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# Deductive instructional approaches

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### Deductive instructional approaches

1. 1. Deductive Instructional Approaches
2. 2. 1.discuss the nature of deductive instructional approaches when applied in the teaching-learning process; 2 .identify the instructional models that make the development of deductive lessons possible;
3. 3. 3 .describe the development of deductive lesson from its conceptualization to evaluation and assessment; 4 .discuss the significance of the deductive reasoning model and identify the content;
4. 4. of instruction that will match the instructional the instructional model 5.Compare and contrast the different instructional models by applying each one in the development of selected lessons
5. 5. 6. Discuss the principles and guidelines that will facilitate the development of effective deductive lessons; 7.Develop lessons utilizing the deductive instructional approaches; 8.Give the similarities and differences of the inductive and deductive models;
6. 6. 9.Prepare a chart showing the movement of a deductive lesson; 10.Compare the movement in the conduct of instruction of the inductive and deductive lessons.
7. 7. Deductive Instructional Models  Deductive Reasoning Model -this model proceeds from principles or generalizations to their application in specific instances.
8. 8. Syntax for Deductive Reasoning Model: 1. State a theory or generalization to be tested 2. Form a hypothesis in the form of a prediction. 3. Observe or collect data to test the hypothesis.
9. 9. 4. Analyze and interpret the data to determine if the prediction is true. 5. Conclude whether the generalization holds true in the specific context from which it was taken.
10. 10. -these are verbal statements at the beginning of a lesson that preview and structure new material and link it to the content students already understand.
11. 11. Types of Organizers:  Expository organizers -these organizers provide a basic concept at the highest level of abstraction and perhaps some lesser concepts.
12. 12.  Comparative organizers -these organizers are used with relatively familiar material.
13. 13. Syntax for the Advance Organizer Model: Phase 1: Presentation of Advance Organizer Phase 2: Presentation of learning task or material Phase 3: Strengthening of the cognitive organization
14. 14. PRESENTATION TEACHING MODEL - this model requires a teacher to provide students with advance organizers before presenting new information and to make special efforts during and following the presentation to strengthen and extend student thinking.
15. 15. SYNTAX FOR THE PRESENTATION MODEL( Arends 2004) Phase Teacher Behavior Phase 1: clarify aims and Teacher reviews the aims of establish set the lesson and get students ready to learn. Phase 2: present advance organizers Teacher presents advance organizer and make sure that a framework for later learning materials is provided and is connected to students’ prior knowledge.
16. 16. Phase Teacher Behavior Phase 3: present learning materials teacher presents learning materials and pays special attention to their logical ordering and meaningfulness to students. Phase 4: check for Teacher asks questions and elicits student responses to the presentation to extend student thinking and encourage precise and critical thinking understanding and strengthen student thinking
17. 17. -centers on the idea that the design process should begin with identifying of the desired results and then moving backwards to develop instruction. - the process starts not with the lesson, but with teachers’ expectations for the end result.
18. 18. (According to Wiggins and McTighe Framework) Three main stages Stage 1. identify desired results Stage 2. determine acceptable evidence Stage 3.plan learning experiences and instruction
19. 19. Stage 1:Identify desired results identifies enduring understanding, the learning that endures over the long term. Backward design uses a question format rather than unreasonable objectives. The questions focus on the line inquiry to the desired learning.
20. 20. Stage 2: Determine acceptable evidence defines the form of assessment, which will demonstrate that students have acquired the desired knowledge, understanding, and skill.
21. 21. Stage 3: Plan learning experience and instruction - determines what sequence of teaching and learning experiences will equip students to develop and demonstrate the desired understanding.
22. 22. -it is an instructional approach in which the teacher presents information and follows it up with question-andanswer sessions.
23. 23. 1. 2. 3. 4. Identify the main points to be covered Select an advance organizer Use examples to illustrate each point Summarize the points and refer back to the organizer
24. 24. -a lecture is considered formal teacher talk. -it encompasses lecturing to and talking with students .
25. 25. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Introduction Presentation Comprehension Monitoring Integration Review and Closure
26. 26. TEACHING INDUCTIVELY TEACHING DEDUCTIVELY -students students consider given generalizations and provide supporting data. Deductive thinking often requires that students evaluate the merit of an activity, object or idea. collect, organize, and examine data; identify common elements; make generalizations based on common or general elements
27. 27. TEACHING INDUCTIVELY TEACHING DEDUCTIVELY -students are first presented with specific data and facts; and gradually through the process of investigation and reasoning, they form the generalization, rule, or concept definition. -the lesson begins with the presentation of a generalization, a rule, or a concept definition. -students are given specific examples, along with facts, associated with a generalization, concept, or rule. -in moving from general to specific, students are encouraged to draw inferences and make predictions based on examples.
28. 28. Teaching Inductively Teaching Deductively -the presentation starts with real-life examples and moves on to general rules or principles. -the presentation starts with general principles or rules and goes on to more detailed or specific examples. - the teacher presents specific data from which a generalization is to be drawn. -the teacher reviews the taskrelevant prior facts, rules and action sequences needed to form the generalization
29. 29. Teaching Inductively Teaching Deductively -each student is allowed uninterrupted time to observe or study the data that illustrates the generalization -students are shown additional examples and then nonexamples containing the generalization -students raise question, pose hypothesis, or make a prediction thought to be contained in the generalization
30. 30. Teaching Inductively -student’s attention is guided to the critical or relevant aspects of the data containing the generalization and then to its non-critical or irrelevant aspects -a generalization is made that can distinguish the examples from nonexamples Teaching Deductively -data , events, materials or objects are gathered and observed to test the prediction -the starting generalization is refined or revised in accordance with the observations