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Centralized vs. Distributed Messaging Systems If your company is composed of offices all connected by high-bandwidth,reliable network connections, regardless of the distance between offices, you canimplement a centralized messaging system. A centralized messaging system meansthat all of your Exchange servers are located and managed in a central data centerand that you have a single routing group. When planning your messaging system, itis best to start with this model in mind because it is the most cost-effective andeasily managed. If your company contains remote offices with low-bandwidth, high-latency,unreliable network connections, you can introduce routing groups to control howmessaging traffic is routed from one location to another. However, remotelocations and multiple routing groups do not prevent you from centralizing youradministrative model. In addition, with the features in Microsoft WindowsServer™ 2003, Exchange 2003, and Microsoft Office Outlook® 2003, you alsohave the opportunity to consolidate your server hardware by removing Exchangeservers from remote sites. With these changes, users can log on remotely toMicrosoft Windows® services and Exchange 2003 and experience fewer problemsrelated to performance degradation or connectivity. This topic discusses the characteristics of centralized and distributedmessaging systems and gives you some guidelines for planning each model.Centralized computing is computing done at a central location, using terminalsthat are attached to a central computer. The computer itself may control all theperipherals directly (if they are physically connected to the central computer), orthey may be attached via a terminal server. Alternatively, if the terminals have thecapability, they may be able to connect to the central computer over the network.The terminals may be text terminals or thin clients, for example.It offers greater security over decentralized systems because all of the processing iscontrolled in a central location. In addition, if one terminal breaks down, the user cansimply go to another terminal and log in again, and all of their files will still beaccessible. Depending on the system, they may even be able to resume their sessionfrom the point they were at before, as if nothing had happened.This type of arrangement does have some disadvantages. The central computerperforms the computing functions and controls the remote terminals. This type ofsystem relies totally on the central computer. Should the central computer crash, theentire system will go down. Characteristics of a Centralized Messaging System A centralized messaging system consists of a large data center that hosts allserver resources, including the Active Directory® directory service global catalogservers, domain controllers, and Exchange servers. The data center supports allmessaging system users, whether they connect locally or remotely. The following arecharacteristics of a centralized messaging system: • Data is hosted and managed in a centralized location regardless of whether the users are connected remotely. This contrasts with the distributed model, where users have local access to mailboxes but server administration is more complex. • Software upgrades can be rolled out from a centralized location. • The data center incorporates power-insulating devices such as an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) and "hot site" or "cold site" contingencies. A hot site is a full-service commercial site that provides all of the equipment 1
needed for a company to continue operations in the event of a disaster. A cold site is a service that provides space but that the company must furnish and set up. A hot site gets the company up and running faster, but a cold site is a less expensive option. Business requirements associated with reducing cost and securityrequirements are usually the driving forces behind centralizing systems. Therequirements revolve around location centralization (reducing the number of sitesthat provide server resources), physical consolidation (replacing smaller servers withhigh-end servers), administrative consolidation, and data consolidation(centralizing storage solutions that provide backup and disaster recoverycapabilities). Important Considerations Consider a centralized design only if prerequisites in the following areas arealready met or are included in the project plan: • Data center hardware costs Weigh the cost of installing high-end servers and clusters in the data center against the administrative cost savings of centralizing the servers. It is recommended that you cluster the back-end servers to build high availability and redundancy into the system, but this involves greater costs up front. However, these costs may be more than offset by reductions in operational costs, infrastructure costs, reduced downtime, and greater scalability. • Contingency planning When you centralize your server and data resources across the organization, you increase the possible single points of failure. You must formulate contingency plans in the event your data center is subjected to a catastrophic event. • Operational and administrative cost reductions Centralizing server resources reduce operational costs because service capacity and growth are achieved with better use of resources. It also reduces infrastructure costs associated with storage and backup requirements. • Data storage With larger centralized data volumes, you must use more reliable storage systems to improve the integrity of your data. In addition, by reducing the complexity of your server infrastructure, you can more readily restore services and data when a failure occurs. • Security A centralized model gives you easier security management, thus, a greater degree of control. This control makes it easier for security staff to maintain up-to-date virus signatures and take timely action in response to security incidents. Another advantage of a centralized design is that it locates your servers in a data center that you can physically secure.Decentralized computing is a trend in modern day business environments. This is theopposite of centralized computing, which was prevalent during the early days ofcomputers. Decentralized computing is the allocation of resources, both hardware andsoftware, to each individual workstation, or office location. In contrast, centralizedcomputing exists when the majority of functions are carried out, or obtained from aremote centralized location.A decentralized computer system has many benefits over a conventional centralizednetwork. Desktop computers have advanced so rapidly, that their potential performancefar exceeds the requirements of most business applications. This results in most desktop 2
computers remaining idle (in relation to their full potential). A decentralized system canutilize the potential of these systems to maximize efficiency. However, it is debatablewhether these networks increase overall effectiveness.All computers have to be updated individually with new software, unlike a centralizedcomputer system. Decentralized systems still enable file sharing and all computers canshare peripherals such as printers and scanners as well as modems, allowing all thecomputers in the network to connect to the internet.A collection of decentralized computers systems are components of a larger computernetwork, held together by local stations of equal importance and capability. Thesesystems are capable of running independently of each other. Characteristics of a Distributed Messaging System A branch office or distributed messaging deployment is one where numerousbranch offices or smaller distributed sites have slow connections to acorporate hub or data center. The branches contain their own Exchange servers,domain controllers, and global catalog servers. A distributed messaging system isusually adopted when the network cannot handle traffic to a central hub for services,so the operating system and messaging servers are placed locally. Userrequirements may be another factor. If the requirements for user experience andavailability cannot be met by connecting to a data center, you may have no choicebut to place servers in the remote sites. An Exchange branch office deployment has the following characteristics: • The messaging system consists of a large number of locations (branches), each containing an Exchange server, domain controllers, and at least one global catalog server. • The branch office locations usually contain a small or varying number of users. • The network is usually structured as a hub-and-spoke topology. • The network connections between the branch office locations and the central hub or data center are typically low-bandwidth, high-latency, or unreliable. The main reasons behind deploying a distributed messaging system includethe following: • The companys users are dispersed across sites. • The companys network infrastructure cannot handle traffic to a central hub for services. • The user requirements dictate that a server be placed locally to provide optimal user experience and availability. Important Considerations • Operational and administrative costs Distributed messaging systems require more servers and result in higher operational and administrative costs. 3
• Data storage With distributed servers, the service infrastructure is more complex, which makes it more difficult to restore services and data when a failure occurs.• Network connections For remote offices, it is recommended that the network connection to the hub site or data center be no less than 56 Kbps between servers. Between a hub and an office, however, a higher connection speed is recommended.• Security The physical security of servers in branch offices is a major consideration. In a branch office design, you must take precautions to ensure that servers are not located in open areas and that they are physically secured. 4