Ways to PreventPost-operativecomplications Prepared by: Zirgham Hafeez Gr#611
OBJECTIVESRISK FACTORSTYPES OF PATHOLOGYTYPES OF SURGERYCOMPLICATIONS & THEIRMANAGEMENT
Postoperative Complications(Morbidity) Account for:1. Considerable human pain and suffering.2. Increased cost of the health-care. 3. Can lead to postoperativedeath.
So the objectives are:- Accept that complications are best anticipated and avoided. Recognize the incidence of co- morbidity. Understand the importance of matching the procedure to the associated risks. Appreciate the importance of recognizing complications early and treating them vigorously.
C an be g e n e r a lly a p p lic a b le t o a ll t h e proc e dure s OR s p e c if ic to the o p e r a t io n s . Age both extremes (Very young & Very old)
C o m p lic a t io n s ofs u r g e r y m a y b r o a d lybe c la s s if ie d astho s e :I. Due to AnesthesiaII. Due to Surgery
Th e a n e s t h e t icc o m p lic a t io n sde pe nd upon themode ( G e n e r a l,R e g io n a l & L o c a l)a nd typ e s ofa n e s t h e t ic ( the
(A) LOC ALA N E S T H E S IA :Injection site: Pain, haematoma, Nerve trauma, infection Vasoconstrictors: Ischemic necrosis Systemic effects of LA agent: Allergic reactions, toxicity
( B ) S P IN A L , E P ID U R A L& C AUDALA N E S T E S IA : Technical failure Headache due to loss of CSF Intrathecal bleeding Permanent N. or spinal cord damage Paraspinal infection Systemic complications (Severe hypotension)
(C ) G ENERALA N E S T E S IA : Direct trauma to mouth or pharynx. Slow recovery from anesthesia due to drug interactions OR in- appropriate choice of drugs or dosage. Hypothermia due to long operations with extensive fluid replacement OR cold blood transfusion.
Allergic reactions to the anesthetic agent: Minor effects eg: Postoperative nausea & vomiting Major effects eg: Cardiovascular collapse, respiratory depression) Haemodynamic Problems: Vasodilation & shock
Specific (Procedure Related): Perioperative: Haemorrhage, organ damage, electro- cautery related etc… Postoperative complications which may be considered under 2 headings: I. Immediate OR early II. Late