Researcher: Zi Siang See
Production Framework for the Combination of HDRI
and Spherical Panorama towards Lean Approach
Ema...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Research Presentation
1) Introduction (VR360)
a. Aim, Objectives, Research Problem
b. Literature ...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Professional Background:
Industrial involvements since 2003/04
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Industria...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Work: McDonald’s Malaysia
Creative: NagaDDB
Operation: Quality Ingredient Story
Creative Imaging:...
Researcher: Zi Siang SeeDigital Imaging (DI) image manipulation for advertising usage, high technical finishing | Presente...
Researcher: Zi Siang SeeDigital Imaging (D() for Advertising Visuals| Presenter: Zi Siang See
Researcher: Zi Siang SeeAdvertising visual | Presenter: Zi Siang See
Researcher: Zi Siang SeeDigital Imaging (D() for Advertising Visuals| Presenter: Zi Siang See
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Researcher: Zi Siang SeeObject Virtual Reality (Object VR) | Presenter: Zi Siang See
Researcher: Zi Siang SeeVirtual Reality 360 (VR360) | Presenter: Zi Siang See
Virtual Reality 360 (VR360)
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Introduction
Multimedia (Combination of Elements)
• Text
• Image
• Sound
• Video
• Animation Indu...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Introduction: HDRI & Spherical Panorama
Obstacles and
Issues
• High Dynamic Range Imaging (HDRI)
...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Figure: combined luminance (EV) range being covered by HDRI outcome.
Darker images
(luminance) Br...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
• Possible major obstacles and issues of HDRI that involves multiple
exposures can include ghosti...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Introduction: HDRI
• ‘The HDR Photographic Survey’ by Fairchild (2007) has
demonstrated HDRI repr...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Figure: Multirow production process to photographically create a spherical imagery
Processing (St...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
• Microsoft launched a feature called the ‘Street Side’ in Bing Map on
November 2010 in competiti...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
• Major difficulty for spherical panorama reproduction may occur, this
can include limited dynami...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Research Presentation
1) Introduction (VR360)
a. Research Aim, Objectives
b. Literature Review an...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Research Design and Method
Technical VariablesUnknown Variables
Review of Literature and Related ...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Research Design and Method:
Lean Thinking:
What and how is the production framework of lean appro...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Research Design and Method:
High Dynamic Range Imaging (HDRI)
HDRI Technical
Configurations• Obse...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Research Design and Method:
Spherical Panorama
Spherical
Panorama
Technical
Configurations• Obser...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
• Related studies (Felinto et al 2012, Gawthrop 2007, Brown and
Lowe 2006; Schulz, 2012) have sho...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Research Presentation
1) Introduction (VR360)
a. Research Aim, Objectives
b. Literature Review an...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Data Collection and Analysis Progress
Technical VariablesUnknown Variables
Review of Literature a...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Data Collection & Analysis:
High Dynamic Range Imaging (HDRI)
Measuring Dynamic Range of Instrume...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Data Collection & Analysis:
High Dynamic Range Imaging (HDRI)
Digital
Negative
(RAW)
Observations...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
High Dynamic Range Imaging (HDRI) with single acquisition
Figure: HDRI by retrieving extended hig...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
High Dynamic Range Imaging (HDRI) with single acquisition
Figure: HDRI by retrieving extended hig...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
(a) Conventional LDR Photo (b) Proposed HDRI from single acquisition (c) HDRI from Multiple Expos...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
(a) Conventional LDR Photo
(b) Proposed HDRI produced
from single acquisition
Can have moderate e...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
-2EV +2EV0EV
(a) LDR (b) HDRI, single
acquisition
(c) HDRI, multiple
exposures
-2EV +2EV0EV
Propo...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Ghosting effect /issue of HDRI
reproduction from source of
multiple exposures
HDRI reproduction f...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Outcome: HDRI with single acquisition using digital negative
• Reduced production processes and i...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Data Collection and Analysis Progress
Technical VariablesUnknown Variables
Review of Literature a...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
multiple angles of multirow configuration,
covering horizontal, zenith and nadir angles.
(However...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Parallax error
Nadir angle difficulty
(unwanted imagery content )
Observations: Spherical Panoram...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
(a) Spherical Panorama
(nadir angle difficulty resulting
visual abnormality is a mistake
that req...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
• Need to have higher luminance (dynamic range) in multiple angles.
• Suggested to avoid parallax...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Outcome: Spherical Panorama Multirow Configuration Redesign
• Redesign that aims to reduce mistak...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Data Collection and Analysis Progress
Technical VariablesUnknown Variables
Review of Literature a...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Total images required = 72 images (simulated scenario)
• 8 angles required (image sequence)
• 9 e...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Total images required = 11 images (sampling scenario)
• 11 angles required (image sequence)
• 1 e...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Production Framework: HDRI and Spherical Panorama
multiple angles facilitated by HDRI required
fo...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Observations: HDRI and Spherical Panorama
(a) LDR photo image (b) HDRI from single source acquisi...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Production Framework: HDRI and Spherical Panorama
multiple angles facilitated by HDRI required
fo...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
HDRI ghosting effect
using multiple
exposures method.
HDRI reproduction
from single acquisition,
...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Production Framework: HDRI and Spherical Panorama
multiple angles facilitated by HDRI required
fo...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Multiple angles of multirow configuration
(from the proposed production framework)
with reduced e...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Production Framework: HDRI and Spherical Panorama
multiple angles facilitated by HDRI required
fo...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Inconsistent HDRI local adaptation for different angles, for spherical panorama
(multiple exposur...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Research Presentation
1) Introduction (VR360)
a. Research Aim, Objectives
b. Literature Review an...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Elements from Lean Approach HDRI Spherical Panorama
Waste: mistakes which requires
rectification
...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Field Implementation: Corporate communications image for advertising visual (SP Setia, 2013)
Fiel...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Discover MINI
Enter at your own risk of losing control
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Conclusion
Proposed
Production
Framework
Before
optimization
The proposed production framework to...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
• Zi Siang See, Adrian David Cheok. (2014) Virtual Reality 360 Interactive Panorama Reproduction ...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Recommendations and Suggestions
for Future Research
• Explore production framework adaptation wit...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Prototype (program name): See Through 360
• Prototype configuration design: See Through 360
• Cap...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Prototype (program name): See Through 360
• Prototype configuration design: See Through 360
• Cap...
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Thank you
Research Discussion
Research Track
www.zisiangsee.com/research
Researcher: Zi Siang See
Recommendations and Suggestions
for Future Research
• Augmented Reality Process using Using Spher...
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Virtual Reality (VR360): Production Framework for the Combination of High Dynamic Range Imaging (HDRI) and Spherical Panorama towards Lean Approach

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The research study develops a production framework for the combination of high dynamic range imaging (HDRI) and spherical panorama. Spherical panorama imagery in digital can virtually provide interactive and wider viewing coverage to the viewers however exposure range can be a major difficulty for reproducing sufficient luminance from the high contrast real-world scene. Imaging variables caused by obstacles and issues can occur during the production process when producing spherical panorama facilitated with HDRI resulting inaccurate image reproduction of the location-based subject. Towards lean approach in the possible ideal situation, production processes and imaging variables can be reduced to minimal as for the occurrence of technical obstacles and issues, hence leading to possible improved photographic image reproduction with least visual abnormalities. The research takes architectural context as case study subject of location-based content for data collection and analysis conducted during the production framework development.

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  • Virtual Reality (VR360): Production Framework for the Combination of High Dynamic Range Imaging (HDRI) and Spherical Panorama towards Lean Approach

    1. 1. Researcher: Zi Siang See Production Framework for the Combination of HDRI and Spherical Panorama towards Lean Approach Email (University Tunku Abdul Rahman) seezs@utar.edu.my Email (Industrial collaboration): zisiang@reina.com.my University Tunku Abdul Rahman Faculty of Creative Industries Centre for Immersive Technology and Creativity Department of Multimedia Design and Animation Centre of Immersive Technology and Creativity Department of Multimedia Design and Animation Research Talk: Zi Siang See Virtual Reality 360 (VR360) collaborators from
    2. 2. Researcher: Zi Siang See Research Presentation 1) Introduction (VR360) a. Aim, Objectives, Research Problem b. Literature Review and Related Work 2) Research Design and Method 3) Data Collection and Analysis 4) Discussion and Conclusion collaborators from
    3. 3. Researcher: Zi Siang See Professional Background: Industrial involvements since 2003/04 Researcher: Zi Siang See Industrial Specialization: Creative and Advertising Imaging Research Area: High Dynamic Range Imaging (HDRI) Spherical Panorama Augmented Reality (AR) Creative and Advertising Processes
    4. 4. Researcher: Zi Siang See
    5. 5. Researcher: Zi Siang See Work: McDonald’s Malaysia Creative: NagaDDB Operation: Quality Ingredient Story Creative Imaging: Reina Imaging
    6. 6. Researcher: Zi Siang SeeDigital Imaging (DI) image manipulation for advertising usage, high technical finishing | Presenter: Zi Siang See
    7. 7. Researcher: Zi Siang SeeDigital Imaging (D() for Advertising Visuals| Presenter: Zi Siang See
    8. 8. Researcher: Zi Siang SeeAdvertising visual | Presenter: Zi Siang See
    9. 9. Researcher: Zi Siang SeeDigital Imaging (D() for Advertising Visuals| Presenter: Zi Siang See
    10. 10. Researcher: Zi Siang See
    11. 11. Researcher: Zi Siang SeeObject Virtual Reality (Object VR) | Presenter: Zi Siang See
    12. 12. Researcher: Zi Siang SeeVirtual Reality 360 (VR360) | Presenter: Zi Siang See Virtual Reality 360 (VR360)
    13. 13. Researcher: Zi Siang See Introduction Multimedia (Combination of Elements) • Text • Image • Sound • Video • Animation Industries • Creative and advertising • Corporate communications visuals • Architectural imaging • Cultural heritage preservation • Scientific achieve Research - Virtual Reality 360 (VR360) 1) High Dynamic Range Imaging (HDRI) 2) Spherical Panorama
    14. 14. Researcher: Zi Siang See Introduction: HDRI & Spherical Panorama Obstacles and Issues • High Dynamic Range Imaging (HDRI) • Spherical Panorama Towards Lean Approach • Inaccurate reproduction of location-based subjects in image • Architectural context as case study subject of location-based content for data collection and analysis Proposed Production Framework • To have real-world likelihood photographic outcome reproduced by HDRI and spherical panorama with reduced imaging variables caused by various obstacles and issues. production processes
    15. 15. Researcher: Zi Siang See Figure: combined luminance (EV) range being covered by HDRI outcome. Darker images (luminance) Brighter images (luminance) Introduction: HDRI • High Dynamic Range Imaging (HDRI) in photography technique has a goal to increase the dynamic range resulting an improved luminance reproduced in shadow and highlight areas (Reinhard et al, 2010; Debevec and Malik, 1997; Fairchild, 2007), usually by combining multiple exposures consist of darker and brighter images.
    16. 16. Researcher: Zi Siang See • Possible major obstacles and issues of HDRI that involves multiple exposures can include ghosting effect and misalignment issue due to inconsistent acquisitions (Reinhard et al, 2010) Figure: HDRI with visual abnormalities (by Reina). Introduction: HDRI Multiple exposures for HDRISingle exposure (LDR) Visual abnormality
    17. 17. Researcher: Zi Siang See Introduction: HDRI • ‘The HDR Photographic Survey’ by Fairchild (2007) has demonstrated HDRI reproduction may require massive amount of multiple exposures, however may speculate to have production wastage or technical redundancy. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (a) (b) Massive amount of multiple exposures, may have wastage or redundancy. For example, some image sequences have exceed the need of constructing HDRI. Figure: example taken from ‘The HDR Photographic Survey’ by Fairchild (2007)
    18. 18. Researcher: Zi Siang See Figure: Multirow production process to photographically create a spherical imagery Processing (Stitching) Multirow setup, to have multiple photographs covering 360 degrees. Spherical panorama rendering Introduction: Spherical Panorama • Spherical panorama photography imaging technique aims to acquire wider panoramic visibility in image usually unable to be acquired from the conventional single angle photograph image (Benosman and Kang, 2001; Brown and Lowe, 2006; Felinto et al, 2012), this can be arranged by combining multiple angle images.
    19. 19. Researcher: Zi Siang See • Microsoft launched a feature called the ‘Street Side’ in Bing Map on November 2010 in competition to Google Map with ‘Street View’ featuring spherical panorama interactivity, however numerous content published have shown high amount of visible imaging errors and insufficient of dynamic range. Introduction: Spherical Panorama Figure: (a) “Street View” feature in Google Map. (b) “Street Side” feature in Microsoft Bing Map. (a) (b) Visual abnormalityVisual abnormality
    20. 20. Researcher: Zi Siang See • Major difficulty for spherical panorama reproduction may occur, this can include limited dynamic range reproduced and parallax error (Brown and Lowe, 2006; Felinto et al, 2012) Figure: panoramic imagery with visual abnormality (by Reina). Introduction: Spherical Panorama Visual abnormality Limited dynamic range Parallax error
    21. 21. Researcher: Zi Siang See Research Presentation 1) Introduction (VR360) a. Research Aim, Objectives b. Literature Review and Related Work 2) Research Design and Method 3) Data Collection and Analysis 4) Discussion and Conclusion
    22. 22. Researcher: Zi Siang See Research Design and Method Technical VariablesUnknown Variables Review of Literature and Related Work Research Design and Method Data collection and analysis with experiment samplings HDRI Spherical Panorama Study: Reduction of Imaging Variables (Obstacles, Issues) Study: Reduction of Imaging Variables (Obstacles, Issues) Optimization towards Lean Approach HDRI and Spherical Panorama Propose Production Framework: Combination HDRI and Spherical Panorama Discussion and Conclusion 1 2 3
    23. 23. Researcher: Zi Siang See Research Design and Method: Lean Thinking: What and how is the production framework of lean approach in the context for the combination of HDRI and spherical panorama? • Value: Value of an outcome (or a product) specified by target user • Value Stream: Value-creating activities to be remained and waste to be reduced • Flow: Flow of production processes for possible rearrangement • Pull: Any new value to be refined according to new requirements (continuously) • Perfection: Effort of continuous improvement and study According to Lean Thinking (Womack and Jones, 1996)
    24. 24. Researcher: Zi Siang See Research Design and Method: High Dynamic Range Imaging (HDRI) HDRI Technical Configurations• Observe and study the obstacles and issues. • Study: The process of multiple exposures for HDRI (Debevec and Malik, 1997; Reinhard et al, 2010; Fairchild, 2007; Larson, 1997). • Quantify the dynamic range for observation (Reinhard et al, 2010; Imatest, 2012; Gardner, 2012). • Exploration attempts to verify the potential dynamic range can be extended by digital negative – RAW (Hill, 2010; Gakken Co, 2008). • Produce samplings of HDRI during the data collection and analysis process for location-based images using architectural context as case study subject. • Industrial convention DSLR system (D3x) • Quantify and verify the latitude of the projected dynamic range covered by the RAW image file of D3X at ISO100 • Observe usable dynamic range observed (pixel value reading) -2EV (expanded) 0EV (neutral) +2EV (expanded)
    25. 25. Researcher: Zi Siang See Research Design and Method: Spherical Panorama Spherical Panorama Technical Configurations• Observe and study the obstacles and issues. • Considerations about the spherical panorama photographic production process (Felinto et al, 2012; Guan et al, 2009; Hoshi and Kato, 2006; Andrews, 2003). • Study: The multirow configuration for spherical panorama production processes that is to acquire and combine multiple angle images (Brown and Lowe, 2006; Chen, 1995; Gawthrop, 2007). • Produce samplings of spherical panorama during the data collection and analysis process for location- based images using architectural context as case study subject. • Industrial convention DSLR system (D3x) • 16mm Fish-eye, Manfrotto 303SPH for multirow setup. Multirow setup, to have multiple angle image sequence covering 360 degrees. 1 x Zenith Angle 6 x Horizontal Angle(s) 1 x Nadir Angle
    26. 26. Researcher: Zi Siang See • Related studies (Felinto et al 2012, Gawthrop 2007, Brown and Lowe 2006; Schulz, 2012) have shown that photographic combination for HDRI and spherical panorama can be possible, however conditionally tolerating with various obstacles and issues as reported in previous literature and work. Spherical Panorama Multirow HDRI requires multiple exposures -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4 (EV) VR360: HDRI & Spherical Panorama (Existing Production Processes, according related studies)
    27. 27. Researcher: Zi Siang See Research Presentation 1) Introduction (VR360) a. Research Aim, Objectives b. Literature Review and Related Work 2) Research Design and Method 3) Data Collection and Analysis 4) Discussion and Conclusion
    28. 28. Researcher: Zi Siang See Data Collection and Analysis Progress Technical VariablesUnknown Variables Review of Literature and Related Work Research Design and Method Data collection and analysis with experiment samplings HDRI Spherical Panorama Study: Reduction of Imaging Variables (Obstacles, Issues) Study: Reduction of Imaging Variables (Obstacles, Issues) Optimization towards Lean Approach HDRI and Spherical Panorama Propose Production Framework: Combination HDRI and Spherical Panorama Discussion and Conclusion 1
    29. 29. Researcher: Zi Siang See Data Collection & Analysis: High Dynamic Range Imaging (HDRI) Measuring Dynamic Range of Instrument Used • Quantify and verify the latitude of the projected dynamic range covered by the digital negative of instrument used (D3X at ISO100). • Different RAW processors tested (native, extended dynamic range). pixelvalue Sequence of exposure(s) RAW Processor: C1Pro RAW Processor: ACR RAW Processor: ViewNX
    30. 30. Researcher: Zi Siang See Data Collection & Analysis: High Dynamic Range Imaging (HDRI) Digital Negative (RAW) Observations • The study implies that extending high dynamic range is possible with digital negative image by using single acquisition as shown in the initial result of measuring dynamic range with instruments used. • Similar to the idea brought up by Debevec and Malik (1997) about extending dynamic range can be possible from conventional single film processing - multiple scanning. • The finding in the study about native EV of dynamic range reproduction was observed to have similar approximated usable exposure values with the RAW produced by ISO100 according to the test by Rehm (2009) with the same camera equipment tested using calibrated Stouffer Step Wedge. • Extending Dynamic Range from Digital Negative (RAW), observation. • (-2 EV and +2 EV, resulting an increment of 8.5EV to 12.5EV) Extended Dynamic Range Data taken from RAW Processor: C1Pro • 8.5EV, contrast ratio 362:1 • 12.5EV, contrast ratio 5793:1 2f-stopContrast ratio =
    31. 31. Researcher: Zi Siang See High Dynamic Range Imaging (HDRI) with single acquisition Figure: HDRI by retrieving extended high dynamic range from digital negative image Blended result, HDRI expanded from single source of RAW. Proposed Method and Apparatus: monotonic mask from RGB channel monotonic mask from RGB channel (inverted) masking on the extended (-2EV) layer on top of the neutral (0EV) layer masking on the extended (+2EV) layer on top of the neutral (0EV) layer RAW processing, EV parameter specified -2EV (expanded) 0EV (neutral) +2EV (expanded) Apply Image: 50% opacity on top of each layer. (can be any sequence) Example of single exposure required for this process Global or local HDRI reproduction. For local HDRI, blurred mask can be applied (optional) Global or local HDRI reproduction. For local HDRI, blurred mask can be applied (optional)
    32. 32. Researcher: Zi Siang See High Dynamic Range Imaging (HDRI) with single acquisition Figure: HDRI by retrieving extended high dynamic range from digital negative image Blended result, HDRI expanded from single source of RAW. Proposed Method and Apparatus: Single Acquisition (RAW) Process: Extending Dynamic Range Extended +2EV Original 0EV Extended -2EV HDRI from single source Figure: HDRI by retrieving extended high dynamic range from digital negative image (simplified production process illustration)
    33. 33. Researcher: Zi Siang See (a) Conventional LDR Photo (b) Proposed HDRI from single acquisition (c) HDRI from Multiple Exposures -2EV +2EV0EV Proposed HDRI using single acquisition (HDRI extended from RAW) Data Collection & Analysis: High Dynamic Range Imaging (HDRI) HDRI (Multiple exposures) Sampling(s)
    34. 34. Researcher: Zi Siang See (a) Conventional LDR Photo (b) Proposed HDRI produced from single acquisition Can have moderate extended dynamic range reproduced, least production processes and free from imaging errors (zero visual abnormality). (c) HDRI reproduced from multiple exposures technique Observations: HDRI Visual abnormalities
    35. 35. Researcher: Zi Siang See -2EV +2EV0EV (a) LDR (b) HDRI, single acquisition (c) HDRI, multiple exposures -2EV +2EV0EV Proposed HDRI produced from single acquisition (HDRI extended from RAW) Proposed HDRI produced from single acquisition (HDRI extended from RAW) Data Collection & Analysis: High Dynamic Range Imaging (HDRI) (a) LDR (b) HDRI, single acquisition (c) HDRI, multiple exposures Sampling(s) Sampling(s)
    36. 36. Researcher: Zi Siang See Ghosting effect /issue of HDRI reproduction from source of multiple exposures HDRI reproduction from source of single acquisition where dynamic range can be extended from Digital Negative (RAW) (achieve result of reduced imaging errors while needing least production processes and time) Moving objects, plants, weather Observation: HDRI (Obstacles and Issues)
    37. 37. Researcher: Zi Siang See Outcome: HDRI with single acquisition using digital negative • Reduced production processes and imaging variables. • Avoided visual abnormalities (issues from multiple exposures). • Imagery features can be preserved moderately in high contrast scene. Data Collection & Analysis: Discussion: HDRI Single Acquisition (RAW) Process: Extending Dynamic Range Extended +2EV Original 0EV Extended -2EV HDRI from single source HDRI that requires single acquisition Proposed Production Process DesignExisting Process HDRI that requires multiple exposures -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4 (EV)
    38. 38. Researcher: Zi Siang See Data Collection and Analysis Progress Technical VariablesUnknown Variables Review of Literature and Related Work Research Design and Method Data collection and analysis with experiment samplings HDRI Spherical Panorama Study: Reduction of Imaging Variables (Obstacles, Issues) Study: Reduction of Imaging Variables (Obstacles, Issues) Optimization towards Lean Approach HDRI and Spherical Panorama Propose Production Framework: Combination HDRI and Spherical Panorama Discussion and Conclusion 2
    39. 39. Researcher: Zi Siang See multiple angles of multirow configuration, covering horizontal, zenith and nadir angles. (However having nadir angle difficulty) Data Collection & Analysis: Spherical Panorama Sampling(s)
    40. 40. Researcher: Zi Siang See Parallax error Nadir angle difficulty (unwanted imagery content ) Observations: Spherical Panorama (cubic projection) Insufficient dynamic range Sampling(s)
    41. 41. Researcher: Zi Siang See (a) Spherical Panorama (nadir angle difficulty resulting visual abnormality is a mistake that requires rectification) (b) Spherical Panorama (post-processing correction) Observations: Spherical Panorama (rectification required) Visual abnormalities after post processing correction (manual image manipulation) Sampling(s)
    42. 42. Researcher: Zi Siang See • Need to have higher luminance (dynamic range) in multiple angles. • Suggested to avoid parallax error & ghosting effect (acquisition) Critical consideration • Nadir angle difficulty (if rectification required?) • Consistency of white balance and exposures in multiple angles. (a) (b) Post Processing Correction (Manual Correction Required) Consistency white balance Is critical for the process Observation: Spherical Panorama (Obstacles and Issues)
    43. 43. Researcher: Zi Siang See Outcome: Spherical Panorama Multirow Configuration Redesign • Redesign that aims to reduce mistake that requires rectification • Redesign that can reproduce the nadir (bottom) angle adequately from the original source of the location-based subject in image. Data Collection & Analysis: Discussion: Spherical Panorama Multirow with reduced obstacles and issues Proposed Production Process DesignExisting Process Multirow with various obstacles and issues
    44. 44. Researcher: Zi Siang See Data Collection and Analysis Progress Technical VariablesUnknown Variables Review of Literature and Related Work Research Design and Method Data collection and analysis with experiment samplings HDRI Spherical Panorama Study: Reduction of Imaging Variables (Obstacles, Issues) Study: Reduction of Imaging Variables (Obstacles, Issues) Optimization towards Lean Approach HDRI and Spherical Panorama Propose Production Framework: Combination HDRI and Spherical Panorama Discussion and Conclusion 3
    45. 45. Researcher: Zi Siang See Total images required = 72 images (simulated scenario) • 8 angles required (image sequence) • 9 exposures required for each angle Spherical Panorama configuration covering the immersive 360 degrees. • 8 angles required (image sequence) HDRI that requires multiple exposures • 9 exposures required for each angle -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4 (EV) Combination of HDRI and Spherical Panorama (Existing Production Process, according related studies) Figure: combination of HDRI and spherical panorama, existing production processes.
    46. 46. Researcher: Zi Siang See Total images required = 11 images (sampling scenario) • 11 angles required (image sequence) • 1 exposure (RAW) required for each angle Figure: Proposed production framework towards lean approach for the combination of HDRI and spherical panorama according to previous studies and related works. HDRI that requires single source acquisition • 1 physical exposure required for each angle (Extended dynamic range -2EV and +2EV can be reproduced from RAW processing) Spherical panorama configuration covering the immersive 360 degrees. • 11 angles required (image sequence) Single Acquisition (RAW) Process: Extending Dynamic Range Extended +2EV Original 0EV Extended -2EV HDRI from single source Combination of HDRI and Spherical Panorama (Proposed Production Framework towards Lean Approach)
    47. 47. Researcher: Zi Siang See Production Framework: HDRI and Spherical Panorama multiple angles facilitated by HDRI required for producing the spherical panorama (zero visual abnormality) Successful sampling(s)
    48. 48. Researcher: Zi Siang See Observations: HDRI and Spherical Panorama (a) LDR photo image (b) HDRI from single source acquisition (c) HDRI from multiple exposures Moderate extended high dynamic range, reduced overall production processes.
    49. 49. Researcher: Zi Siang See Production Framework: HDRI and Spherical Panorama multiple angles facilitated by HDRI required for producing the spherical panorama (zero visual abnormality) Successful sampling(s)
    50. 50. Researcher: Zi Siang See HDRI ghosting effect using multiple exposures method. HDRI reproduction from single acquisition, digital negative (RAW) visual abnormality is eliminated or avoided (for multiple angles required for spherical panorama) Observations: HDRI and Spherical Panorama
    51. 51. Researcher: Zi Siang See Production Framework: HDRI and Spherical Panorama multiple angles facilitated by HDRI required for producing the spherical panorama (zero visual abnormality) Successful sampling(s)
    52. 52. Researcher: Zi Siang See Multiple angles of multirow configuration (from the proposed production framework) with reduced error or mistakes that requires rectifications, including nadir angle reproduction. Observations: HDRI and Spherical Panorama Nadir Angle: Reproduction from the original location-based scene, minimal or no post-production correction required Sampling(s)
    53. 53. Researcher: Zi Siang See Production Framework: HDRI and Spherical Panorama multiple angles facilitated by HDRI required for producing the spherical panorama (zero visual abnormality) Successful sampling(s)
    54. 54. Researcher: Zi Siang See Inconsistent HDRI local adaptation for different angles, for spherical panorama (multiple exposures: 9 image sequences for each angle) Can produce consistent multiple angles of HDRI, for spherical panorama (single acquisition: extended high dynamic range from RAW) Observations: HDRI and Spherical Panorama Sampling(s) Sampling(s)
    55. 55. Researcher: Zi Siang See Research Presentation 1) Introduction (VR360) a. Research Aim, Objectives b. Literature Review and Related Work 2) Research Design and Method 3) Data Collection and Analysis 4) Discussion and Conclusion
    56. 56. Researcher: Zi Siang See Elements from Lean Approach HDRI Spherical Panorama Waste: mistakes which requires rectification Obstacle avoided (Ghosting, Misalignment) Obstacle minimized, minimal correction Waste: excessive productions objects or volume that remaindered as goods pile up Single acquisition, reduced storage and time Irrelevant Waste: processing steps which are actually not needed Single acquisition (instead of multiple) New multi angles configuration Waste: redundant human movements of production processes or transportation Less activity Faster production process Waste: waiting time for an processed materials to be used in the next process which has not been delivered in time Reduced to single acquisition (instead of multiple exposures) Single acquisition only from HDRI for each angle Waste: Production outcome which do not meet the needs according to the value defined by the end user or customer Moderate extended dynamic range limited to capability of DNG/RAW Avoided nadir error, geometrically accurate/reproduced Discussion: HDRI and Spherical Panorama Improvements made towards Lean Approach Table: Improvements with lean approach for the combination of HDRI and spherical panorama Updated reference: Lean Lexicon (The Lean Enterprise Institution, 2008) and Lean Thinking (Womack and Jones, 1996)
    57. 57. Researcher: Zi Siang See Field Implementation: Corporate communications image for advertising visual (SP Setia, 2013) Field Implementation
    58. 58. Researcher: Zi Siang See Discover MINI Enter at your own risk of losing control
    59. 59. Researcher: Zi Siang See Conclusion Proposed Production Framework Before optimization The proposed production framework towards lean approach has shown that the outcome of spherical panorama facilitated with HDRI can be reproduced towards improved photographic reproduction with least visual abnormalities. This is possible with reduced production processes, wastes, obstacles and issues.
    60. 60. Researcher: Zi Siang See • Zi Siang See, Adrian David Cheok. (2014) Virtual Reality 360 Interactive Panorama Reproduction Obstacles and Issues. Virtual Reality, Springer [indexed by SCOPUS] • Zi Siang See, Khairul Hazrin Hashim, Kamarulzaman Ab Aziz, Adrian David Cheok (work-in-progress). Spherical Panorama and High Dynamic Range Imaging: Lean Reproduction Approach. [Journal submission /review in progress] • Zi Siang See, Khairul Hazrin Hashim, Harold Thwaites, Lee Xia Sheng, Ooi Wooi Har. (2012). Retrieving Extended High Dynamic Range From Digital Negative Image - An Experiment On Architectural Photo Imaging. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Issue 68 August 2012, pp. 2158-2166. [indexed by EBSCO] • Zi Siang See, Lee Xia Sheng. (2011). Non-bias Architectural Image Archive using High Dynamic Range Approach. 2nd International Conference on Research and Innovation in Information Systems – 2011 (ICRIIS’11) [CD Proceedings], Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 23-24 November. [indexed by SCOPUS, IEEE Xplorer] • Zi Siang See. (2011). Non-bias Scientific Imaging Archive for Urban Morphology Research. Exchanging Views on How to Sustain Urban and Rural Environments in Aspects of Technology, Social and Ecology in Green Innovation Research Group (GIRG) [CD-ROM], Universiti Technologi Malaysia (UTM), Malaysia. Publications & Collaborations
    61. 61. Researcher: Zi Siang See Recommendations and Suggestions for Future Research • Explore production framework adaptation with new technologies available. • Collaboration with academic and field researchers. Figure: Mobile device (Android) featuring spherical panorama functionality. Technical areas of HDRI and spherical panorama are currently the industrial interests for digital equipment developers and multimedia content producers.
    62. 62. Researcher: Zi Siang See Prototype (program name): See Through 360 • Prototype configuration design: See Through 360 • Capability to acquire completeness of multiple angle images including horizontal, zenith and nadir. Figure: “See Through 360” prototype configuration customization, program funded by Reina Imaging (2014). (a) (b) (c)
    63. 63. Researcher: Zi Siang See Prototype (program name): See Through 360 • Prototype configuration design: See Through 360 • Capability to acquire completeness of multiple angle images including horizontal, zenith and nadir. Figure: “See Through 360” prototype configuration customization, program funded by Reina Imaging (2014). (a) (b) (c) Leveling rotation nadir
    64. 64. Researcher: Zi Siang See Thank you Research Discussion Research Track www.zisiangsee.com/research
    65. 65. Researcher: Zi Siang See Recommendations and Suggestions for Future Research • Augmented Reality Process using Using Spherical Panorama facilitated with High Dynamic Range Imaging (HDRI) • Cultural Heritage Reproduction Using Spherical Panorama facilitated with High Dynamic Range Imaging (HDRI) • Macro Virtual Reality 360 Using Spherical Panorama facilitated with High Dynamic Range Imaging (HDRI) • Interactive Advertising Visual Using Spherical Panorama facilitated with High Dynamic Range Imaging (HDRI)
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