DEVELOPING EFFECTIVE IDENTIFICATIONINTRODUCTIONOne very important element of access control is identification. Before we t...
interfering with the business operation, any effective control system mustincorporate certain specific elements to accompl...
the personnel department for entry to the employee records. The system shoulddesignate when, where, how, and to whom ID ca...
twins who share their DNA do not have the same fingerprints.Fingerprints are formed when the friction ridges of the skin c...
Of all the biometric devices and scanners available today, it is generally concededthat iris recognition is the most accur...
verification and identification the subject stands in front of the camera for a fewseconds, and then the image is compared...
improve verification and identification results dramatically.Vein RecognitionBiometrics, such as with vein recognition, re...
capability to fuse with existing biometric technologies. Vein recognition can beused along with fingerprint and hand geome...
heightened sense of security. Profitability increases with the application of 2Dbarcode technologies because it allows for...
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Developing Effective Identification 1

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Developing Effective Identification 1

  1. 1. DEVELOPING EFFECTIVE IDENTIFICATIONINTRODUCTIONOne very important element of access control is identification. Before we talkabout identification let us refresh our minds with what access control is. Accesscontrol is a system which enables an authority to control access to areas andresources in a given physical facility or computer-based information system. Anaccess control system, within the field of physical security, is generally seen as thesecond layer in the security of a physical structure.Access control is, in reality, an everyday phenomenon. A lock on a car door isessentially a form of access control. A PIN on an ATM system at a bank is anothermeans of access control. The possession of access control is of prime importancewhen persons seek to secure important, confidential, or sensitive information andequipment. Access control requires identification, authorization, and inspection.Be they staff, visitors, contractors, suppliers or customers it is very important tohave an effective way of identifying anyone or items that come into our facilitiesor go into the various departments or sections in our organization.Visitors, Contractors, Suppliers IdentificationAll visitors or suppliers or contractors to any facility should be required to identifythemselves. When they are allowed to enter after they have established themselvesas being on an authorized call, they should be limited to predetermined,unrestricted areas. The obvious exception is in firms where the public has freeaccess to the facility—for example, retail stores.If possible, sales, service, and trade personnel should receive clearance in advanceon making an appointment with the person responsible for them being there.Although this is not always possible, most businesses deal with such visitors on anappointment basis, and a system of notifying the security personnel can beestablished in a majority of cases.In some cases, it may be advisable to issue passes that clearly designate thesepeople as visitors. If they will be escorted to and from their destination, a passsystem is probably unnecessary.To achieve security objectives without alienating visitors and without in any way
  2. 2. interfering with the business operation, any effective control system mustincorporate certain specific elements to accomplish its aims. It must limit entry topeople who are authorized to be there and be able to identify such people. It musthave a procedure by which persons may be identified as being authorized to be incertain areas, and it must prevent theft, pilferage, or damage to the facility’s assets.It must also prevent injury to the visitor.Employee IdentificationSmall industrial facilities and most offices find that personal identification ofemployees by guards or receptionists is adequate protection against intrudersentering under the guise of employees. In organizations of more than 50 employeesper shift or in high turnover businesses, this type of identification is inadequate.The opportunity for error is simply too great.Today the most practical and generally accepted system is the use of badges oridentification cards to improve on personally identifying employees. Thesepersonalized ID cards should have facial imaging, and could also have biometricidentity used with access control technology. This will make it unlikely that accessto secured areas will be gained by someone other than the person intended.They should contain a clear and recent photograph of the bearer, preferably incolor. The photograph should be at least 1 inch square and should be updated everytwo or three years or when there is any significant change in facial appearance,such as the badge holder growing or removing a beard or mustache.One good method of taking photographs involve making two picturessimultaneously – one photograph affixed or scanned and pasted on theidentification card and the other on a security file or reference. Should theemployee lose or damage the card, the duplicate should not be used forreplacement – a new set of photographs should be taken but the old copy should bekept. The reason is to guard against possible use for breach of security by a look-alike, or should the card turn up in a police investigation or some other situation.When these happen the company can verify a card found and turned in to ensurethe authenticity of the document. When the card turns out to be a forgery, this canalert the company to new security problem of imposters trying to enter thecompany area with forged ID cards or trying to implicate an employee.ID cards should be numbered serially and a log book containing the numbers andemployees to whom issued should be kept. The serial number of the card sent to
  3. 3. the personnel department for entry to the employee records. The system shoulddesignate when, where, how, and to whom ID cards should be displayed; what is tobe done in case an employee loses the pass; procedures for retrieving cards fromterminating employees; and a system for cancellation and reissue of all cards,either as a security review or when a significant and specific number of cards havebeen reported lost or stolen.The best security includes employees wearing their ID cards to enable observationby security officers and other company employees.To be effective, cards must be tamper-resistant. The badge should, in addition,contain vital statistics such as date of birth, height, weight, color of hair and eyes,gender, and both thumbprints. It should be laminated and of sturdy construction. Incases where facility areas are set off or restricted to general employee traffic, thebadge might be color-coded to indicate the areas to which the bearer has authorizedaccess.It should be noted that a badge system is only be as effective as its enforcement.Facility guards are responsible for seeing that the system is adhered to, but theymust have the cooperation of the majority of the employees and the full support ofmanagement.BIOMETRICS AS A MODE OF IDENTIFICATIONBiometrics takes unique physical characteristics of an individual and uses them foridentification and verification to do something he or she has been authorized to do.Vascular patterns, hand print, finger print, iris patterns, and even voice can be usedto ensure that an individual is who he or she says he or she is, and to let peopleknow that they have been given permission to do whatever it is they are attemptingto do.In highly sensitive operations this is used to grant them access or deny access tounauthorized persons. They include the following:Fingerprint IdentificationFingerprint readers take impressions of the friction ridges of the skin on theunderside of the tip of the fingers. Fingerprints are used to identify an individual,are unique and different to everyone and do not change over time. Even identical
  4. 4. twins who share their DNA do not have the same fingerprints.Fingerprints are formed when the friction ridges of the skin come in contact witha surface that is receptive to a print by using an agent to form the print likeperspiration, oil, ink, grease, etc. The agent is transferred to the surface andleaves an impression which forms the fingerprint.There are several methods of biometric fingerprinting. A livescan devisebasically reads or photographs fingerprints by measuring the physical differencebetween ridges and valleys. The procedure for capturing a fingerprint using asensor consists of rolling or touching with the finger onto a sensing area,capturing the difference between valleys and ridges using a reader.In order to ―lift‖ latent prints it is necessary to use a developer like a powder orchemical reagent to develop or produce a high degree of visual contrast betweenridge patterns and the surface on which it was left. There are many different typesof chemicals used in developing fingerprints and choosing one depends on theagent used to make the fingerprint.There are advances in fingerprinting technique which is non-contact and does notrequire the use of developers, has the potential to allow fingerprints to be retrievedwhile still leaving intact any material that could subsequently be subjected to DNAanalysis.Besides forensic agencies, many companies are turning to fingerprint readers toidentify employees and potential security threats, as in airports and governmentagencies. The computer hardware industry has used fingerprint readers / scannersfor years and the automotive industry is starting to catch on to the idea to identifytheir owners.Whatever the application, fingerprints are the most commonly used forensicevidence worldwide.Iris RecognitionIris cameras perform recognition detection of a person’s identity by mathematicalanalysis of the random patterns that are visible within the iris of an eye fromsome distance. It combines computer vision, pattern recognition, statisticalinference and optics.
  5. 5. Of all the biometric devices and scanners available today, it is generally concededthat iris recognition is the most accurate. The automated method of irisrecognition is relatively new.The iris is the coloured ring around the pupil of every human being and no twoare alike. Each are unique in their own way, exhibiting a distinctive pattern thatforms randomly in uteron. The iris is a muscle that regulates the size of the pupil,controlling the amount of light that enters the eye.Iris recognition is rarely impeded by glasses or contact lenses and can be scannedfrom 10cm to a few meters away. The iris remains stable over time as long asthere are no injuries and a single enrolment scan can last a lifetime.Iris scanning is an ideal way of biometric identification since the iris is an internalorgan that is largely protected by damage and wear by the cornea. This makes itmore attractive then fingerprints which can be difficult to recognize after severalyears of certain types of manual labour.The general uses of iris recognition so far have been: substituting for passports(automated international border crossing); aviation security and controlling accessto restricted areas at airports; database access and computer login; premises accesscontrol; hospital settings including mother-infant pairing in maternity wards;"watch list" screening at border crossings; and it is under considerationfor biometrically enabled National Identity Cards.Having only become automated and available within the last decade, the irisrecognition concept and industry are still relatively new. Through thedetermination and commitment of the iris industry and government evaluations,growth and progress will continue.Facial RecognitionA facial recognition device is one that views an image or video of a person andcompares it to one that is in the database. It does this by comparing structure,shape and proportions of the face; distance between the eyes, nose, mouth andjaw; upper outlines of the eye sockets; the sides of the mouth; location of the noseand eyes; and the area surrounding the cheek bones.Upon enrolment in a facial recognition program, several pictures are taken of thesubject at different angles and with different facial expressions. At time of
  6. 6. verification and identification the subject stands in front of the camera for a fewseconds, and then the image is compared to those that have been previouslyrecorded.To prevent a subject from using a picture or mask when being scanned in a facialrecognition program, some security measures have been put into place. When theuser is being scanned, they may be asked to blink, smile or nod their head.Another security feature would be the use of facial thermography to record theheat in the face.Some facial recognition software algorithms identify faces by extracting featuresfrom an image of a subjects face. Other algorithms normalize a gallery of faceimages and then compress the face data, only saving the data in the image that canbe used for facial recognition. A probe image is then compared with the face data.A fairly new method on the market is three-dimensional facial recognition. Thismethod uses 3-D sensors to capture information about the shape of a face. Thisinformation is then used to identify distinctive features on the face, such as thecontour of eye sockets, nose and chin.Another new technique in facial recognition uses the visual details of the skin, ascaptured in standard digital or scanned images. This technique is called skintexture analysis, turns the unique lines, patterns, and spots apparent in a personsskin into a mathematical space.The benefits of facial recognition are that it is not intrusive, can be done from adistance even without the user being aware they are being scanned. (i.e.: bank orgovernment office)What sets apart facial recognition from other biometric techniques is that it can beused for surveillance purposes; as in searching for wanted criminals, suspectedterrorists, and missing children. Facial recognition can be done from far away sowith no contact with the subject so they are unaware they are being scanned.Facial recognition is most beneficial to use for facial authentication than foridentification purposes, as it is too easy for someone to alter their face, featureswith a disguise or mask, etc. Environment is also a consideration as well as subjectmotion and focus on the camera.Facial recognition, when used in combination with another biometric method, can
  7. 7. improve verification and identification results dramatically.Vein RecognitionBiometrics, such as with vein recognition, refers to methods for recognizingindividual people based on unique physical and behavioral traits. Physiologicalbiometrics is one class of biometrics that deals with physical characteristics andattributes that are unique to individuals. Vein recognition is a type of biometricsthat can be used to identify individuals based on the vein patterns in the humanfinger.Vein recognition is a fairly recent technological advance in the field ofbiometrics. It is used in hospitals, law enforcement, military facilities and otherapplications that require very high levels of security. Vein recognition biometricdevices can also be used for PC login, bank ATM identification verification, andmany other applications such as opening car doors.Vein recognition biometrics is a particularly impressive and promisingtechnology because it requires only a single-chip design, meaning that the unitsare relatively small and cheap. The ID verification process is very fast andcontact-less. Using a light-transmission technique, the structure of the veinpattern can be detected, captured and subsequently verified.The users vein pattern structure is image processed by the device and stored in arelevant data repository in the form of digital data. Many feel that veinrecognition biometrics can produce higher accuracy rates than finger printrecognition and finger vein patterns are virtually impossible to forge.There are a variety of methods for vein recognition biometric technology. Somecompanies have developed devices that scan the vein structure pattern in the indexfinger, or more than one finger at a time. Others have developed vein recognitiondevices designed for reading the vein patterns located under the palm and at theback of the hand. The variety of devices available gives a wide selection of choicesfor consumers to meet different needs and demands.Vein patterns are unique to each individual and they do not change over timeexcept in size so it is hardly possible to fool the technology. Vein recognitiontechnology is arguably the most suitable for high-security deployment.Other promising facts about vein recognition biometric technologies include their
  8. 8. capability to fuse with existing biometric technologies. Vein recognition can beused along with fingerprint and hand geometric technology, provide one-to-manymatching and also enhance security and decrease vulnerability for fraud.Adoption of vein recognition technologies has been highest among financialinstitutions and it is used commonly for ATM identity verification and PC loginauthentication where high security is a necessity.2D Barcode Readers2D Barcode biometrics refers to a two-dimensional method of representing digitalsecurity information stored in biometric technologies. Suppliers of thistechnology provide 2D barcode biometrics applications products for businesses,often for fast, easy product identification, or easier and more efficient time andattendance systems for employees.Companies using 2D barcode biometric technologies can expect greaterefficiency and higher productivity because such products greatly lessen the time ittakes to correctly identify merchandise and lowers the necessary time and effortfor doing payroll if the company uses a 2D barcode identification system forlogging hours.2D barcode technologies work in concert with physiological biometric securitydevices to ensure the maximum level of security possible and identify both itemsand people. At airports for example, a biometric fingerprint sensor converts theindividuals unique fingerprint pattern into a 2D barcode which is subsequentlyprinted on the passengers boarding pass.Converting a biometric physical characteristic such as fingerprints, vein structurepattern, iris, or DNA into a 2D barcode helps process complex data more quicklyand easily in many large and busy networks such as at airports. The developmentand improvement of 2D barcode technology has allowed for increased levels ofsecurity without slowing down travelers and holding up lines.All the complex data which physiological biometric devices deal with such as thecomplex and intricate vein structure patterns, digitized in vein recognitionbiometrics, is condensed into a flat, small rectangle area called a 2D barcode.For applications in retail, production and manufacturing, 2D barcode technologyassists business owners to run their companies efficiently, productively, and with a
  9. 9. heightened sense of security. Profitability increases with the application of 2Dbarcode technologies because it allows for asset tracking and theft preventionsecurity systems. Owners and managers can track their products resulting in fewerlosses and less potential for human error.Drivers licenses, and many other major Identification cards, especially importantones all contain 2D barcodes to make verification quick and easy. The 2D barcodeon the card is extremely useful because it contains a great amount of data that isnearly impossible to replicate and all on a small compact area.The effectiveness and popularity of 2D barcodes has given rise to an entireindustry of mobile biometric devices used for important security purposes, suchapplications would be impossible without 2d barcodes. In government, lawenforcement and the military, mobile devices using biometric identificationauthentication techniques rely on 2D barcodes to verify and transmit importantdata across significant distances.2D barcodes work by using upper and lower case letters, numerical symbols andspecial characters all compressed very small into a compact area. Some barcodeseven use compressed images. The information contained in this compressed formatis read extremely quickly and easily by a digital device.CONCLUSIONIdentification is a key aspect of security which is growing in wider application invarious security settings. It has transcended physical and documented identificationto high technology system-based identification. Organizations that are serious withpreventing unauthorized intrusion into their physical facilities or virtual networksnow look to new and improved technologies used for identification.In developing identification systems, organizations must look beyond the basicemployee, visitor, contractor or supplier identification as these may be limited inthe access control of highly facilities and operations.Thank you.Ogaga Ovbioghor11/7/11

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