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- 1. Deductive Instructional Approaches
- 2. 1.discuss the nature of deductive instructional approaches when applied in the teaching-learning process; 2 .identify the instructional models that make the development of deductive lessons possible;
- 3. 3 .describe the development of deductive lesson from its conceptualization to evaluation and assessment; 4 .discuss the significance of the deductive reasoning model and identify the content;
- 4. of instruction that will match the instructional the instructional model 5.Compare and contrast the different instructional models by applying each one in the development of selected lessons
- 5. 6. Discuss the principles and guidelines that will facilitate the development of effective deductive lessons; 7.Develop lessons utilizing the deductive instructional approaches; 8.Give the similarities and differences of the inductive and deductive models;
- 6. 9.Prepare a chart showing the movement of a deductive lesson; 10.Compare the movement in the conduct of instruction of the inductive and deductive lessons.
- 7. Deductive Instructional Models Deductive Reasoning Model -this model proceeds from principles or generalizations to their application in specific instances.
- 8. Syntax for Deductive Reasoning Model: 1. State a theory or generalization to be tested 2. Form a hypothesis in the form of a prediction. 3. Observe or collect data to test the hypothesis.
- 9. 4. Analyze and interpret the data to determine if the prediction is true. 5. Conclude whether the generalization holds true in the specific context from which it was taken.
- 10. -these are verbal statements at the beginning of a lesson that preview and structure new material and link it to the content students already understand.
- 11. Types of Organizers: Expository organizers -these organizers provide a basic concept at the highest level of abstraction and perhaps some lesser concepts.
- 12. Comparative organizers -these organizers are used with relatively familiar material.
- 13. Syntax for the Advance Organizer Model: Phase 1: Presentation of Advance Organizer Phase 2: Presentation of learning task or material Phase 3: Strengthening of the cognitive organization
- 14. PRESENTATION TEACHING MODEL - this model requires a teacher to provide students with advance organizers before presenting new information and to make special efforts during and following the presentation to strengthen and extend student thinking.
- 15. SYNTAX FOR THE PRESENTATION MODEL( Arends 2004) Phase Teacher Behavior Phase 1: clarify aims and Teacher reviews the aims of establish set the lesson and get students ready to learn. Phase 2: present advance organizers Teacher presents advance organizer and make sure that a framework for later learning materials is provided and is connected to students’ prior knowledge.
- 16. Phase Teacher Behavior Phase 3: present learning materials teacher presents learning materials and pays special attention to their logical ordering and meaningfulness to students. Phase 4: check for Teacher asks questions and elicits student responses to the presentation to extend student thinking and encourage precise and critical thinking understanding and strengthen student thinking
- 17. -centers on the idea that the design process should begin with identifying of the desired results and then moving backwards to develop instruction. - the process starts not with the lesson, but with teachers’ expectations for the end result.
- 18. (According to Wiggins and McTighe Framework) Three main stages Stage 1. identify desired results Stage 2. determine acceptable evidence Stage 3.plan learning experiences and instruction
- 19. Stage 1:Identify desired results identifies enduring understanding, the learning that endures over the long term. Backward design uses a question format rather than unreasonable objectives. The questions focus on the line inquiry to the desired learning.
- 20. Stage 2: Determine acceptable evidence defines the form of assessment, which will demonstrate that students have acquired the desired knowledge, understanding, and skill.
- 21. Stage 3: Plan learning experience and instruction - determines what sequence of teaching and learning experiences will equip students to develop and demonstrate the desired understanding.
- 22. -it is an instructional approach in which the teacher presents information and follows it up with question-andanswer sessions.
- 23. 1. 2. 3. 4. Identify the main points to be covered Select an advance organizer Use examples to illustrate each point Summarize the points and refer back to the organizer
- 24. -a lecture is considered formal teacher talk. -it encompasses lecturing to and talking with students .
- 25. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Introduction Presentation Comprehension Monitoring Integration Review and Closure
- 26. TEACHING INDUCTIVELY TEACHING DEDUCTIVELY -students students consider given generalizations and provide supporting data. Deductive thinking often requires that students evaluate the merit of an activity, object or idea. collect, organize, and examine data; identify common elements; make generalizations based on common or general elements
- 27. TEACHING INDUCTIVELY TEACHING DEDUCTIVELY -students are first presented with specific data and facts; and gradually through the process of investigation and reasoning, they form the generalization, rule, or concept definition. -the lesson begins with the presentation of a generalization, a rule, or a concept definition. -students are given specific examples, along with facts, associated with a generalization, concept, or rule. -in moving from general to specific, students are encouraged to draw inferences and make predictions based on examples.
- 28. Teaching Inductively Teaching Deductively -the presentation starts with real-life examples and moves on to general rules or principles. -the presentation starts with general principles or rules and goes on to more detailed or specific examples. - the teacher presents specific data from which a generalization is to be drawn. -the teacher reviews the taskrelevant prior facts, rules and action sequences needed to form the generalization
- 29. Teaching Inductively Teaching Deductively -each student is allowed uninterrupted time to observe or study the data that illustrates the generalization -students are shown additional examples and then nonexamples containing the generalization -students raise question, pose hypothesis, or make a prediction thought to be contained in the generalization
- 30. Teaching Inductively -student’s attention is guided to the critical or relevant aspects of the data containing the generalization and then to its non-critical or irrelevant aspects -a generalization is made that can distinguish the examples from nonexamples Teaching Deductively -data , events, materials or objects are gathered and observed to test the prediction -the starting generalization is refined or revised in accordance with the observations

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