Physiological Need: These are the basic human needs including food, clothing, shelter and other necessities of life. Safety Need: These includes economics security, protection and physical danger. Social Need: Need of love, affection, emotional needs and friendship. Self-Esteem Need: Ego-self esteem, self respect, self confidence, recognition. Self-Actualization Need: Desire of personal achievement and mission of his life.
Theory “X”: The assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, avoid responsibility, and must be forced to perform. Theory “Y”: The assumption that employees are creative, enjoy work, seek responsibility and exercise self- direction.
Motivation-Hygeine Theory:The Motivation theory that intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction and motivation, whereas extrinsic factors are associated with job dissatisfactionHygiene Factors: Supervision Company policy Relationship with supervisor Working conditions
Hygeine Factor Contd: Personal life Subordinates Status Security SalaryMotivators: Achievement Recognition Work itself Responsibility Growth
Hygiene Factors: Factors that eliminate job dissatisfaction but doesnt motivate. Motivators: Factors that increase job satisfaction and motivation.
Three Need TheoryNeed Of Achievement (nAch) Doing better than competitors. Attaining a difficult goal. Solving a complex problem.
Three Need Theory (Contd)Need Of Power (nPow) Controlling peoples and activities Being in a position of authority over others Defeating on opponent
Three Need Theory (Contd)Need Of Affiliation (nAff): Being liked by many people Working with people who are friendly and co-operative Participating in pleasant social activities
Goal Setting Theory Specific goal increase performance Difficult goal when accepted, result in higher performance.
Reinforcement Theory: The theory that behaviour is a function of its result. Behaviour is a function of its result Purpose Direct Action Behaviour is externally caused Reinforce control behaviour Ignore, goal, expectation and need Focus on result of action
Equity Theory: The employee compare his or her job‟s inputs- outputs ratio with that of relevant others and then corrects any inequity.
EQUITY THEORY (OVER- EQUITY THEORY (UNDER-REWARDED) REWARDED) Payment By Time: Payment By Time:They produce more . They produce less . Payment By Quantity: Payment By Quantity:They produce fewer. They produce in large number.
Expectancy Theory:Theory states that an individual tends to act in a certainway based on the expectation that the act will be followedby a given outcome and on the attractiveness of thatoutcome to the individual. Expectancy Points:Individual acts in certain way based on the expectation ofthe output.Individual acts in certain way based on the effort involved.Individual acts in certain way based on the attractivenessof the reward.
Job Design - the way tasks are combined to form complete jobs Historically, concentrated on making jobs more specialized Job Enlargement - horizontal expansion of job Job scope - the number of different tasks required in a job and the frequency with which these tasks are repeated Provides few challenges, little meaning to workers‟ activities Only addresses the lack of variety in specialized jobs Job Enrichment - vertical expansion of job Job depth - degree of control employees have over their work Empowers employees to do tasks typically performed by their managers Research evidence has been inconclusive about the effect of job enrichment on performance
Jobs are described in terms of five core characteristics Skill variety - degree to which job requires a variety of activities more variety, greater need to use different skills Task identity - degree to which job requires completion of an identifiable piece of work Task significance - degree to which job has substantial impact on the lives of other people Autonomy - degree to which job provides substantial freedom, independence, and discretion in performing the work, give employee a feeling of personal responsibility Feedback - degree to which carrying out the job results in receiving clear information about the effectiveness with which it has been performed, employee knows how effectively s/he is performing
Motivating a Diverse Workforce– Flexibility is the key to motivating a diverseworkforce• diverse array of rewards necessary to satisfydiverse personal needs and goals– Flexible Working Schedule• compressed workweek - employees worklonger hours per day but fewer days per week
Motivating a Diverse Workforce (cont.)– Flexible Working Schedule (cont.)• flexible work hours (flextime) - employees required towork a specific number of hours a week but are free tovary those hours within certain limits– system entails common core hours when all employees are required to be on the job– starting, ending, and lunch-hour times are flexible• job sharing - two or more people split a full-time job• telecommuting - employees work at home and arelinked to the workplace by computer and modem
Motivating a Diverse Workforce (cont.)– Cultural Differences in Motivation• motivation theories developed in the U.S. and validated with American workers• may be some cross-cultural consistencies Pay-for-Performance• instead of paying for time on the job, pay is adjusted to reflect some performance measure• compatible with expectancy theory• imparts strong performance-reward linkage• programs are gaining in popularity• research suggests that programs affect performance
Open-Book Management– involve employees in workplace decisions by opening up the financial statements– workers treated as business partners– may also provide bonuses based on profit improvements Motivating the “New Workforce”– Motivating Professionals - professionals tend to derive• intrinsic satisfaction from their work and receive high pay• more loyal to their profession than their employer• value challenging jobs and support for their work
Motivating the “New Workforce” (cont.)– Issues in Motivating Contingent Workers - part-time, contract, or temporary workers•less security and stability than permanent employees• receive fewer benefits• repercussions of mixing permanent and contingent workers when pay differentials are significant– Two solutions to motivate contingent workers• opportunity to become a permanent employee• opportunity for training
Motivating the “New Workforce” (cont.)– Motivating Low-Skilled, Minimum-Wage Employees• difficult challenge to keep performance levels high• employee recognition programs– highlight employees whose work performance hasbeen good– encourage others to perform better– power of praise• in service industries, empower front-line employees to address customers‟ problems– tie compensation to customer satisfaction
Stock option program Financial instruments that give employees the right to purchase shares of stock at a set price. Idea behind this was to turn employees into „owners‟ Strong incentive to work hard to make company successful.Job rotation Major attempt to overcome job boredom. By either simplifying a complex job, or specializing a simple one.