Managing Guards


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Applying the principles of management in guards\' business

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Managing Guards

  1. 1. MANAGING GUARDS <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Managing guards or operatives involves different management functions. Supervisors and managers carry out these functions on a daily basis. The functions include: </li></ul><ul><li>Planning : Planning means looking ahead, conceptualizing future events and making decisions today that will affect tomorrow. Plans can vary from immediate tasks to long-term objectives, from simple to complex, and from departmental to company-wide. Planning is not a function reserved exclusively for top management, but one of the functions of every manager. </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing : Managers must organize people, materials, time and jobs to achieve the organization’s objectives. Organizing involves: </li></ul><ul><li>Determining what activities that need to be done </li></ul><ul><li>Grouping and assigning these activities to subordinates </li></ul><ul><li>Delegating the necessary authority to the subordinates to carry out the activities in a coordinated manner. </li></ul><ul><li>Note that before you can organize, you must plan. </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Directing : In addition to planning and organizing, a manager must succeed in directing the activities of others. This deals directly with influencing, guiding, or supervising subordinates in their jobs. Directing cannot be performed alone. It must be executed with planning and organizing. </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinating : Few tasks can be undertaken without coordinating the efforts of several people – inside and outside the organization. It is the job of the manager to ensure that the various tasks are scheduled and implemented in an efficient and economical manner. </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling : Whenever people undertake activities, some form of control is necessary. Orders may be misunderstood, rules may be violated, or objectives may unknowingly shift. Controlling consists of forcing the tasks to be undertaken to conform to prearranged plans. Thus planning is necessary for control. </li></ul><ul><li>Staffing : Hiring new employees is one of the most important functions and responsibilities of security managers. The standards of care and attention applied in hiring security applicants must far exceed those used for other applicants. Not only that, the very standards set for the applicants, as an individual, must be higher than for other employees. </li></ul><ul><li>Budgeting: A budget is a plan stated in financial terms; it is a realistic estimate of the resources required to implement a plan; it is an allocation of resources to achieve planned objectives. The security department requires funding of their activities, which means that they must make a budget to achieve the objectives of the organization for which those activities are to be carried out. </li></ul><ul><li>In summary, it should be noted that the management process is not a series of separate functions but a composite process. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Characteristics of the Successful Manager </li></ul><ul><li>A manager should: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Be able to think clearly and purposely about a problem. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Be able to express himself/herself clearly, as his/her chief physical act is communication. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Possess technical competence to manage effectively. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Possess the ability to think broadly. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Be a salesman, selling an idea – convincing others of its worth. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Possess moral integrity. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Be emotionally stable, keeping his personal feelings out of business problems. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Possess skills in human relations and have insight into human motivation and behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>9. Possess organizational ability. </li></ul><ul><li>10. Be dynamic. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The Role of the Security Supervisor </li></ul><ul><li>Supervision is comprised of but not limited to hiring, training, discipline, motivating, promoting, and communicating. Each of these is a specific skill. One definition of supervision is the task of getting others (subordinates) to get a job done, the way management wants it done, when management wants it done willingly. The supervisor’s job is therefore to get other people to accomplish tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>Supervisor as an Inspector: An adage says, “Employees don’t do what you expect, they do what you inspect.” This is not because they do not want to do or do not care to perform their tasks, but because of human frailty. Human failure is not limited to line employees but to every level of every organizational structure, to the top. Therefore, from top down, ach ‘supervisor’ must inspect the work of subordinates – Director inspects the Security Manager, the Manager his middle managers, the middle managers his supervisors, and supervisors their subordinates. </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing with Individual Employees: The supervisor must deal on an individual basis with each subordinate because every employee is different. Human differences mean that they should be handled differently. Some may require more supervision than others, some respond to persuasion, some to command. Some want to set goals, some want goals set for them. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Supervisory Authority: A supervisor must have commensurate authority to carry out his responsibilities. The supervisor represents management and must be given the necessary authority to make that representation meaningful. </li></ul><ul><li>Supervisor as the Go-between: The supervisor is the vital link between the employee and security management. He represents management’s needs and views to those below and at the same time the responsibility to represent the needs and views of his subordinates to management. Failure to discharge this function objectively, faithfully and timely can have disastrous results. </li></ul><ul><li>Supervisor’s Span of Control: The number of employees a supervisor can manage, that is, span of control depends on a number of factors. These include the level of skill possessed by the supervisor in handling people and delegating responsibility, as well as the job description of subordinates. The widely accepted span of control standards are ratios of supervisor to employees as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal - 1 : 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Good - 1 : 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptable - 1 : 12 </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>One Boss: The principle of unity of command is the traditional way of saying every employee must report to only one superior. Where a person is being directed by more than one superior, there would be conflicting instructions and confusion resulting in diluted performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic Shifting in Line of Command: There are sometimes there are exceptions to the unity of command. Two situations that would require another supervisor are: </li></ul><ul><li>Emergencies, and </li></ul><ul><li>When failure of a ranking employee to take command would jeopardize the department’s objectives or reputation. </li></ul><ul><li>Functional or Staff Supervision: Although every employee has his own supervisor, there are occasions and conditions where an employee must perform at a time or location outside the immediate control of the supervisor. During such times they can be under functional or staff supervision, which is essentially advisory in nature. </li></ul><ul><li>Supervisory Training: One most common problem of the security industry is the failure to properly prepare or equip new supervisors with the tool to discharge their responsibilities. It is necessary for the new supervisor to be given training – could be library research, a workshop, a seminar or other form of training sessions, in-house or commercially conducted program - on the fundamentals of his new assignment before he takes over such responsibility. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Hiring Security Personnel </li></ul><ul><li>This is one of the most important functions and responsibilities of security management. An applicant must possess certain minimum standards. Hiring is a step-by-step process that eventually leads to the applicant’s acceptance of a job offer. The steps include; </li></ul><ul><li>Recruiting activity – for entry and non-entry levels </li></ul><ul><li>Initial interviewing </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary interviewing </li></ul><ul><li>Selection of candidate </li></ul><ul><li>Background investigation of candidate </li></ul><ul><li>Job offer </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>There are basically three things that management wants new employees to know: </li></ul><ul><li>What management wants them to do, </li></ul><ul><li>Why management wants them to do it, and </li></ul><ul><li>How management wants it done. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two basic strategies to training: On-the-job training and formal classroom training. </li></ul><ul><li>On-the-job Training: This can be a totally unstructured, unplanned, ill-advised teaming-up of new employee with whomever is available or I can be a meaningful and informative process that adequately prepares the novice t perform satisfactorily in a relatively short period of time. The difference lies in properly structuring the experience and careful selection of the trainer. Structuring means identifying what the new employee should know, determining how much time it will take to expose him or her to that information, and ensuring the trainer indeed follows the plan detailing what is to be covered. </li></ul><ul><li>Formal or Structured Training: This is done in a classroom setting, which could include lectures by experts or leaders in the field or professional trainers, role-playing with video playback for assessment and analysis, training films etc. Formal training should include the testing of trainees’ understanding and comprehension of materials presented with required minimum scores. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>The Supervisor’s Role in Discipline </li></ul><ul><li>There are many dictionary definitions of discipline. Majority of these explanations emphasize punishment or control, both of which are aspects of discipline. Discipline is a responsibility of the supervisor. Some weak supervisors shirk their disciplinary responsibility out of fear that enforcing the regulations will hurt relations with subordinates. The supervisor who is fair and consistent in his treatment of employees will gain rather than lose respect through being firm and expecting conformity to the rules. The supervisor who understands the employees’ psychology needs will generate less reactive hostility, and consequently experience less resistance, than the supervisor who approaches the employee wit insensitivity and harsh tactics. An important key is to recognize the individual differences among employees, handle them on that basis to win their loyalty and support, and then motivate them to greater personal success. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Motivation and Morale </li></ul><ul><li>How to motivate employees to do more and better work and to keep them happy and interested in their work is a great challenge to managements. </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation Theories: They include: </li></ul><ul><li>Douglas McGregor’s “Theory X” and “Theory Y” </li></ul><ul><li>The Autocratic Theory (Absolute power and knowledge) </li></ul><ul><li>The Custodial Theory (Provision of economic benefits) </li></ul><ul><li>The Supportive Theory (Supportive work environment) </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Demotivators: There is a close relationship between motivation and morale. Highly motivated people enjoy good morale and vice versa. Dr. Mortimer R. Feinberg, professor of Psychology identified some factors he called the Ten Deadly Demotivators. </li></ul><ul><li>Never belittle a subordinate </li></ul><ul><li>Never criticize a subordinate in front of others. </li></ul><ul><li>Never fail to give your subordinates your full attention, at least occasionally. </li></ul><ul><li>Never give your subordinates the impression that you are primarily concerned with your own interests. </li></ul><ul><li>Never play favorites </li></ul><ul><li>Never fail to help your subordinates grow, when they are deserving </li></ul><ul><li>Never be insensitive to small things. </li></ul><ul><li>Never “show up” employees. </li></ul><ul><li>Never lower your personal standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Never vacillate in making decisions. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>It would be difficult to treat all that is needed to manage guards/operatives in just a paper. I have however tried to touch on all areas where the manager is expected to affect the operatives or staff under them. I have intentionally left out issues of operations, policies and promotion. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>E. Ogaga Ovbioghor, FIIPS </li></ul><ul><li>08023500423 </li></ul>