We have done it. Passive: .............................................................................................................. 5 Active: He writes the letters. Passive: .............................................................................................................. 6 Active: .............................................................................................................. Passive: The fire was put out quickly. 7 Active: .............................................................................................................. Passive: The book can be bought anywhere. 8 Active: .............................................................................................................. Passive: The gift should be presented by Nasser. 21
  • 22. Should You Use the Active or Passive? If you want to emphasize the doer of the action, use the active voice. However, there are times when you don't want to emphasize the doer. Instead, you want to emphasize the process or the results. If so, use the passive voice because the focus is on the steps, not the doer. Examples a Use the passive voice when you want to keep the focus on a process. • The experiment was performed successfully yesterday under careful laboratory conditions. • After the aluminum cans are collected, they are washed and then shredded. b Use the passive when the doer of the action is unknown or unimportant. • All violations were reported. • Several windows were broken during the night. 22
  • 23. Case Study8 Writing Activity Based on the information below, write a paragraph explaining how meetings are conducted. Write your own topic sentence, but use the steps provided for you. How Meetings are Conducted Topic Sentence: ................................................................................................. ................................................................................................. ................................................................................................. Step 1 Plan / carefully Step 2 Distribute agenda Step 3 Open Step 4 Discuss / listen / ask Step 5 Cover points / agenda Step 6 Decision Step 7 Close ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 23
  • 24. Revise your previous paragraph. Use the checklist below. Revision Checklist you have a topic sentence and (if Do needed) a concluding sentence? you have enough details to Do support your ideas? Have you used connecting words? Have you explained your ideas clearly for the reader? your punctuation, spelling, and grammar correct? Are 24
  • 25. Case Study9 Writing Activity Based on the information below, write a paragraph explaining how an emergency evacuation plan is designed. Write your own topic sentence, but use the steps provided for you. How an Emergency Evacuation Plan is Designed Topic Sentence: ................................................................................................. ................................................................................................. ................................................................................................. Step 1 Draw/ floor plan Step 2 Identify/ emergency exits Step 3 Mark/ emergency equipment Step 4 Draw/ arrows/ way out Step 5 Designate/ Emergency Assembly Point Step 6 Approve/ Loss Prevention Department Step 7 Explain/ new plan/ all employees Step 8 Schedule/ hold/ fire drills Step 9 Evaluate/ new plan ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 25
  • 26. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 26
  • 27. Comparison and Contrast At some stage in your personal or business writing you might have to write about how things are either similar or different. When you compare two things, places, machines, or people, you show the reader how they are similar. When you contrast, you show how things are different. Comparison Topic Sentence Patterns—Comparison Paragraph The topic sentence introduces the items that will be compared in the paragraph. Examples • My hometown, ……., and my university town, ……., are similar in three important ways. • My hometown, ……., and my university town, ……., are very similar towns. • My hometown, ……., and my university town, ……., have many similarities. • My hometown, ……., and my university town, ……., are alike in many ways. • ……. is similar to ……. in several ways. • ……. and ……. are very similar towns. 27
  • 28. Concluding Sentence Patterns—Comparison Paragraph The concluding sentence restates the items that were compared in the paragraph. Examples • As is clear to see, ……. and ……. are very similar towns. • Both ……. and ……. are nice small towns to live or study in. Including a personal comment about the subject: • I think that one of the reasons why I enjoyed going to school in ……. was its similarities to the town that I grew up in. 28
  • 29. Writing Sentences That Show Similarities Vocabulary and Structures similar to ……. is similar to …….. like ……. is like …….. alike ……. and ……. are alike. both Both ……. and ……. are medium-sized towns. ……. and ……. are both medium-sized towns. the same as Chico is the same as Davis. also ……. is a medium-sized town. ……. is also a medium-sized town. too ……. is a medium-sized town. ……. is too. and… too ……. is a medium-sized town, and ……. is too. and so ……. has a university, and so does ……. as… as ……. is as rural as …….. and … either ……. isn't a large town, and ……. isn't either. and neither …….isn't a large town, and neither is ……. neither … nor Neither ……. nor ……. is a large town. like X, Y [verb] Like ……., ……. is a medium-sized town. similarly/likewise/ ……. is a medium-sized town. Similarly, in the same way ……. is a medium-sized town. 29
  • 30. Case Study 10 Sentence Building Write sentences comparing any two cities in Saudi Arabia using the words in parentheses. 1 (similarly) ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... 2 (similar to) ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... 3 (like) ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... 4 (alike) ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... 5 (the same as) ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... 6 (both) ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... 7 (too) ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... 30
  • 31. 8 (and so) ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... 9 (as... as) ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... 10 (and... too) ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... 11 (and... either) ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... 12 (and neither) ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... 13 (neither... nor) ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... 14 (like X, Y [verb]) ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... 31
  • 32. Adding Details One way to add details to a sentence is by using “in that” to offer more information. This works well after like, alike, similar to, and the same as. Look at the examples. Examples • ……. is similar to ……. in that they are both rural communities. • ……. is like ……. in that they both have universities. • ……. and ……. are alike in that they both have about 65,000 to 80,000 citizens. • ……. is the same as ……. in that they are both in northern California. 32
  • 33. Case Study 11 Complete the following sentences with a detail to explain the first part of the sentence. 1 Saudi Arabia and the UAE are alike in that …………………………………………..................................................... ............................................................................................................... .............................................................................................................. 2 Riyadh is similar to Jeddah in that …………………………………………..................................................... ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... 3 Paris is the same as London in that …………………………………………..................................................... ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... 4 Traveling by bus and plane are alike in that …………………………………………..................................................... ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... 5 English is similar to Arabic in that …………………………………………..................................................... ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... 33
  • 34. Using Adjective Clauses To describe something, you can use an adjective clause to give that information. These clauses begin with words like which, that, and who, to name a few. Look at the adjective clauses in the following examples. Examples • First, let me tell you about ……., which is a medium-sized town with a population of only about 79,000 people . • ……. is a rural community which is in the center of farmland. • Likewise, the beautiful campus of the University of California, ……., which is found just outside of ……. , also has a well-known department of agriculture. 34
  • 35. Case Study 12 Complete the following sentences with adjective clauses. 1 He bought a new car that ........................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................... 2 They live in a house which ........................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................... 3 Ali took a vacation which ........................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................... 4 She knows the people who ........................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................... 5 The man who ........................................................................................................... ....................................................................................... is my friend. 6 The car that ........................................................................................................ .................................................................................. cost SR 85,000. 7 The movie which ............................................................................................... ............................................................................ was not very good. 8 I don’t know the university that ........................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................... 35
  • 36. Contrast Topic Sentence Patterns—Contrast Paragraph The topic sentence introduces the items that will be contrasted in the paragraph. Examples • Although Arizona and Rhode Island are both states of the U.S., they are different in many ways. • While Arizona and Rhode Island are both states of the U.S., they are different in many ways. • There are many differences between the states of Arizona and Rhode Island. Concluding Sentence Patterns—Contrast Paragraph The concluding sentence restates the items that were contrasted in the paragraph. Examples • Arizona and Rhode Island are so different that foreign visitors often have trouble believing they are in the same country. • Even though Arizona and Rhode Island are very different, they are both wonderful places to live and visit. • As is clear to see, Arizona and Rhode Island are very different from each other. 36
  • 37. Writing Sentences That Show Differences Vocabulary and Structures 37
  • 38. Case Study 13 Sentence Building Write sentences contrasting any two countries in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) or any two cities in Saudi Arabia. Use the words in parentheses. 1 (different) ............................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................ 2 (different from) ............................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................ 3 (-er than) ............................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................ 4 (less than) ............................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................ 5 (more... than) ............................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................ 6 (while) ............................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................ 7 (however) ............................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................ 8 (more) ............................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................ 9 (but) ............................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................ 10 (whereas) ............................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................ 38
  • 39. Topic Sentence Patterns—Compare and Contrast Paragraph The topic sentence introduces the items that will be compared and contrasted in the paragraph. Examples • For someone who is looking for a new car, the German-built BMW 320i and the Japanese Honda Civic offer interesting points of similarity and difference in the areas of length, weight, interior size, and engine capacity. • It is useful to compare and contrast Riyadh and Shagra in regard to population, appearance, commercial activity, and quality of life. • To see how much Saudi Arabia has changed in the last 40 years, it is useful to compare and contrast its modern capital, Riyadh, with the nearby town of Shagra in regard to population, appearance, commercial activity, and quality of life. • Although the Arab News and the Saudi Gazette are similar in some respects, they are different in other respects. • While there will of course be some similarities between the BMW and the Honda Civic, there will also be some major differences. 39
  • 40. Concluding Sentence Patterns—Compare and Contrast Paragraph The concluding sentence restates the items that were compared and contrasted in the paragraph. Examples • To summarize, the car buyer should consider these points as well as the obvious price difference when deciding which of these cars to purchase. • Now that you know something about the similarities and differences between souqs and shopping malls, you can decide where you want to shop. • In conclusion, Ali and Fuad are similar and different in many ways. However, it would seem the differences outweigh the similarities. 40
  • 41. Case Study 14 Use the information in the table below to write a comparison and contrast paragraph about the Canon F-1 and the Canon EOS-1 cameras. 41
  • 42. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 42
  • 43. Case Study 15 Use the information in the table below to write a comparison and contrast paragraph about the Panasonic and the Toshiba DVD recorders. 43
  • 44. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 44
  • 45. Cause and Effect Knowing how to explain the causes or effects of something is an important skill at work. This skill can be used in writing accident reports, case studies, and various kinds of letters. Paragraph Analysis 45
  • 46. Topic Sentences—Cause Paragraphs Read the topic sentence patterns below. They are good ways to begin a paragraph explaining a cause. Pattern 1 _____ is caused by _____, _____, and _____. Teenage criminal behavior is caused by unemployment, drug use, and lack of parental guidance. Pattern 2 The main causes of _____ are _____, _____, and _____. The main causes of teenage criminal behavior are unemployment, drug use, and lack of parental guidance. Pattern 3 There are three important causes of _____: _____, _____, and _____ There are three important causes of teenage criminal behavior: unemployment, drug use, and lack of parental guidance. 46
  • 47. Types of Supporting Information The reader will understand your ideas more quickly if you indicate the type of support that you are using. Look at this vocabulary: Example For example, Result As a result, The result of (this cause) is that + clause This results in Addition In addition, Also, Moreover, Similarly, 47
  • 48. Topic Sentences—Effect Paragraphs Read the topic sentence patterns below. They are good ways to begin a paragraph explaining an effect. Pattern 1 _____ may cause _____, _____, and _____. Watching too much TV may cause bad behavior, poor health, and weight gain. Pattern 2 The main effects of _____ are _____, _____, and _____. The main effects of watching too much TV are bad behavior, poor health, and weight gain. Pattern 3 There are three important effects of _____: _____, _____, and _____. There are three important effects of watching too much TV: bad behavior, poor health, and weight gain. Concluding Sentences—Effect Paragraphs The main method of writing concluding sentences for effect analysis paragraphs is to suggest ways of stopping the causes, if they are negative, or to suggest ways of continuing them, if they are positive. 48
  • 49. Problem and Solution Knowing how to explain a problem and offer a solution are important skills at work. These skills can be used in complaint letters, business proposals, case studies, executive summaries, and business reports as well as in informal e-mails. Meetings are also often problem-solution based. Problem Explaining a Problem by Showing its Causes Topic Sentences—Problem Paragraphs The first step in writing about a problem is to name it. This will be in the topic sentence. The topic sentence of a problem paragraph states the problem and can provide information on the scope of the problem. Concluding Sentences—Problem Paragraphs If a problem paragraph has a concluding sentence, the sentence either restates the problem or offers an idea about a solution to the problem. 49
  • 50. Adjectives used to describe a problem Verbs that can be used with problem 50
  • 51. Problem + verb Noun + problem Background of a Problem Another important part of explaining a problem is to give the background information of the problem. This information should be stated briefly and could include answers to such questions as: Who is affected by the problem? When did it start? How has the problem developed over time? How serious is the problem? 51
  • 52. Solution Writing About Solutions Often when you write about a problem, you will also write about the solution. There are two basic questions you can answer: “How can the problem be solved?” and “Why should the problem be solved?” Example problem Water shortages in the Middle East How can the problem be solved? Educate people Build plants to recycle water and desalinate seawater Why should the problem be solved? Save water Provide additional water for agriculture and industry Protect rivers and underground water reserves from overuse 52
  • 53. Vocabulary and Useful Expressions Adjective + solution Verb + solution Useful expressions 53
  • 54. What is Business Writing? All writing, whether it is a memo, a personal letter, an e-mail, or a business letter, takes time. Writers do not just sit down and write without going through a particular process. This is especially true in business writing because business correspondence must always be clear so that the reader will not misunderstand what the writer is saying. Business writing focuses on the reader and the purpose of the letter. Business Writing Process 1 Identify the reader(s) Use the message planner. 2 Identify the important information Use the message planner. 3 Organize the information effectively Use the functional format. 4 Write the draft Write a rough draft of the entire document. 5 Allow time for the draft to cool Separate the writing and editing time. 6 Edit and revise Make changes so that the writing is direct, concise, and clear. 7 Write the final document Write the document that you will send. 54
  • 55. Functional Format Business writing should follow the functional format. This is a method of organizing information to make it easier for the reader to understand the message. The functional format has four main components. • First, the news (main message) of the letter is clearly stated at the beginning of the letter. The reader should know the main message of the letter after reading the first sentence or two. • Next, the reason is explained. This tells the reader why he is receiving this news. • Then, the details are provided. This will explain any additional information the reader needs to know about the news. • Finally, the letter ends with a closing section. This tells the reader how he can find out more information or what to do next. 55
  • 56. People often think that the writing process begins with writing or typing. This is not true. Writing actually begins with the thinking and planning that comes first, so the message planner is an essential step in writing. 56
  • 57. 57
  • 58. Read the letter below and fill in the message planner EMPLOYEE INFORMATION SYSTEMS DIVISION Human Resources Enhancement Project R-2087, Admin. Bldg., Dhahran, Tel: 800-4847 May 25, 200X REQUEST FOR CONSULTANT SUPERINTENDENT Contracting Planning & Procedure Unit R-1068, Admin. Bldg. Dhahran We would like your approval to contract Mr. Leland Jamison of Jamison &Associates, Arlington, Virginia, to work as a consultant with the Human Resources Enhancement Project. The project has reached the point where outside ideas and suggestions would be of great help. Mr. Jamison is recognized in the United Sates and the Middle East as a leader in introducing computer systems change into Personnel and Human Resources programs. He worked for a month with O&IE last year, and they recommend him. I attended one of the workshops Mr. Jamison gave for O&IE, and thought he was excellent. Mr. Ali Al-Harbi of the Qatar Petroleum Company also recommends him after the work he did for them. Mr. Jamison would arrive in the Kingdom on Friday, October 17 and depart on Wednesday, October 29. This would give him two weeks with us. His proposed work schedule is attached. In particular, we want him to help us plan the implementation schedule and software training, and present the changes to management. If you need any further information, please call me at 874-4847 or contact me by e-mail. You can also access the Jamison & Associates Web site at www.jamisonassoc.com for more background on this organization. W. S. AL-ABBAD, HRE Supervisor Employee Information Systems Div. WSA:ag Attachment 58
  • 59. Decide which one is more effective because of its appearance, and be prepared to explain why. SHEDGUM GAS PLANT DEPARTMENT Engineering Division P.O. Box 7000, Abqaiq, Tel: 577-9848 June 17, 200X SUPERINTENDENT Engineering Division With reference to our conversation on June 13, 200X, I recommend that we install double seals on all of the Abqaiq Plant pumps. Furthermore, even when all of the pumps are fitted with double seals, I recommend that we install alarms that will sound whenever the inner seal fails. These actions are needed because we cannot risk releasing hydrocarbons into the air at the plant. Under current conditions, as a recent incident shows, gases can be released. This incident occurred at 08:30 on April 30, 200X. A cloud of ethane vapor was released from pump G. When pump G had been given a preventive maintenance (PM) check the previous day, all of the seals were found to be in good condition. The pump was returned to service at 07:30 on April 30, and one hour later the leak occurred. The cause of the leak was the failure of a mechanical seal on the pump. An examination of the seal showed a small crack in it, even though the PM check the preceding day had not revealed any signs of cracking. The problem was apparently caused by the rapid increase from room temperature to operational temperature when the pump was placed back in service after the PM check. If you would like to discuss this recommendation further, please call me at 577-9848. SALEH AL-GHAMDI, Area Engineer Southern Area Plants Maintenance Unit ____________________________________ SAG:hg 59
  • 60. SHEDGUM GAS PLANT DEPARTMENT Engineering Division P.O. Box 7000, Abqaiq, Tel: 577-9848 June 17, 200X RECOMMENDATION TO INSTALL SEALS AND ALARMS SUPERINTENDENT Engineering Division Reference: Our conversation on June 13, 200X I recommend that we install double seals on all of the Abqaiq Plant pumps. Furthermore, even when all of the pumps are fitted with double seals, I recommend that we install alarms that will sound whenever the inner seal fails. These actions are needed because we cannot risk releasing hydrocarbons into the air at the plant. Under current conditions, as a recent incident shows, gases can be released. This incident occurred at 08:30 on April 30, 200X. A cloud of ethane vapor was released from pump G. When pump G had been given a preventive maintenance (PM) check the previous day, all of the seals were found to be in good condition. The pump was returned to service at 07:30 on April 30, and one hour later the leak occurred. The cause of the leak was the failure of a mechanical seal on the pump. An examination of the seal showed a small crack in it, even though the PM check the preceding day had not revealed any signs of cracking. The problem was apparently caused by the rapid increase from room temperature to operational temperature when the pump was placed back in service after the PM check. If you would like to discuss this recommendation further, please call me at 577-9848. SALEH AL-GHAMDI, Area Engineer Southern Area Plants Maintenance Unit ____________________________________ SAG:hg 60
  • 61. Business Writing and the Functional Format White space is the space which separates words, sentences, paragraphs, and other parts of a letter. Use white space to: • help the reader see the main ideas quickly • make the letter easier to read • make the letter look neater and more professional Standard Business Letter Format The different parts of a business letter help communicate the message more effectively, and they also create white space. Standard business letter has the following parts: 1 Letterhead (signer's organization, address, contact numbers, and date) 2 Control number (optional) 3 Subject line 4 Addressee (name, job title, organization, and address) 5 Reference line (optional) 6 Body (the writer's message) 7 Signer (name, job title, organization, and signature line) 8 Writer (writer's initials and typist's initials) 9 Attachments (optional) 10 Copies (the letters “cc” followed by the names of people other than the addressee who will receive copies of the letter; optional) 61
  • 62. Business Writing and the Functional Format 62
  • 63. Business Writing and the Functional Format Subject Lines Subject lines: • help the reader to understand the main idea of the letter • provide white space • help identify letters after they are filed Subject lines should: • begin with signal words that make the subject clear, such as: REQUEST FOR RECOMMENDATION FOR INVITATION TO COMPLAINT ABOUT SUGGESTION TO PROPOSAL TO EVALUATION OF WARNING ABOUT • give the reader a quick summary of the main idea of the letter • give enough specific information to be useful • be limited to a maximum of three lines • have the longest line on the bottom • contain no articles (a, an, the) 63
  • 64. Case Study 16 Underline the news and write an appropriate subject line 64
  • 65. Business Writing and the Functional Format 65
  • 66. Reference Lines A reference line reminds the reader of past information that relates to the current letter. The reference could refer to a memo, e-mail, fax, report, or telephone conversation. When you use a reference line, you remove information from the body of the letter and leave the first line free for the news. A reference line also creates more white space. A reference line identifies a previous message by type and date and, sometimes, also by control number. A reference line is not a complete sentence, so it does not end with a period. The following are examples of reference lines: • Reference: My memo January 5, 200X • Reference: Your e-mail of February 3, 200X • Reference: Discrepancy Report August 19 from Purchasing Department • Reference: Our telephone conversation on March 31, 200X • Reference: Your letter of May 18, 200X • Reference: Our conversation June 13, 200X • Reference: Your letter SSU: 721/00, December 30, 200X 66
  • 67. Case Study 18 Business Writing and the Functional Format In the letters below, identify which information should be moved from the body of each letter to the reference line. 67
  • 68. Business E-Mail The Functional Format in E-Mail E-mail is the most frequently used method of written correspondence. E-mail is popular because it is quick and convenient. The reader can respond quickly, and he can easily share the message with others by forwarding the e-mail to them. Also, the message can be stored as an electronic copy for later reference or printed for storage or distribution as a hard copy. E-mail, like all business correspondence, is used to inform, to request, or to persuade. The most important thing to remember about e-mail is that it is business correspondence. It may be less formal than a letter, and it may be quick and convenient, but it still has a business purpose. Like letters and memos, e-mail should be organized according to the functional format. E-mail is like an electronic memo. The name of the writer, the name of the reader, and the subject are written above the message, exactly as in a hard copy memo. The only difference in the format is that the date is in the upper-right corner. Since e-mail is business correspondence, spelling, punctuation, and grammar should be correct. Unfortunately, e-mail messages often contain mistakes because they are written in a hurry. Take the time to write your e-mail messages carefully. They should be correct and businesslike. 68
  • 69. Business Writing and the Functional Format Guidelines for Business E-Mail • Be polite and businesslike. • Use a subject line that clearly and concisely states the purpose of your e-mail. • Limit paragraphs to a maximum of five lines each, and separate Paragraphs with a blank line. • Check your e-mail for correct punctuation, grammar, and spelling. • Send copies to only those people who need the message. • Try to include only one subject in an e-mail. • Include the original message in your e-mail if it will help the reader. • Use a signature block to identify yourself. • Use attachments for longer documents. • Be careful when using ALL CAPS or bold in your e-mail message because IT CAN LOOK LIKE YOU'RE SHOUTING! • Do not mix business and non-business messages in one e-mail. • Do not use too many different colors and fonts. 69
  • 70. Business Writing and the Functional Format Case Study 19 Read the e-mails below and make suggestions about how to improve them. 70
  • 71. Letters of Request Making a Request 71
  • 72. Example Letter of Request 72
  • 73. Preparing to Write Useful Vocabulary and Structures Please (do something). Please send a technician to repair our computers. Please add five days to my next scheduled leave. Would/Could you (do something). Would you assign two petroleum engineers to the new project? Could you please fill out these forms and return them to me by Wednesday? I would like you to (do something). I would like you to nominate two employees for the annual award. I would like you to prepare a report for the general manager. I would like to request that (you do something/something be done). I would like to request that you send me to Ras Tanura. I would like to request that a course be developed for safety inspectors. 73
  • 74. Case Study 20 Write the following ideas in the form of a request 1 Provide temporary housing for three Saudi Aramco engineers. .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... 2 Transfer me from Dhahran to Jiddah. .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... 3 Enroll employee #213458 in the Safe Driving Course. .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... 4 Attend tomorrow’s meeting to discuss the construction project in Ras Tanura. .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... 5 Contact the clerk to get the dates for the next SAP Training Workshop. .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... 6 Submit your vacation request form by next Monday. .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... 74
  • 75. Letters of Request Lists Using a list in your writing has certain advantages. A list eliminates words, provides white space, and is easy to read A list should: • be introduced by a colon (:) • be indented • be marked by numbers (useful for referring back to), letters, or bullets • fit grammatically with the introduction • have grammatically parallel structures • contain related ideas • use verbs, if possible 75
  • 76. Examples Notice how the following paragraph becomes easier to read when it uses a list. As part of the new development plan, the Saudi Aramco Medical Services Organization will allow patients registered at the Al-Hasa Health Center and the ‘Udhailiyah Clinic to have certain procedures done at local private hospitals. This new policy will allow patients to schedule earlier appointments. It will also allow them to choose their own doctors and use hospitals in Al-Hasa. As part of the new development plan, the Saudi Aramco Medical Services Organization will allow patients registered at the Al-Hasa Health Center and the ‘Udhailiyah Clinic to have certain procedures done at local private hospitals. This new policy will allow patients to: • schedule earlier appointments • choose their own doctors • use hospitals in Al-Hasa 76
  • 77. Letters of Request The following examples show ways in which a list can be organized. At the meeting, we discussed proposals to: • nominate Fahad Al-Shammary for the Employee-of-the-Year Award • remodel the research lab to accommodate the new equipment • organize a special in-service day for all training coordinators At the meeting, we discussed: • nominating Fahad Al-Shammary for the Employee-of-the-Year Award • remodeling the research lab to accommodate the new equipment • organizing a special in-service day for all training coordinators At the meeting, the following decisions were made: • Fahad Al-Shammary would be nominated for the Employee-of-the- Year Award • the research lab would be remodeled to accommodate the new equipment • a special in-service day would be organized for all training Coordinators 77
  • 78. Because of the staff changes in our department, you will now: • monitor all contract employees • prepare the end-of-month financial report • coordinate with the Accounting Department for next year's budget Because of the staff changes in our department, your new duties include: • monitoring all contract employees • preparing the end-of-month financial report • coordinating with the Accounting Department for next year's budget 78
  • 79. Case Study 21 Writing Activity Situation: You are scheduled to take leave in a few weeks, but you have found out that you need more leave time. Write a letter to your supervisor requesting additional leave days. Your letter should include: • the dates that you are currently due to take leave • the number of extra days of leave that you need • the new beginning and ending dates of your extended leave • a convincing reason for your request ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 79
  • 80. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 80
  • 81. 81
  • 82. Case Study 22 Writing Activity Situation: You are the superintendent of the Power Distribution Division of the Yanbu’ Refinery. Your safety engineer will retire in four months, and you need to replace him. Since you must maintain a high standard of safety in the plant, you want to find someone who is well-qualified. Write a letter to the plant manager requesting that he hire a safety engineer. Support your request with convincing reasons. Your letter should include: • the qualifications and experience the safety engineer should have • the date he should arrive • the reason why he should arrive by this date • any other necessary details ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 82
  • 83. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 83
  • 84. 84
  • 85. Case Study 23 Writing Activity Read the memo below and write the letter requested. Your letter should include: • one or two reasons for demolishing the buildings • a deadline • the specific buildings to be demolished (name or number them) TO: Munir Al-Jishi FROM: Abdullah Al-Qudaihi DATE: March 8, 200X SUBJECT: Demolition of buildings in Ras Tanura Please write a letter for the superintendent's signature to Community Services Department to arrange with Al-Ghamdi Contracting Company to demolish and remove four old buildings located east of the gas station in RasTanura. This work should be done immediately under contract Al-75/200X. Thanks. 85
  • 86. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 86
  • 87. 87
  • 88. Case Study 24 Writing Activity Write a letter to your supervisor requesting that you be assigned a parking space. Only employees with a very good justification are assigned parking spaces. Your explanation will have to be convincing. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 88
  • 89. 89
  • 90. Case Study 25 Writing Activity Write a letter to your supervisor requesting your own printer. Your unit has two printers which are available to everyone in the department. You need to explain why you need your own printer. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 90
  • 91. Granting a Request 91
  • 92. Letters of Request Example Letter Granting a Request 92
  • 93. Preparing to Write Useful Vocabulary and Structures Your request (to do something) has been approved. Your request to send a technician has been approved. Your request to add five days to your leave has been approved. Your request (for something) has been approved. Your request for two petroleum engineers has been approved. Your request for a new computer has been approved. I agree to your request (to do something/for something). I agree to nominate two employees for the annual award. I agree to provide you with a new computer. I am pleased to inform you that your request (for something/to do something) has been approved. I am pleased to inform you that your request for a printer has been approved. I am pleased to inform you that your request to develop a course for safety inspectors has been approved. 93
  • 94. Case Study 26 Pretend that you are a supervisor, and grant the following requests. 1 I would like to transfer to the Drilling and Workover Department. .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... 2 May I extend my vacation by two extra days? .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... 3 Could you enroll me in the Business Writing Workshop? .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... 4 I request that my work station be moved because I don't like sitting next to the exit. .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... 5 We request that you buy a color photocopier for our department. .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... 94
  • 95. Case Study 27 Writing Activity Situation: You are a supervisor. You receive a letter from an employee requesting extra leave days. Answer the letter and grant the request. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 95
  • 96. 96
  • 97. Case Study 28 Writing Activity Situation: You are the manager of Yanbu’ Refinery. You receive a letter from Power Distribution Division requesting that you hire a safety engineer. Answer the letter and grant the request. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 97
  • 98. 98
  • 99. Denying a Request Checklist 99
  • 100. Example Letter Denying a Request 100
  • 101. Letters of Request Preparing to Write Useful Vocabulary and Structures Your request (to do something/for something) has been denied. Your request to send a technician has been denied. Your request for a new computer has been denied. Your request (to do something/for something) has not been approved at this time. Your request for two petroleum engineers has not been approved at this time. Your request for a new computer has not been approved at this time. I am sorry to tell you that your request (to do something) has not been approved. I am sorry to tell you that your request for a printer has not been approved. I am sorry to tell you that your request for a computer has not been approved. After careful consideration, I have decided not to grant your request (for something/to do something). After careful consideration, I have decided not to grant your request for additional leave days. After careful consideration, I have decided not to grant your request to transfer to another division. Unfortunately, I cannot approve your request (to do something/for something). Unfortunately, I cannot approve your request to move to a new office. Unfortunately, I cannot approve your request for a change to the contract. I regret that it isn’t possible for me to approve your request (to do something/for something). I regret that it isn’t possible for me to approve your request to change offices. I regret that it isn’t possible for me to approve your request for medical leave. I am afraid that I cannot grant your request (for something/to do something). I am afraid that I cannot grant your request for a new printer. I am afraid that I cannot grant your request to move to Ras Tanura. 101
  • 102. Case Study 29 Write a sentence denying each of the requests below. Vary the way you deny the requests. 1 May I extend my leave by five days? .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... 2 I would like to transfer to the Ras Tanura Operations Division. .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... 3 Could you please develop a safety course for forklift operators in Abqaiq? .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... 4 I request that you enroll employee #159652 in the Business Writing Workshop. .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... 5 Please allow me to attend the course for maintenance foremen in Jiddah. .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... 6 I request that you assign two foremen to the Yanbu’ Refinery. .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... 102
  • 103. Letters of Complaint Making a Complaint 103
  • 104. Letters of Complaint 104
  • 105. Case Study 30 Situation: Your department recently received new computers from Information Technology (IT). Now the computers are not working properly. Write a letter of complaint about your problem to the Group Leader, IT Customer Care. (You can decide what the exact problem is.) Plan your letter below. 105
  • 106. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 106
  • 107. Responding to a Complaint 107
  • 108. Letters of Complaint 108
  • 109. Apologizing The news in a response to a complaint has two parts. First, you need to acknowledge the mistake and apologize for it. Then, you need to state the corrective action you will take to solve the problem. We apologize for sending you the wrong order. We are preparing the correct order, which will be shipped to you later today. I am sorry that you had difficulty with vehicle rental at the airport in Jiddah. I have spoken to the manager of our airport office, and he will make sure that this does not happen again. We are sorry for the error in your credit card statement. We have investigated the situation and have credited your account for the full amount of SR 1,765. I regret that the wrong Saudi Aramco form was sent to you. I enclose the correct form. 109
  • 110. Case Study 31 Write the news for a letter responding to each of the following complaints 1 I received poor service from a mechanic at your garage. .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... 2 My luggage was lost on a flight from Jiddah to Dhahran on your airline. .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... 3 The quality of food was poor at the Dhahran Dining Hall this morning. .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... 4 My office is located in West Park but I attend meetings at the Tower Building. There are not enough parking spaces near to the Tower Building. As a result, I am sometimes late for my meetings. .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... 5 Our department offers few training opportunities. As a result, our employees do not learn new skills or improve their existing skills. .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... 110
  • 111. Letters of Complaint Denying Responsibility 111
  • 112. Writing a Letter Making a Recommendation or Proposal 112
  • 113. Letters Making a Recommendation or Proposal 113
  • 114. Preparing to Write Recommend Propose I recommend (that) he install new air The manager of Community Services conditioners. has proposed (that) we close some of the gyms. I recommend installing new air The manager of Community Services conditioner. has proposed closing some of the gyms. Suggest I suggested (that) he be at the meeting on time. I suggested being at the meeting on time. NOTE: In sentences with recommend, suggest, or propose, the verb after (that) is always in the base form (e.g., install, be, or close), regardless of the subject. 114
  • 115. Case Study 32 Write a sentence that means the same as the previous one. 1. “Why don’t you order some new supplies?” she asked him. She suggested that _______________________________________________ 2. I said that I thought she should take a computer course. I recommended that ______________________________________________ 3. The doctor thought it would be a good idea for Ali to see a specialist. The doctor suggested that _________________________________________ 4. The plant foreman thinks that the department should provide more safety lectures. The plant foreman has proposed that the department ______________________________________________________________ 5. Mohammed thinks that Saudi Aramco should build a parking garage near the Tower Building. Mohammed recommends__________________________________________ 115
  • 116. Stating Your Recommendation I recommend that we install two window air-conditioning units in Building 663. I suggested that he take a vacation. The general manager of Training and Career Development has proposed that we hire English teachers from Australia. 116
  • 117. Case Study 33 Use the words recommend, suggest, or propose to make a recommendation for each of the situations below. 1. This classroom is too small for thirty students. _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 2. The morning break time is only fifteen minutes. _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 3. The employees need more computer training to do their jobs effectively. _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 4. There are no covered parking spaces next to the building. _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 5. Our unit’s safety record was not good last year. _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 117
  • 118. Supporting Your Recommendation When writing a recommendation letter, it’s important that you explain your ideas well enough to convince the reader to agree with you. You can do this by: • Providing facts and specific details • Providing examples • Referring to authorities 118
  • 119. Facts and Specific Details: Providing the reader with specific facts and details strengthens your recommendation. It adds weight to your argument and makes it harder to disagree with you. The reader will see that you have done your research and are not just speaking in general terms. 119
  • 120. Case Study 34 Give facts or details that support the recommendations below. 1. I propose that Saudi Aramco increase the number of flights between Dhahran and Jiddah on Wednesdays and Fridays. _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 2. I recommend that Saudi Aramco reduce the speed limit in residential areas on the main camp. _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 120
  • 121. Letters Making a Recommendation or Proposal “If” Sentences and Recommendations When explaining your ideas, “if” sentences can be useful when you are supporting your recommendation. Example: If Saudi Aramco reduced the speed limit in residential areas on camp from 65 kph to 40 kph, this would decrease the number of accidents and would offer more protection to any child who might run out into the road. 121
  • 122. Case Study 35 For each recommendation below, write an “if” sentence that will provide information to support the recommendation. 1. Saudi Aramco should increase the number of doctors in its clinics. _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 2. Saudi Aramco should pay all employees equally for equal work. _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 3. Saudi Aramco should offer more training programs. _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 122
  • 123. Supporting Your Recommendation by Using Examples of Similar Cases If you are aware of another case similar to the one you are explaining, you can use it as an example to support your recommendation. For example, if you are proposing that Saudi Aramco provide a monthly bonus (extra money) to employees who carpool or take the bus in order to reduce parking problems and the number of accidents, you can give information about another company that you are aware of that has done the same thing. You could write the following: In January 20XX, Company Z started a policy of monthly bonuses for all employees who rode the bus to work or carpooled. Within the first three months, the number of complaints filed with Community Services about parking problems dropped by 65 percent. In addition, the local police department reported that the number of traffic accidents was down by ten accidents a month. These improvements were a direct result of the increase in carpooling and bus riders due to the monthly bonus. If this could work so well for Company Z, it could surely do the same for Saudi Aramco. 123
  • 124. Case Study 36 Give examples that support the recommendations below. 1. I recommend that our department choose an Employee of the Month. _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 2. We would like to propose that your car rental company offer discounts to Saudi Aramco employees. _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 124
  • 125. Supporting Your Recommendation by Referring to Authorities An authority is an expert who can be relied on to give clear information and facts. For example, if you want to convince readers that using the Internet without an anti-virus program is not advisable, you might use an announcement from the Computer Security Administrator. Since he is an authority on computer security matters, most people would believe what he says. When referring to an authority, it is important that you refer to one that your reader(s) will believe. All Internet users should have anti-virus software installed on their computers. The Computer Security Administrator recently gave a presentation in which he explained all the dangers to your computer when you surf the Internet without proper protection for your computer. For example, hackers could steal your password and personal information. They could also install secret programs on your computer allowing them to use your computer without your knowledge. 125
  • 126. Letters Making a Recommendation or Proposal Chain of Events When explaining your recommendation, you need to explain the possible effects and the resulting benefits of it. This will make your reasoning clearer to the reader. Referring to Authorities Recommendation: Saudi Aramco should give cash bonuses to employees who carpool. Less traffic on the roads Decrease in exhaust fumes Fewer accidents and a faster ride to work due to the decrease in congestion Benefit: Benefit: Help protect the environment Safer for employees and less stressful Saudi Aramco should give cash bonuses to employees who carpool. This would result in less traffic on the roads, which would decrease the amount of exhaust fumes in the air and the number of accidents. It would also lead to less congestion, making the ride to work more pleasant. As a result of fewer cars on the roads, Saudi Aramco would protect both the environment and its employees, while also helping the employees to arrive at work with less stress. 126
  • 127. Case Study 37 Write a paragraph about the recommendation below. Explain the effects of the recommendation and the resulting benefits to the company. ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 127
  • 128. ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 128
  • 129. Letters Disagreeing with a Recommendation or Proposal 129
  • 130. Example Letter Disagreeing with a Recommendation or Proposal FACILITIES DEPARTMENT Box 2569, Riyadh Tel: 846-3987, Fax: 846-3988 March 27, 20XX RECOMMENDATION TO INSTALL AIR CONDITIONERS SUPERVISOR Riyadh Training Division Riyadh Reference: Your Letter March 25, 20XX Thanks Thank you for your recommendation to install two window air-conditioning units in and Building 663. Although we are always open to ideas for improving Saudi Aramco News facilities, we do not think that two window units would be the best solution for the AC problem in your building. In our experience, window units are less efficient than central ACs, they tend to Reason break down more often, and they do not usually work well in large, open And offices.They are also usually noisier. Details We agree that the air-conditioner needs to be repaired, and that is exactly what we will do. We have ordered the replacement parts needed to fix the central AC unit. These parts should arrive next week, and, after installation, your AC problems should be solved. Closing Please do not hesitate to contact me if you have any questions. M.B. AL-TOBAISHI, Manager Riyadh Facilities Department 130
  • 131. Example Letter Disagreeing with a Recommendation or Proposal DRILLING & WORKOVER DEPARTMENT Box 876, Riyadh Tel: 876-7426 July 2, 20XX POSSIBLE CLOSURE OF CAMP GYM SUPERVISOR Community Services Department Dhahran News I was surprised to hear that you are considering closing one of the gyms on the and main camp. As a resident of the main camp, I disagree with this proposal. All the Reas gyms are used regularly and are essential to Saudi Aramco’s health and safety on awareness campaign. I use the gym about four to five times a week. I also know many other camp Details residents who use the company gyms. If one of the gyms were closed, that would increase the number of people using the remaining gyms. As a result, those gyms would become overcrowded and inconvenient for all gym users. Saudi Aramco should encourage its employees to exercise regularly to stay fit. That is clearly in the company’s interest. Closing Saudi Aramco’s operations depend on its employees, and their health should be of the greatest importance. Therefore, I would encourage Community Services to keep all main camp gyms open for the benefit of Saudi Aramco and its employees. F.F. AL-QAHTANI, Engineer Drilling & Workover Department __________________________ 131
  • 132. Preparing to Write Useful Vocabulary and Structures Ways to State Your Disagreement Direct I strongly disagree with your recommendation to (....) I disagree with the proposal to (....) I do not think that (....) would be the best solution to this problem. Less Direct I am not sure that (....) is the right decision. I would like to express my concern about your proposal to (....) I have my doubts that your recommendation to (....) would lead to the desired results. 132
  • 133. Case Study 39 Read the situation below and write a letter disagreeing with the suggestion. Your department head has suggested that you would probably be the best employee to lead a new project in Haradh. This assignment will last two years. You have been living and working in Dhahran for the past five years. 133
  • 134. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 134
  • 135. Letters of Recommendation Based on Comparison 135
  • 136. Example Letter of Request TO: Khalid Al-Jabr FROM: Manager DATE: January 4, 20XX SUBJECT: Recommendation for Telephone I would like you to recommend one of the following two telephones for our department: the Meridian NT4X42 or the Nortrel T7316E. We will upgrade our telephones next month and need your recommendation by the end of this week. When writing your recommendation, we would like you to consider these features: handsfree, call forwarding, and conference calls. If you have any questions, please call me at 897-8798. 136
  • 137. Example Letter of Recommendation Based on Features DRILLING & WORKOVER DEPARTMENT Box 756, Dhahran Tel: 876-7426 August 24, 20XX RECOMMENDATION OF MERIDIAN NT4X42 MANAGER Drilling & Workover Dept. Dhahran I would recommend purchasing the Meridian NT4X42 telephone because it meets all of our department’s requirements. The handsfree feature allows users to carry on a telephone conversation while working on the computer. This is essential for our employees. The Nortel T7316E does not have this feature. Regarding the call forwarding feature, both have this capability, but only the Meridian NT4X42 allows users to activate the call forwarding feature from another telephone. Because our employees are often out of the office, this feature is essential. Both telephones have conference call features, unlike the existing system. The Nortel T7316E allows the user to set up a telephone call between one person and up to five others. In contrast, the Meridian NT4X42 allows only three people to be added to the call. This is the one feature where the Nortel T7316E is superior. However, it does not outweigh the handsfree and call forwarding features of the Meridian NT4X42. I hope that this clearly explains why I am recommending the Meridian NT4X42. If you have any other questions, please call me at 876-8464. KHALID AL-JABR, Systems Analyst Drilling & Workover Department ____________________________ 137
  • 138. Preparing to Write Useful Vocabulary and Structures • Both the Toyota and the Lexus have the most modern accessories. • The Toyota is cheaper than the Lexus. • The Toyota Camry costs SR 93,750, whereas the Lexus 400 costs SR 187,500. • The Toyota Camry costs less, but it requires more maintenance than the Lexus. • The Toyota Camry can be purchased from the dealer. However (On the other hand), the Lexus must be ordered from the factory. • The Toyota and the Lexus are both reliable cars. • Even though (Although) the Lexus has more accessories than the Toyota, it is not necessary for our employees to have a sunroof and CD player in a company car. • The Toyota has fewer options than the Lexus, but the much cheaper price and high reliability outweigh this factor. • The Toyota has fewer options. Nonetheless (Nevertheless), overall it is the better car for our department to purchase. 138
  • 139. Letters Informing of a Problem Checklist Use this checklist to help organize a letter informing of a problem. News: Tell the reader what the problem is and how serious it is. Reason: Briefly state why this problem has occured. What are the causes of the problem? Details: Explain the details of the problem. • What are the effects of the problem? • Who is affected by it? Closing: Make sure the reader knows exactly what to do if he has any questions or needs more information from you. Note: You are not recommending a solution. The solution will be decided by the reader. 139
  • 140. Example Letter Informing of a Problem DHAHRAN CLINIC Box 456, Dhahran Tel: 487-6248, Fax: 487-6258 March 25, 200X PROBLEM AT DHAHRAN CLINIC MANAGER Employee Relations Dhahran A continuing problem at the Dhahran Clinic is an excessive number of News no-shows, which is having a very serious effect on the operation of the clinic. In the past eighteen months, we have experienced a 150 percent increase in the number of no-shows. Reason There appear to be two main reasons why so many patients fail to show up for their clinic appointments. First, a lot of women who make appointments are unable to come because their husbands cannot get away from work to take them. When this happens, many of the women don’t call to cancel their appointments. Second, some patients forget that they have appointments. Details Due to the increase in no-shows, it has become almost impossible to manage a smooth flow of patients through the clinic. Sometimes the doctors have to wait for patients who never arrive, and at other times the clinic is crowded because of the large number of drop-ins. The number of drop-ins has increased because so many patients cannot get appointments. As a result, doctors, staff, and patients have all become upset. Closing We are clearly facing a serious problem, and we are interested in working with you to solve it. If you have any questions about the situation, please do not hesitate to contact me. T.A. AL-SUBAIEE, Director Dhahran Clinic 140
  • 141. 141