Ltd Literature Review

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A brief literature review for training process

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  • Zhejiang University 06/15/10 08:19 © 2004, Tjitra
  • Zhejiang University 06/15/10 08:19 © 2004, Tjitra
  • Ltd Literature Review

    1. 1. Learning, Training and Development Benchmarking Best Practices in China Literature Review By Zhu Min
    2. 2. Agenda Training Need Analysis Training Design and Delivery Training Evaluation Training Transfer
    3. 3. Training Need Analysis A training needs analysis is primarily conducted to determine where training is needed, what needs to be taught, and who needs to be trained. --- Goldstein 1993 --- McGehee & Thayer’s (1961) Three- fold approach to need analysis Organizational Analysis Person Analysis Task/Job Analysis Training courses & the strategic direction of the organization; training objectives & organizational goals. Identify the nature of the tasks & the knowledge, skills and abilities need to perform these tasks. Identify who should be trained and what training needed. How to improve the efficiency of need analysis? 1 2 Subject Matter Expert Trainee’s Motivation
    4. 4. Training Design and Delivery Influencing factors when design? Organization Trainee
    5. 5. Training Design and Delivery <ul><li>In-basket </li></ul><ul><li>Computerized business games </li></ul><ul><li>Leaderless group discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Two general themes in training design and delivery: </li></ul><ul><li>New approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Specific training methods </li></ul>Technology-delivered instruction (TDI) Simulation-based training Team training <ul><li>Cross-training </li></ul><ul><li>Team coordination training </li></ul><ul><li>Team leadership training </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>New approaches
    6. 6. Training Evaluation An evaluation conducted to determine whether intended training goals and outcomes are achieved is called a summative evaluation. Model 1: Kirkpatrick's for level evaluation model (1959) An evaluation intended to provide information on improving program design and development is called formative evaluation. Scriven, 1991 Evaluation Models
    7. 7. Tannenbaum et al. (1993) expanded on Kirkpatrick’s typology by adding posttraining attitudes and dividing behavior into two outcomes for evaluation: training performance and transfer performance. Model 2: Tannenbaum et al (1993) 3. Holton's(1996) evaluation model
    8. 8. Model 5: IMTEE Model 4: . Kraiger (2002)
    9. 9. Training Transfer -- Baldwin and Ford, 1988 Transfer of training  may be defined as the degree to which trainees apply to their jobs the knowledge, skills, behaviors, and attitudes they gained in training. -- Holton, 1998 Influencing factors on training transfer <ul><li>Trainee characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Ability </li></ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Training design </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer design </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate content </li></ul><ul><li>Work environment </li></ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity to use </li></ul>… Interventions to enhance transfer <ul><li>Learner readiness and self-efficacy </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation to transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer effort to performance expectations </li></ul>Based on needs analysis <ul><li>Performance coaching </li></ul><ul><li>Supervisor support, supervisor sanctions, peer support </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance-openness to change </li></ul>…
    10. 10. Lisa A. Burke learning transfer model
    11. 12. That’s all! Thanks.

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