Ways to prevent postoperative complications, zirgham 611
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Ways to prevent postoperative complications, zirgham 611






Total Views
Views on SlideShare
Embed Views



0 Embeds 0

No embeds



Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Ways to prevent postoperative complications, zirgham 611 Ways to prevent postoperative complications, zirgham 611 Presentation Transcript

  • Ways to PreventPost-operativecomplications Prepared by: Zirgham Hafeez Gr#611
  • Postoperative Complications(Morbidity) Account for:1. Considerable human pain and suffering.2. Increased cost of the health-care. 3. Can lead to postoperativedeath.
  • So the objectives are:- Accept that complications are best anticipated and avoided. Recognize the incidence of co- morbidity. Understand the importance of matching the procedure to the associated risks. Appreciate the importance of recognizing complications early and treating them vigorously.
  • C an be g e n e r a lly a p p lic a b le t o a ll t h e proc e dure s OR s p e c if ic to the o p e r a t io n s . Age both extremes (Very young & Very old)
  •  Co-morbid conditions:  Cardiovascular diseases  Respiratory diseases  DM  Renal diseases  Metabolic factors  Infections  Wound healing  Peripheral vascular diseases
  •  Drug therapy (Concurrent drugs used) [Steroids, Immunosuppressant, Antibiotics] Blood transfusion
  •  Obstructive Jaundice Neoplastic Diseases
  •  Minimally Invasive Surgery Orthopedic Surgery Gynaecology Thoracic & Upper Abdominal Surgery Prolonged Operations
  • C o m p lic a t io n s ofs u r g e r y m a y b r o a d lybe c la s s if ie d astho s e :I. Due to AnesthesiaII. Due to Surgery
  • Th e a n e s t h e t icc o m p lic a t io n sde pe nd upon themode ( G e n e r a l,R e g io n a l & L o c a l)a nd typ e s ofa n e s t h e t ic ( the
  • (A) LOC ALA N E S T H E S IA :Injection site: Pain, haematoma, Nerve trauma, infection Vasoconstrictors: Ischemic necrosis Systemic effects of LA agent: Allergic reactions, toxicity
  • ( B ) S P IN A L , E P ID U R A L& C AUDALA N E S T E S IA : Technical failure Headache due to loss of CSF Intrathecal bleeding Permanent N. or spinal cord damage Paraspinal infection Systemic complications (Severe hypotension)
  • (C ) G ENERALA N E S T E S IA : Direct trauma to mouth or pharynx. Slow recovery from anesthesia due to drug interactions OR in- appropriate choice of drugs or dosage. Hypothermia due to long operations with extensive fluid replacement OR cold blood transfusion.
  •  Allergic reactions to the anesthetic agent:  Minor effects eg: Postoperative nausea & vomiting  Major effects eg: Cardiovascular collapse, respiratory depression) Haemodynamic Problems: Vasodilation & shock
  • Specific (Procedure Related): Perioperative: Haemorrhage, organ damage, electro- cautery related etc… Postoperative complications which may be considered under 2 headings: I. Immediate OR early II. Late
  •  Respiratory:  Collapse, consolidation, aspiration etc. Cardiovascular: Haemorrhage (Primary, Reactionary, Secondary)  Shock (Hypovolemic, septic, cardiogenic, neurogenic)  Myocardial infarction  Deep venous thrombosis
  •  Thromboembolic Septic:  Wound, abscess collections Gastrointestinal:  Intestinal obstruction  Anastomotic leakage, intraabdominal abscess formation, enterocutaneous fistulae Wound complications:  Infections, dehiscence, etc.
  •  Renal:  Oliguria, acute renal failure Hepatic:  Jaundice, hepatocellular dysfunction/ insufficiency Cerebral:  Psychological, Neuropsychiatric complications (delirium, etc.) Drug-related:  Anesthetic, antibiotics, specific medical disease treatment toxicity Nerve injuries:  Compression, traction, cautery, severed, etc.
  •  Wound:  Hypertrophic scar, keloid, wound sinus, implantation dermoids, incisional hernia Adhesions:  Intestinal obstruction, strangulation Altered anatomy/Pathophysiology:  Bacterial overgrowth, short gut syndrome, postgastric surgery syndromes, etc. Susceptibility to other diseases:  Malabsorption, incidence of cancer, tuber- culosis, etc.