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THE POLITICAL FORCES INFLUENCING  EDUCATION
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THE POLITICAL FORCES INFLUENCING EDUCATION

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  • 1. THE POLITICAL FORCES INFLUENCING EDUCATION AND THE SCHOOL
  • 2. DEFINITION POLITICAL FORCES • Parties, personalities, pressure groups that strongly influence the economic and political stability of a country through their actions and pronouncements. INFLUENCING • an effect of one person or thing on another • the power of a person or thing to have such an effect EDUCATION SCHOOL • Is the process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge, skills, and values from one generation to another • An institution for educating children
  • 3. POLITIC AND EDUCATION  Education has been regarded as the main agent for the political socialization of the young into the national political culture.  Education and the preservation of the status Quo : National integration and stability.  Education is the primary agent for the selection and training of political elites.  Education and the preservation of the elite’s power: controlling, organizing and regulating education.
  • 4. Political influence on education NEP/DEB & the push for equality Racial harmony and integration Overview of multiculturalism (unity), pluralism and dualism
  • 5. NEW ECONOMY POLICY  program launched by the Malaysian government in 1971 under the Prime Minister Tun Abdul Razak.  special rights for the Malays and indigenous tribes in Sabah and Sarawak. Malay and indigenous tribes • Islam as a official religion • Bahasa melayu as a official language • The power of sultan in the constitution of Malaysia • Special right for malay including ~scholarship ~quota for university ~quota in civil service ~permit Other races • National
  • 6.  Bumiputera held only 2.4% of the economy, with the rest in Chinese and foreign hands. NEP stated goal i. To reduce and eradicate poverty regardless of ethnicity; ii. To restructure the society - eliminate community identification through economic sectors.  The initial target -move the ratio of economic ownership in Malaysia from a 2.4:33:63 ratio of Bumiputra, Other Malaysian, Foreigner ownership to a 30:40:30 ratio.  To accelerate the process of national integration and unity.
  • 7. Implementation of NEP Fifth Malaysian Plans( 1956-1990) First Stage ( 1956-1970) First Malaya Plan (1956-1960) Second Malaya Plan ( 1961-1965) First Malaysian Plan (1966-1970) Second Stage (19711990) Second Malaysian Plan (1971-1975) Third Malaysian Plan ( 1976-1980) Forth Malaysian Plan ( 1981-1985) Fifth Malaysian Plan (1986-1990)
  • 8. MALAYSIA PLAN (1971-1975) SPECIAL PROGRAMMES AND MEASURE IN EDUCATION :1. Bahasa Malaysia as Main Medium of Instruction  All subjects except English and other languages, will taught in Bahasa Malaysia at the primary level in all English medium primary school.  Secondary education including Form Six also will be in Bahasa Malaysia.  All courses, other than languages, for new admission to Universities will be conducted in Bahasa Malaysia.  Plan for the greater use of Bahasa Malaysia in schools have also been drawn up in Sabah and Sarawak.
  • 9. 2. Improved Educational Opportunities • • 3. It is a promotion of equal opportunities for people of all races to participate in and get benefits from the modernizing of the economy. More emphasis will be given to improving the quality of education available to rural children and the poor. Provision for Ten Pilot Residential Secondary Science School • Each school will have an enrolment of 1200 students, predominantly from the rural areas. • Selection will be made on the basis of Standard Five Assessment Test. • The main subjects will be emphasis on science, mathematics, and other technical subjects. • The programmes will be kept flexible and the curriculum will be adjusted to suit its objectives and requirements
  • 10. 4. The Improvement of Rural School • • The improvement is through the construction of new schools and additional hostel facilities, replacement of sub-standard schools and supply of workshop and laboratory equipment. The teacher supply to rural areas will also be improved
  • 11. Ministry of Education programmes:PRIMARY EDUCATION nine years of schooling the quality of primary education. SECONDARY EDUCATION upper and post-secondary education has been expanded rapidly.
  • 12. Upper Secondary Technical and Vocational Education seven new vocational school Six new secondary technical schools Higher Education establish institutions provided for the expansion program of the University Malaya.
  • 13. POLITICAL FACTORS INFLUENCING EDUCATION Governance institutions, political ideologies, and competing interests, both within and outside of the education community, influence the content, form, and functioning of schooling Public Policy In France, everything to do with education is controlled from the centre (metropole) which is the central government. In the case of USA and Japan, their education systems are highly decentralized, and are often based on the democratic influence and the capitalistic political philosophy of these countries.
  • 14. There is also a close relationship between the national character and the national system of education. 1) Democratic The national character of USA is democratic as such its education system is democratic in most of its aspects 2) Dictatorship Education in Mexico, Bulgaria and Cuba. The common features of their education system include monopoly of the state control on education, secularism, physical and military training political indoctrination in and out of school 3) Nationalism Nationalism could be defined as a psychological feeling within a group which believes they have common outlook and traditions based on myth of common ancestry. Eg: Malaysia and Singapore
  • 15. RACIAL HARMONY AND INTEGRATION In a multi-racial and multi-cultural landscape, one of the key aims of character and citizenship education is to educate students to instill racial harmony and integration. This is realized through : Civics and Moral Education •Emphasise the values of respect, responsibility, care and harmony in fostering racial and religious harmony. •Equip knowledge of the different religious beliefs, festivals and practices as well as skills for identifying their own stereotyping and prejudices. •Ways to demonstrate respectful behaviour in their actions and wordS.
  • 16. Social Studies and History •Study the history and incidents related to racial integration in the past • Learn the significance of the various customs and practices •Instil the sense of nationality and citizenship Independence and National Day •Schools celebrate the Independence and National Day •Instil the feeling of love and care towards the nation •Expose and educate the students on the history of achieving both events
  • 17. Campaigns •1 Malaysia concept introduced by the Malaysia’s 6th Prime Minister, Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak •Includes all races and religions.The involvement of stakeholders and community groups National School •Aims to build social cohesion and provide opportunities for interaction between students • The usage of national language as the medium of interaction •Standardized syllabus •Through curricular as well as co-curricular activities such as societies and sports
  • 18. OVERVIEW OF MULTICULTURALISM (UNITY), PLURALISM AND DUALISM MULTICULTURALISM  multi = many/more than one  culture = customs, belief, way of life, groups  Multicultural (adj) : including people of different races, religions, languages and traditions. (oxford advanced learner’s dictionary 7th ed.) “the social characteristics and problems of governance posed by any society in which different cultural communities live together and attempt to build a common life while retaining something of their original identity” (Hall, 2000).
  • 19. Multiculturalism (noun) : 1. the practice of giving importance to all cultures in a society (oxford advanced learner’s dictionary 7th ed.) 2. the recognition of different cultural identities within a unified society (multiple group identities in a society).  generally being taught in schools at a young age. “the strategies and policies adopted to govern or manage the problems of diversity and multiplicity which multicultural societies throw up” (Hall, 2000).
  • 20. MALAYSIA AS A MULTICULTURAL COUNTRY  Three major ethnic groups: 1. Malays 2. Chinese 3. Indians  Challenges of the Multicultural education: - to provide equal opportunities for the numerous ethnic and religious groups while at the same time creating an integrated Malaysian country. - to cope with the fast developing field of science and technology and also information and communication technology (ICT).
  • 21. WAYS IN PROMOTING MULTICULTURALISM  Fostering the Malay language as the national language.  NEP (1970) – total usage of Malay language in all national schools.  Establishment of Vision school (Sekolah Wawasan).
  • 22. PLURALISM  (noun) the existence of many different groups of people in a society.  the belief that it is possible and good for different groups of people to live together in peace in one society (oxford advanced learner’s dictionary 7th ed.).  a society in which members of various ethnic, racial, religious and social groups maintain participation in and development of their traditions and special interests while cooperatively working toward the nation's unity (Joan t. 1992).
  • 23.  Colonial-pluralism in Malaya - divide and rule: - Malays (agricultural work) - Chinese (mining industry) - Indians (Rubber plantation sector)  the lack of interaction between these different ethnic groups lead to each ethnic group’s lack of knowledge of each other.  also caused each ethnic group to identify itself more with its motherland rather than Malaysia.  May 13 riot (1969)
  • 24. DUALISM  (noun) the theory that there are two opposite principles in everything (oxford advanced learner’s dictionary 7th ed.)  the condition of being double of duality.  Dualism in education - there are two different education systems; - Traditional Islamic education system and - Secular education
  • 25. EDUCATIONAL DUALISM IN MALAYSIA  Muslims’ Dilemmas over the national system : 1. The teaching of Islamic religious knowledge is ineffective in the national schools. 2. Islamic knowledge to be inadequately taught for modern era. 3. The government’s education policy is being over-concerned with physical and material development and manpower training. 4. Not optimistic in implementing the NEP and the KBSM.
  • 26.  Dilemmas over the Islamic educational system: 1. The content of the curriculum is limited and outdated. 2. The methodology employed in instruction does not encourage or stimulate inquiry and critical thinking. 3. Islamic schools are poorly financed and largely depend on resources from the various states religious departments and private endowment.
  • 27.  Dilemmas over both system: - Graduates do not possess the integrated personality of an ideal Muslim. - National system – can pursue professional careers + broad educational opportunities for higher education but lack a strong foundation in Islamic in terms of moral values and religious attitudes. - Religious system – dedicated in their belief but lack of higher educational opportunities.
  • 28.  Muslims started to recognize the importance of both secular and religious sciences for the full growth of the human personality which will contribute towards the development of the country.  The need for an integrated curriculum instilled with the Islamic spirit that would allow students to acquire all kinds of knowledge, including natural sciences.  A third educational system that unifies Islamic and modern aims and resources.
  • 29. REFERENCES Crystal Joan Peter, C. J. , Rohana Hamzah & Amirmudin Udin (2011). The Impact Of Dualism In Education On Sustainable Development Through TVET. Journal of Edupres, (1), 23-28 Gudeman, R. H. Multiculturalism in Malaysia: Individual Harmony, Group Tension. Retriever November 22, 2013 from http://digitalcommons.macalester.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?art icle=1274&context=macintl Higbee, J. L., Lundell, D. B. & Duranczyk, I. M. (2003). Multiculturalism in Developmental Education. Retrieved November 22, 2013 from, http://www.cehd.umn.edu/crdeul/pdf/monograph/4-a.pdf Joan, T. (1992). Pluralism and Education: Its Meaning and Method. ERIC Digest. http://www.ericdigests.org/1992-2/method.htm Rozita Ibrahim (2007). Multiculturalism and Education in Malaysia. Culture and Religion: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 8(2), 155-167. Rosnani Hashim (2004). Educational Dualism in Malaysia: implications for theory and practice. Kuala Lumpur: The Other Press .