e- vs. vs. m- Learning• e-Learning refers to online learning, web- based learning, virtual universities and classrooms, digital collaboration and technology assisted distance learning.• m-Learning is an e-Learning that is independent of time and space.
Misconceptionm-learning = effective learningReplace instructors & class room
It’s TRUE only when..m-learning = effective learning GOOD DESIGN
Software Engineering PrincipleSoftware engineering (SE) is an application of asystematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to thedevelopment, operation, and maintenance ofsoftware. [WiKi]Software => solution/tool that fulfills USER NEEDs
Who are the USERS?Educational Institutes Thailand Cloud Platform m-learning for Education Services Content Developers Teachers Students Parents
User Tasks Manage m-learning environment Develop and Publish m-contentsEducational Institutes Thailand Cloud Platform m-learning for Education Services Content DevelopersCreate & Monitor students’Manage learning performance Learning using Observe & Collaboratem-contents m-contents in some learning activities Teachers Students Parents
Problems in Current EducationBased on the survey conducted by KRC Research in USA – 84% of middle-school students would rather clean their room, eat their vegetables, go to the dentist, or take out the garbage than do their math homework. – 33% of students liked math – 43% of students have difficulty understanding the math they are taught in school. – 45% of students described math as boring. – 67% of students want to do better in math – 94% think math is important to their lives.
The OECDs comprehensiveworld education ranking report in 2009 Below Average!!!!
Effects of m-Learning• The K-Nect Project in North Carolina, USA. – aims to improve students’ MATH & SCIENCE skills by integrating digital lifestyle technologies into their formalized educational process Ref: http://www.projectknect.org http://www.mobl21.com
M-Learning Changes Student BehaviorBased on the K-NECT project:• Kids who hate doing homework, get it out of the way on the bus ride home.• Students who would never consider cracking open a book, are reading classic English literature.• Students also used social networking facilities to help one another other with the problem solving.
Obviously, we can see thattechnology such as mobile devices changes students behaviors
Technology in courses positively impacts student engagement 58% of instructors believe that technology in courses positively impacts student engagement. 42% of instructors believe that technology in courses does not positively impact student engagement. This has a direct relationship with learning outcomes.Population: 201 instructors and 751 students across the United StatesThe 2010 survey, “Instructors and Students: Technology Use, Engagement and Learning Outcomes”conducted by Eduventures,
Barriers to learning and engagementThe 2010 survey, “Instructors and Students: Technology Use, Engagement and Learning Outcomes”conducted by Eduventures,
Improving engagement and learning outcomesThe 2010 survey, “Instructors and Students: Technology Use, Engagement and Learning Outcomes”conducted by Eduventures,
Improving engagement and learning outcomes The 2010 survey, “Instructors and Students: Technology Use, Engagement and Learning Outcomes” conducted by Eduventures,
m-Learning • m-Learning needs to differ from e-Learning in the following ways: More personal More fun More interactive Need to Networked improve Spontaneouslearning outcome Shorter duration More connected Directly to the point Just-on-time learning Engaging users to contribute and share From reader to producer of content Source: http://uwstoutmobilelearning.wikispaces.com
More Personal Learning Styles – Visual (spatial): prefer using pictures, images, and spatial understanding. – Aural (auditory-musical): prefer using sound and music. – Verbal (linguistic): prefer using words, both in speech and writing. – Physical (kinesthetic): prefer using your body, hands and sense of touch. – Logical (mathematical): prefer using logic, reasoning and systems. – Social (interpersonal): prefer to learn in groups or with other people. – Solitary (intrapersonal): prefer to work alone and use self-study.Source: http://www.learning-styles-online.com
More fun & interactive:Games based learning Ref: Digital Learning Futures by Steve Wheeler
More Network & Collaboration• Middle and high school students are using social media to connect with one another on homework and group projects. – For example, Facebook and similar social media programs allow students to gather outside of class to collaborate and exchange ideas about assignments. Some schools successfully use blogs as teaching tools, which has the benefit of reinforcing skills in English, written expression, and creativity.Source: Ito M, Horst H, Bittani M, et al.Living and Learning With New Media: Summary ofFindings From the Digital Youth Project. Chicago, IL: John D. and Catherine T. MacArthurFoundation Reports on Digital Media and Learning; 2008
m-Learning • m-Learning needs to differ from e-Learning in the following ways: More personal More fun More interactive Need to Networked improve Spontaneouslearning outcome Shorter duration More connected Directly to the point Just-in-time learning Engaging users to contribute and share From reader to producer of content Source: http://uwstoutmobilelearning.wikispaces.com
Just-in-Time Learning• Precise and Concise Common estimates for sustained attention to a freely chosen task range from about 5 minutes for a two-year-old child, to a maximum of around 20 minutes in older children and adults. Source: Dianne Dukette; David Cornish (2009). The Essential 20: Twenty Components of an Excellent Health Care Team. RoseDog Books. pp. 72–73. ISBN 1- 4349-9555-0.
5 Things to Consider 1. Weigh the Options — Mobile App or Mobile WebsiteSource: http://mashable.com/2010/07/07/designing-mobile-apps/
5 Things to Consider 2. Consider Where Your App Will Be Used 3. Be Aware of Various Screen Sizes 4. Follow Existing UI Conventions 5. Design for TouchSource: http://mashable.com/2010/07/07/designing-mobile-apps/
Design Criteria of m-Learning Content• Content should be delivered in short ‘nuggets’ rather than large units of information• Content should be platform and device independent• Content should be adaptive to each student’s lifestyle• Content should be design as reusable objects that can be re-configured and re-packaged• Content should be described with ‘metadata’ so that it can be easily discover• Content delivery mode should be selected to effectively facilitate the learning activity using user friendly interface
Carbon Footprint– The carbon footprint is an estimate of the amount of CO2e emitted by the use of ICT.– Computers and telecommunications equipment contributes about 2% to greenhouse gas emissions. 34
Energy Consumption– Operating energy is a measure of the energy used to operate the ICT equipment. • This can be measured directly using an energy meter (electric meter) which measures the electrical energy used. • Alternatively, the energy use may be estimated from the power the equipment uses (specified in Watt), multiplied by the estimated amount of time the equipment will be used (in Hours) to give the energy (in Kilowatt hours). 36
Greenhouse Gas Conversion• Greenhouse gas conversion factors are used to calculate the amount of greenhouse gas emissions caused by energy use.• The conversion factor is used to convert energy consumed in kWh to kg of equivalent carbon dioxide.• For example, – a computer using 200 W of power for 10 hours per day uses 2 kWh of energy. Multiplying by a conversion factor of 0.537 Kg CO2/kWh produces a total of 1.074 Kg CO2 per day.Example of online calculator:http://thaicfcalculator.tgo.or.th/ 37
Reduce Environmental Load by Leveraging IT 38Image from: Fujitsu
"Technology maybe fosters some things and dampens others. Its definitely about balance.”Rosemarie Truglio, from the childrens TV producers Sesame Workshop,