THE POLITICAL FORCES
EDUCATION AND THE SCHOOL
• Parties, personalities, pressure groups that strongly
influence the economic and political stability of a
country through their actions and pronouncements.
• an effect of one person or thing on another
• the power of a person or thing to have such an effect
• Is the process by which society deliberately transmits its
accumulated knowledge, skills, and values from one
generation to another
• An institution for educating children
POLITIC AND EDUCATION
Education has been regarded as the main agent for the political
socialization of the young into the national political culture.
Education and the preservation of the status Quo : National
integration and stability.
Education is the primary agent for the selection and training of
Education and the preservation of the elite’s power: controlling,
organizing and regulating education.
Political influence on education
NEP/DEB & the push for equality
Racial harmony and integration
Overview of multiculturalism
(unity), pluralism and dualism
NEW ECONOMY POLICY
program launched by the Malaysian government in 1971 under the Prime
Minister Tun Abdul Razak.
special rights for the Malays and indigenous tribes in Sabah and Sarawak.
Malay and indigenous tribes
• Islam as a official religion
• Bahasa melayu as a official
• The power of sultan in the
constitution of Malaysia
• Special right for malay
~quota for university
~quota in civil service
Bumiputera held only 2.4% of the economy, with the rest in Chinese and foreign
NEP stated goal
To reduce and eradicate poverty regardless of ethnicity;
To restructure the society - eliminate community identification through
The initial target -move the ratio of economic ownership in Malaysia from a
2.4:33:63 ratio of Bumiputra, Other Malaysian, Foreigner ownership to a
To accelerate the process of national integration and unity.
Implementation of NEP
Fifth Malaysian Plans( 1956-1990)
First Stage ( 1956-1970)
First Malaya Plan
Second Malaya Plan
First Malaysian Plan
Second Stage (19711990)
Second Malaysian Plan
Third Malaysian Plan
Forth Malaysian Plan
Fifth Malaysian Plan
MALAYSIA PLAN (1971-1975)
SPECIAL PROGRAMMES AND MEASURE IN EDUCATION :1.
Bahasa Malaysia as Main Medium of Instruction
All subjects except English and other languages, will taught in Bahasa Malaysia at the
primary level in all English medium primary school.
Secondary education including Form Six also will be in Bahasa Malaysia.
All courses, other than languages, for new admission to Universities will be conducted in
Plan for the greater use of Bahasa Malaysia in schools have also been drawn up in Sabah
Improved Educational Opportunities
It is a promotion of equal opportunities for people of all races to
participate in and get benefits from the modernizing of the economy.
More emphasis will be given to improving the quality of education
available to rural children and the poor.
Provision for Ten Pilot Residential Secondary Science School
Each school will have an enrolment of 1200 students, predominantly from the
• Selection will be made on the basis of Standard Five Assessment Test.
• The main subjects will be emphasis on science, mathematics, and other technical
• The programmes will be kept flexible and the curriculum will be adjusted to suit
its objectives and requirements
4. The Improvement of Rural School
The improvement is through the construction of new schools and
additional hostel facilities, replacement of sub-standard schools and
supply of workshop and laboratory equipment.
The teacher supply to rural areas will also be improved
Ministry of Education programmes:PRIMARY EDUCATION
nine years of schooling
the quality of primary education.
upper and post-secondary education has been expanded rapidly.
Upper Secondary Technical and Vocational Education
seven new vocational school
Six new secondary technical
provided for the expansion
program of the University Malaya.
POLITICAL FACTORS INFLUENCING EDUCATION
Governance institutions, political ideologies, and competing interests,
both within and outside of the education community, influence the
content, form, and functioning of schooling
In France, everything to do with education is controlled from the
centre (metropole) which is the central government.
In the case of USA and Japan, their education systems are highly
decentralized, and are often based on the democratic influence and
the capitalistic political philosophy of these countries.
There is also a close relationship between the national character and the
national system of education.
The national character of USA is democratic as such its education system is
democratic in most of its aspects
Education in Mexico, Bulgaria and Cuba. The common features of their
education system include monopoly of the state control on education,
secularism, physical and military training political indoctrination in and out of
Nationalism could be defined as a psychological feeling within a group which
believes they have common outlook and traditions based on myth of common
ancestry. Eg: Malaysia and Singapore
RACIAL HARMONY AND INTEGRATION
In a multi-racial and multi-cultural landscape, one of the key aims of character
and citizenship education is to educate students to instill racial harmony and
integration. This is realized through :
Civics and Moral Education
•Emphasise the values of respect, responsibility, care and harmony in fostering
racial and religious harmony.
•Equip knowledge of the different religious beliefs, festivals and practices as
well as skills for identifying their own stereotyping and prejudices.
•Ways to demonstrate respectful behaviour in their actions and wordS.
Social Studies and History
•Study the history and incidents related to racial integration in the past
• Learn the significance of the various customs and practices
•Instil the sense of nationality and citizenship
Independence and National Day
•Schools celebrate the Independence and National Day
•Instil the feeling of love and care towards the nation
•Expose and educate the students on the history of achieving both events
•1 Malaysia concept introduced by the Malaysia’s 6th Prime Minister, Datuk Seri
Najib Tun Razak
•Includes all races and religions.The involvement of stakeholders and community
•Aims to build social cohesion and provide opportunities for interaction between
• The usage of national language as the medium of interaction
•Through curricular as well as co-curricular activities such as societies and sports
OVERVIEW OF MULTICULTURALISM (UNITY), PLURALISM
multi = many/more than one
culture = customs, belief, way of life, groups
Multicultural (adj) : including people of different races, religions, languages and
(oxford advanced learner’s dictionary 7th ed.)
“the social characteristics and problems of governance posed by any society in which
different cultural communities live together and attempt to build a common life while
retaining something of their original identity” (Hall, 2000).
Multiculturalism (noun) :
1. the practice of giving importance to all cultures in a society
(oxford advanced learner’s dictionary 7th ed.)
2. the recognition of different cultural identities within a unified society (multiple
group identities in a society).
generally being taught in schools at a young age.
“the strategies and policies adopted to govern or manage the problems of
diversity and multiplicity which multicultural societies throw up” (Hall, 2000).
MALAYSIA AS A MULTICULTURAL
Three major ethnic groups:
Challenges of the Multicultural education:
to provide equal opportunities for the numerous ethnic and religious groups
while at the same time creating an integrated Malaysian country.
to cope with the fast developing field of science and technology and also
information and communication technology (ICT).
WAYS IN PROMOTING
Fostering the Malay language as the national language.
NEP (1970) – total usage of Malay language in all national
Establishment of Vision school (Sekolah Wawasan).
(noun) the existence of many different groups of people
in a society.
the belief that it is possible and good for different
groups of people to live together in peace in one society
(oxford advanced learner’s dictionary 7th ed.).
a society in which members of various ethnic, racial,
religious and social groups maintain participation in and
development of their traditions and special interests
while cooperatively working toward the nation's unity
(Joan t. 1992).
Colonial-pluralism in Malaya
divide and rule:
Malays (agricultural work)
Chinese (mining industry)
Indians (Rubber plantation sector)
the lack of interaction between these different ethnic groups lead to each
ethnic group’s lack of knowledge of each other.
also caused each ethnic group to identify itself more with its motherland
rather than Malaysia.
May 13 riot (1969)
(noun) the theory that there are two opposite principles in
everything (oxford advanced learner’s dictionary 7th ed.)
the condition of being double of duality.
Dualism in education - there are two different education
- Traditional Islamic education system and
- Secular education
EDUCATIONAL DUALISM IN
Muslims’ Dilemmas over the national system :
The teaching of Islamic religious knowledge is ineffective in
the national schools.
Islamic knowledge to be inadequately taught for modern
The government’s education policy is being over-concerned
with physical and material development and manpower
Not optimistic in implementing the NEP and the KBSM.
Dilemmas over the Islamic educational system:
The content of the curriculum is limited and outdated.
The methodology employed in instruction does not
encourage or stimulate inquiry and critical thinking.
Islamic schools are poorly financed and largely depend
on resources from the various states religious
departments and private endowment.
Dilemmas over both system:
Graduates do not possess the integrated personality of an
National system – can pursue professional careers + broad
educational opportunities for higher education but lack a
strong foundation in Islamic in terms of moral values and
Religious system – dedicated in their belief but lack of higher
Muslims started to recognize the importance of both secular
and religious sciences for the full growth of the human
personality which will contribute towards the development
of the country.
The need for an integrated curriculum instilled with the
Islamic spirit that would allow students to acquire all kinds
of knowledge, including natural sciences.
A third educational system that unifies Islamic and modern
aims and resources.
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