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[Slideshare]tauhid course(#11).pptx

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“INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF TAUHEED” …

“INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF TAUHEED”

Intermediate Level Islamic course in English for Adults conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (Singapore)

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  • 1. “ INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF TAU H EED” Intermediate Level Islamic course in English for Adults conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 16 weekly class started: 27 Nov 2010 Every Saturday night @ 8pm – 10pm Wisma Indah, 448 Changi Road, #02-00 next to Masjid Kassim INTRODUCING START OF A NEW COURSE [2] Using curriculum he has developed especially for English-speaking Muslim converts and young English-speaking Adult Muslims. طَلَبُ الْعِلْم فَرِيضَةٌ على كُلِّ مُسْلِم “ To seek knowledge is obligatory upon every Muslim (male & female)” For further information and registration contact Sameer Abdul Jalil (9669 8512) - or e-mail <sameer_al_abd@yahoo.com> IT CAN ALSO BE A REFRESHER COURSE FOR MUSLIM PARENTS, EDUCATORS, IN CONTEMPORARY SINGAPORE. OPEN TO ALL IN THE NAME OF ALLAH MOST COMPASIONATE MOST MERCIFUL All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 “ TAU H EED AS-SIFAT” LESSON - # 11
  • 2. PREVIOUS TOPICS All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 3. <ul><li>BELIEVE IN THE ONE GOD – WHO ALONE IS THE CREATOR DIVINE. </li></ul><ul><li>( al-khaliq-qiyyah ) </li></ul><ul><li>This is not unique to Muslims. Even pagan worshippers and idolaters acknowledge this. </li></ul><ul><li>BELIEVE IN THE ONE GOD – WHO ALONE IS THE SUSTAINER DIVINE. </li></ul><ul><li>( ar-rub-bubiyyah ) </li></ul><ul><li>This is where Muslims differ with pagan worshippers, idolaters and unbelievers, because they erroneously ascribe to others besides Allah. similar ‘Divine’ roles in the Sustainment of this universe. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 4. <ul><li>It can be discern that people’s idea or knowledge that God exist, generally pertains to Him being the Creator. </li></ul><ul><li>But, when we further consider God’s role in the universe and man’s life, differences occur. </li></ul><ul><li>Those who deny Him as the only Absolute Sustainer, Cherisher of the universe, would inadvertently be ascribing to others this divine role. </li></ul><ul><li>BELIEVE IN THE ONE GOD – </li></ul><ul><li>WHO ALONE IS THE DIVINE. </li></ul><ul><li>( al-uluhiyyah ) </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 5. <ul><li>Therefore, because some people’s knowledge of God may still be ambiguous, they need to have clear understanding of what we mean by “ Divinity and the concept of the Divine ” termed – Uluhiyyah . </li></ul><ul><li>That in regard to God being “Divine” ( ILAAH ) – there is only One, Who alone is the Divine, without associates or partners. </li></ul><ul><li>This is termed – TAU H EED AL-ULUHIYYAH . </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 6. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 PREVIOUS TOPICS
  • 7. Knowledge concerning the “Divine” (ILAAHIYAT) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 PREVIOUS TOPICS
  • 8. <ul><li>Knowledge concerning the “Divine” (ILAAHIYAT) </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 “ Say : He is Allah, the Absolute One. Allah is the Eternal, the Most Besought of all * , He begets not, and neither is He begotten; and there is nothing that could be compared to Him.” ( Qur’an: al-Ikhlas: 112: 1-4 ) PREVIOUS TOPICS
  • 9. <ul><li>Criterion which clarify our concept of God </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 [1] The name, proper noun for God is “ ALLAH – ٱللَّه He, most Exalted, is the Absolute One: indivisible, unique, the only Divine, without any other, before or after. If one entertains the possibility of another like “ Allah ”, then his understanding of what constitute the “ Divinity ” is flawed. PREVIOUS TOPICS
  • 10. <ul><li>ٱللَّهُ </li></ul><ul><li>“ Allah” : Arabic proper noun; name for God, it refers to the One and Only, the Unique Creator, Lord Sustainer of the Universe, Who Alone is God – there is none besides Allah. </li></ul><ul><li>No equivalent translation in non-Semitic language. </li></ul>Criterion which clarify our concept of God All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 PREVIOUS TOPICS
  • 11. <ul><li>Criterion which clarify our concept of God </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 [2] “Allah” is referred to as “ As-Somad ” (in Arabic) which has a profound meaning. There is no equivalent word for it in English, and requires explanations. * the original Arabic word “ As-Somad ” means “ the Eternal, the Uncaused Cause of all being ” PREVIOUS TOPICS
  • 12. <ul><li>Criterion which clarify our concept of God </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 ٱلصَّمَدُ “ As-Somad” is therefore applied to God Alone. It comprises the concept of the Primary Cause and Eternal, independent Being; and also the idea that everything existing or conceivable goes back to Him as its source; and is therefore dependent on Him for its beginning as well as for its continued existence. PREVIOUS TOPICS
  • 13. <ul><li>Criterion which clarify our concept of God </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 [3] “ Allah ” – is the only “ Divine ”. Islam categorically refute any false notion which people ascribe to the “ Divine ”, especially that of God procreating (begetting another God). A “ Divine ” exists without need for any other, whereas “ son ” requires a father. These two terms together are antithetical (contradictory and absurd). PREVIOUS TOPICS
  • 14. <ul><li>Criterion which clarify our concept of God </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 [4] Since “ Allah ” – is Unique and the only “ Divine ”, there is nothing that can be compared to Him, absolutely there can be no equivalent. Whatever we can visualize or imagine, fall short of Allah’s Exaltedness, and must negated - Glory be to Allah ( SUB-HAANALLAAH ! ). PREVIOUS TOPICS
  • 15. <ul><li>Only Allah is the God ( al- ilaah ), there is no other that is God except “ Allah ”. </li></ul><ul><li>لآ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ الله </li></ul><ul><li>“ Laa-ilaa -ha - il-lAllaah” </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 PREVIOUS TOPICS
  • 16. <ul><li>IMPORTANT TO NOTE </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptually regarding this aspect, i.e. to only regard Allah as the only Absolute One in His Divinity ( ULUHIYYAH ), and to regard Allah as the only Absolute Sustainer ( RUBBUBIYYAH ) marks the True Criterion in the belief in the Oneness of Allah . </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 PREVIOUS TOPICS
  • 17. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 PREVIOUS TOPICS
  • 18. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 TO CONTINUE
  • 19. <ul><li>This is the continuation from my previous “Intermediate Lesson on Islam - Tau h eed ” module *. In that part one module, we have covered topics of : </li></ul><ul><li>[1] Introduction to the various Approaches in Developing Aqeedah - Tau h eed (Attestation to Oneness of God). </li></ul><ul><li>[2] Tau h eed al-Khaaliqiyyah </li></ul><ul><li>[3] Tau h eed ar-Rububiyyah </li></ul><ul><li>[4] Tau h eed al-Uluhiyyah wal- ‘Ubudiyyah </li></ul><ul><li>So now, for Tauheed part two module, I shall cover “Tau h eed as-Sifat” </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 20. This is one of the traditional approaches in ensuring the understanding of attributes of Allah, amongst Muslims who are exposed to other religious or philosophical views, does not deviate from that of the pious predecessors’ (Salafus-Soleheen) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 MUQADDIMAH INTRODUCTION
  • 21. &quot;(To know Allah) Think and reflect upon Allah's attributes ( Sifaat ) and do not try to think of (reality of) His Essence ( Dzat ).“ ( Hadith reported by Abu-Shaykh – al Jami’ : 134 Risalah Tauhid ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 22. <ul><li>When the Qur’an was revealed, it succinctly expounded and clarify the message of TAU H EED , in the best Arabic to the Arabic-speaking people whose mastery of Arabic was at the highest. </li></ul><ul><li>In fact, the Arabs then, had recognized the Qur’an as a miracle - Divinely revealed - not the speech of man. </li></ul><ul><li>And they knew very well the metaphors, the linguistic eloquence, the profound and depth to meanings etc. which to them, are adequately self-explanatory. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 23. <ul><li>Unfortunately, mastery of the Qur’anic (classical) Arabic language amongst the masses tends to diminish, or it may become weakened , except amongst Islamic scholars. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus the Muslims in general, have had to rely upon Islamic jurists and scholars from whichever Madzaahib (schools of theology and jurisprudence). </li></ul><ul><li>Each strove to preserve and transmit the traditional scholastic methods in understanding primary sources (Al-Qur’an and Ahadith) and teaching the masses. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 24. <ul><li>The ‘golden era’ according to the Prophet s.a.a.w., which became the exemplary era from which Muslims of later period relied upon as source of the pure Islamic teachings and principle methodology ( MANHAJ ), are called the period of the pious predecessors ( SALAFUS-SOLI H EEN ). </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 25. <ul><li>The ‘golden era’ according to the Prophet s.a.a.w., which became the exemplary era from which Muslims of later period relied upon as source of the pure Islamic teachings and principle methodology ( MANHAJ ), are called the period of the pious predecessors ( SALAFUS-SOLI H EEN ). </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 “ The best of mankind – (believers) – are in my generation, then (a generation) after it, and then (another generation) after that.” ( Hadith reported by Bukhary and Muslim )
  • 26. <ul><li>During the first three generations ( Qurn’ Salafus-Soli h een ), there were few religious or theological disagreements or dissentions amongst Islamic scholars. </li></ul><ul><li>But inevitably schism did arose much later as prophesised : </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 27. <ul><li>During the first three generations ( Qurn’ Salafus-Soli h een ), there were few religious or theological disagreements or dissentions amongst Islamic scholars. </li></ul><ul><li>But inevitably schism did arose much later as prophesised : </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 “ And whoever amongst you lives after me will see many conflicts (disagreements), let him then adhere to whatever they know o f my Sunnah and the Sunnah of my Rightly guided Khalifah.” ( Hadith reported by Ahmad )
  • 28. <ul><li>It was compounded by the people being exposed to other cultural-thoughts, philosophy and methods (especially from the ancient Greek-Persian-Indo civilizations) . </li></ul><ul><li>Thus the method and approach to teaching the Qur’anic creed of TAU H EED of the pious generation ( Salafus-Soli h ), had to be revised to preserve the true teachings * , lest misinterpretations due to man’s own weakness may occur. </li></ul><ul><li>Please note, it is the approach and method of teaching that was revised, </li></ul><ul><li>not the Creed. This is in conformity with the Prophet’s Sunnah s.a.a.w.: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Speak to people in accordance with their intellectual capacity.” </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 29. <ul><li>In the first three generations ( SHAHABI, TABI’ and TABIT-TABI’IN – period ), the AQEEDAH of the Muslims regarding MA’RIFATULLAAH (Knowledge in Knowing Allah) was never a problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Although differences of opinion regarding politics and other secondary issues did occur, yet in deriving understanding of theological and creed matters ( AQEEDAH ) , reliance upon revealed knowledge ( QUR’AN & AHADITH ) overrides any human speculations. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 30. <ul><li>It was in later era, when many non-Arabs came into Islam; when adherence to primary sources by the general Muslims decreased, whereas the learning and translation of all available sciences from other civilizations especially the Greek philosophy - and speculative theology and rational discourses became popular, that problems arose. </li></ul><ul><li>The dominance of the rationalists ( MU’TAZILITE ) scholars threatened to undermine the traditional reliance upon Revelation. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 31. <ul><li>When the Mu’tazilites (rationalists influenced by Greek philosophy) introduced innovations ( BID’AH ) that threatened to undermine and replace the true creed ( AQEEDAH ) consistent with the Prophetic generation, that Islamic scholars – notably Imam Abul Hassan al-Ash-’arie and Abu Mansur al-Maturidi et. al. ; - came up with the relevant response to safeguard its theological belief – (termed as the creed of “the People of Tradition and the Community” or “ Ahlus-Sunnah wal- Jama ’ah ”). </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 32. <ul><li>At that time there was tension between several extreme views: </li></ul><ul><li>[1] The Literalists – who follow textual basis ( AL-QUR’AN and AHADITH ) as it is, and refusing the use of reasoning ( TA’WIL ) in understanding those verses which are allegorical ( MUTASHABBIHA ), since most from SALAF generation refrained from this (interpreting) – yet the difference with them was they tend to use the literal meaning of these verses and created controversy ( FITNAH ). </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 33. <ul><li>At that time there was tension between several extreme views: </li></ul><ul><li>[1] The Literalists – </li></ul><ul><li>There were some amongst them who were accused of being ‘anthropomorphic’ ( MUJASSIMAH ) or ‘those who rely on allegorical verses’ ( MUTASHAB-BIHA ) -by asserting (or subtly insinuating) that these verses are to be accepted literally - highlighting them but yet chastising others for explaining that these are metaphors, through TA’WIL . </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 34. <ul><li>At that time there was tension between several extreme views: </li></ul><ul><li>[1] The Literalists – </li></ul><ul><li>They ruled that doing TA’WIL to be a heretical innovation ( BID’AH DOLAA-LAH ), although we know there were Prophet’s companions who interpreted and did TA’WIL . </li></ul><ul><li>Not only this, they even went on to condemn logic and philosophy, and many other ‘new’ ideas and improvements developed due to changing needs in teaching Muslims. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 35. <ul><li>At that time there was tension between several extreme views: </li></ul><ul><li>[2] The Rationalists – those who regarded reasoning as being higher than that of Revelation - that in their interpretations of the Revealed texts ( AL-QUR’AN & AHADITH ), they advocated drastic changes even to the Scriptural text itself ( TAHRIF ). </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 36. <ul><li>At that time there was tension between several extreme views: </li></ul><ul><li>[2] The Rationalists – </li></ul><ul><li>Their radicalism in using reason, perhaps were the very cause why the literalist reacted (albeit, they the literalists, were equally guilty of being radical too, in the other extreme.) </li></ul><ul><li>Some of these Rationalists were accused of being religious ‘innovators’ ( MUB-TADI’ ). </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 37. <ul><li>At that time there was tension between several extreme views: </li></ul><ul><li>[3] The Pseudo-Sufis – </li></ul><ul><li>These are groups claiming to be Sufis yet display ignorance of the SHARI’AH in their practices of Islam. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of them, the ‘literalists’ and ‘rationalists’ gained credibility for attacking ‘ Traditional Islamic scholars ’ who themselves condemned these ‘ pseudo Sufis ‘ and regarded them as religious ‘innovators’ ( MUB-TADI’ ). </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 38. <ul><li>We Muslims are to follow the middle, or balanced way (UMMATAN WASOTAN). </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 “ Thus have We made of you an Ummah justly balanced that ye might be witnesses over the nations and the Messenger a witness over yourselves” ( Qur’an: Baqarah: 2: 143 )
  • 39. <ul><li>We Muslims are to follow the middle, or balanced way (UMMATAN WASOTAN). </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 “ Those who listen to the Word, and follow the best (meaning) in it: those are the ones whom Allah has guided, and those are the ones endued with understanding.” ( Qur’an: Baqarah: 39: 18 )
  • 40. <ul><li>We Muslims are to follow the middle, or balanced way (UMMATAN WASOTAN). </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 “ Be not like those who are divided amongst themselves and fall into disputations after receiving Clear signs; for them is a dreadful penalty.― “ ( Qur’an: Aali ‘Imran: 3: 105 )
  • 41. <ul><li>We Muslims are to follow the middle, or balanced way (UMMATAN WASOTAN). </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 PROPHET MUHAMMAD S.A.A.W. SAID:
  • 42. <ul><li>We Muslims are to follow the middle, or balanced way (UMMATAN WASOTAN). </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 “ Allah most Exalted will never allow the affairs of my ummah to be with what deviates (from Truth) forever; so follow the majority (of my ummah); Allah’s hand is upon the Jama’ah (united community), whoever defers away from it , defers toward Hell.)” ( Hadith reported by al-Hakim from Ibn Jarir ) PROPHET MUHAMMAD S.A.A.W. SAID:
  • 43. <ul><li>( 874 – 936CE) Imam Abul Hassan Ash-’arie in fact, begun as a MU’TAZILI ( rationalists ) but returned to the fold of pure creed ( AQEEDAH of AHLUS-SUNNAH WAL-JAMA’AH ) , and thus was most competent to refute the MU’TAZILI , by upholding the Revealed basis of the creed of the SALAF generation ( NAQLIYAH ), and supported it with logic and reasoning approaches ( ‘AQLIYAH ) in argument and explanation, relevant to refute those rationalists of his time because they are familiar with it. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 44. <ul><li>His method, sometimes termed as the school ( MADZHAB ) of Imam Ash-’arie ( ASH-’ARITE ), reconciled these two extreme views of the time, but most importantly, it preserved and provide guidance in the Muslims’ understanding the creed of the AHLUS-SUNNAH WAL-JAMA’AH , based upon Revealed text ( NAQLIYAH ), yet putting the use of reason ( ‘AQLIYAH ) and rational arguments as important and necessary, but not higher than the proof of revelation. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 45. <ul><li>As one’s belief in God is conceptual, the use of reason must not be left unguided without God’s Revealed proof – because man, instinctively, has the tendency towards ‘ anthropomorphism ’ (to imagine God as in human form) if left to its own device. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 46. <ul><li>His method was further developed by Imam Abu Mansur Maturidi (853- 944CE) and Imam Muhammad bin Yusuf As-Sanusi (895CE) and since then has been taught – as a legacy of the AHLUS-SUNNAH WAL-JAMA’AH , which serves to circumvent the likelihood of the ‘rationalists’ and ‘literalists’, resurfacing again with their extreme views. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 47. <ul><li>It must be appreciated, that this methodology was developed (as were the “ MADZAAHIB ” in FIQH and other Islamic sciences e.g. Musthalah-al-Hadith , Tafsir, Nahwu, Qira’at, etc.) after the time of the SALAF era – precisely because it was needed to provide relevant response to the challenges of time, in guiding and educating the subsequent Ummah in later times, upon the Right Path. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 48. <ul><li>It’s objective in fact was to uphold and defend the pristine Creed of the SALAFUS-SOLIH against the challenges of the subsequent generations prone to attacks by the rationalists, the anthropomorphist and innovators of the DEEN ( MUBTADI’ ) – albeit, using the approaches relevant to address and refute their erroneous assertions . </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 49. <ul><li>Arguing that the method cannot be accepted because it was never used by the SALAF generation and by the earlier Muslim Scholars e.g. Imam Malik   (711 – 795CE) , Imam Shafi’ie (745-820CE), etc. - this is tenuous, childish and only exposed the persons’ lack of understanding the fuller history of Islam and Muslim intellectuals and scholars, the development of creedal and Islam’s legal history ( Tarikh Tash-ri’ ) . </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 50. <ul><li>It is foolish to argue that this methodological approach (of the ASH-’ARIYAH ) is categorised as “ BID’AH ” (innovation) and not part of Islamic heritage and scholarship – just as they had erroneously dismissed every other “ MADZAAHIB ” that developed after the era of the SALAFUS-SOLIH - simply because they themselves have not understood its relevance and unappreciative of it use. This would be displaying sheer arrogance and a sign of ungratefulness. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 51. <ul><li>Similarly, it is indeed foolish to ‘ ritualistically ’ teach, (merely repeating them from traditional text) without linking (highlighting) it’s relevance in the present context of ideological thoughts i.e. correcting the errors of current intellectual discourse in AQEEDAH . </li></ul><ul><li>Remember, AQEEDAH is not to be taught merely as a subject, but it is imparting a believe (Creed) in such a way to convince people of the Truth. To believe is a conviction with ‘ certainty ’, rather than simply to ‘ know ’. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 52. <ul><li>In today’s context, this methodology is much needed as safeguard for the Muslim’s understanding against the onslaught of secularist-atheistic-rationalists . </li></ul><ul><li>It must be noted that even now, there are Muslim intellectuals who have been influenced by their Orientalist mentors, and are seeking to glamorize and revive the MU’TAZILITE discourse. </li></ul><ul><li>These are the “ Liberal Muslims ” or we would rather refer to them as NEO-MU’TAZILITES . </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 * NEO – means “new”
  • 53. <ul><li>Who are the NEO-MU’TAZILITES ? </li></ul><ul><li>The original MU’TAZILITES were followers of Wasil bin Atha’ (700–748CE) who begun learning the Greek philosophy and logic. </li></ul><ul><li>In discussing religion and theology, because they adamantly regard “ reason ” (‘ AQL ) as foremost even to be above revelation ( WAHYU ) , they broke away from AHL-SUNNAH WAL JAMA’AH . </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 54. <ul><li>Who are the NEO-MU’TAZILITES ? </li></ul><ul><li>In spite of this misguidance, they had contributed much towards eradicating ‘blind and literal’ adherence to text, and gross lack in using logical arguments (logic and reason) in matters of proving the Islamic creed ( AQEEDAH ). </li></ul><ul><li>In engaging these original MU’TAZILITES , the AHLUS-SUNNAH scholars had triumphed over them and was able to refute all of their false assertions. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 55. <ul><li>Who are the NEO-MU’TAZILITES ? </li></ul><ul><li>In can be said that this MADZHAB had long ceased to exist , extinct – although their ideas are still studied for comparison and as part of Islamic intellectual history in by Muslim scholars in USUL-UDDEEN . </li></ul><ul><li>It was the Orientalists who were fascinated by them and had sought to revived their ‘rationalism’ . But this had long been confined mostly in intellectual discourses and academic writings (much of it in non-Arabic languages). </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 56. <ul><li>Who are the NEO-MU’TAZILITES ? </li></ul><ul><li>When in recent years, Muslims who had began studying Islam from these Orientalists and in Western-based learning institutions, MU’TAZILI ideas now is being promoted by these Muslims. Even to the extent of starting movements , reading groups, seeking to undermine the traditional MADZAAHIB . </li></ul><ul><li>In fact they are not “ MU’TAZILITE ” , but a pretender of one, trying to gain acceptance from unsuspecting Muslims. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 57. <ul><li>Who are the NEO-MU’TAZILITES ? </li></ul><ul><li>These NEO-MU’TAZILITE are made to look ‘progressive’ and logical whereas these ‘rehashed’ ideas have already been refuted by past scholars of AHLUS-SUNNAH WAL JAMA’AH , and knowledge of these are still available amongst traditional Islamic scholars. </li></ul><ul><li>Other names they may claim for themselves e.g.: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Liberal Islam ”, “ Islamic Reformers ”, “ Modernist Muslim ”, “ Progressive Islam ” , “ Radical Muslim thinkers ” etc. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 58. <ul><li>Who are the NEO-MU’TAZILITES ? </li></ul><ul><li>It is most unfortunate that the general Muslims are ’lazy’ to learn Islam and are content to be ‘simplistic’ in their grasp on knowledge of their AQEEDAH . </li></ul><ul><li>Or they are being misled by those who mock the traditional ASH’ARITE school of AHLUS-SUNNAH , even accusing it to be a ‘deviant’ sect while favouring another extreme group, the literalist view of the “ NEO-SALAFIS ”. </li></ul><ul><li>waAllaahu a’lam </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 * NEO – means “new”
  • 59. <ul><li>Who are the NEO-MU’TAZILITES ? </li></ul><ul><li>It is most unfortunate that the general Muslims are ’lazy’ to learn Islam and are content to be ‘simplistic’ in their grasp on knowledge of their AQEEDAH . </li></ul><ul><li>Or they are being misled by those who mock the traditional ASH’ARITE school of AHLUS-SUNNAH , even accusing it to be a ‘deviant’ sect while favouring another extreme group, the literalist view of the “ NEO-SALAFIS ”. </li></ul><ul><li>waAllaahu a’lam </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 * NEO – means “new”
  • 60. <ul><li>Who are the “ NEO-SALAFIS ” ? </li></ul><ul><li>As explained, the original term SALAF (‘ predecessor ’) refers to the Muslims in the first three generations closest to our Prophet Muhammad’s period (s.a.a.w.). </li></ul><ul><li>After that era, all Muslims are regarded as KHALAF (‘successor’) . </li></ul><ul><li>The purity of the SALAFI ’s adherence to basic source of Islamic knowledge ( AL-QUR’AN and AHADITH ), had ensured that no changes were made to these early text. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 61. <ul><li>Who are the “ NEO-SALAFIS ” ? </li></ul><ul><li>Yet, the reality is that certain verses (statements) in the QUR’AN and AHADITH are metaphorical, and must not be understood literally. </li></ul><ul><li>The people of SALAF generation, because their grasp of Islam and mastery of Qur’an classical Arabic, it had ascertained that no confusion nor misinterpretation occurred regarding their common understanding of these allegorical (metaphorical) verses in the text. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 62. <ul><li>Who are the “ NEO-SALAFIS ” ? </li></ul><ul><li>When asked about these allegorical verses ( AAYAT MUTASHABIHAT ), they would accept the words as it is (to ensure no tampering of the original text) and “ leave its meaning to Alla h” ( TAFWIDW ) without takyif (by asking how) nor ta’thil (denying the words as it is used) nor tamthil (making similitude for them), but most importantly they all forbade these verses AAYAT MUTASHABIHAT , to be taken and understood literally. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 63. <ul><li>Who are the “ NEO-SALAFIS ” ? </li></ul><ul><li>In the KHALAF period, to prevent the general Muslims from the mistake of taking these allegorical verses AAYAT MUTASHABIHAT literally, Islamic scholars apply TA’WIL (interpretation) to them, ever since. This has been adhered to by subsequent scholars of AHLUS-SUNNAH . </li></ul><ul><li>Why was TA’WIL generally not done in the previously was because there was no such danger of misinterpretation during that SALAF period. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 64. <ul><li>Who are the “ NEO-SALAFIS ” ? </li></ul><ul><li>During KHALAF period, leaving these verses without the right TA’WIL , will definitely invite ‘misinterpretation’ from the general masses, and have even led to the rise of deviant MUJASSIMAH (anthropomorphist) groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Those who may not be aware, please note that TA’WIL on the Qur’an itself was approved by the Prophet s.a.aw. when he prayed for Allah to grant Ibnu Abbas r.a . this knowledge. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 65. <ul><li>When later, the controversially known scholar from Harran Imam Taqiyuddin Ibn Taymiyyah (1263 -1328CE) , raised the objection again regarding TA’WIL , it rekindled once again the opportunity for the MUJASSIMAH (anthropomorphist) and the literalists, since then, to justify and promote their misguided agenda. </li></ul><ul><li>Imam Ibn Taymiyyah may have valid concern then, at the period when his views could be scrutinized by his peers or more competent Islamic scholars of his time. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 66. <ul><li>And indeed some of his views were accommodated but all his other controversial views have been well refuted. </li></ul><ul><li>But in today's context, bringing up again his controversial views had again caused much confusion to the common Muslims whose knowledge of Islam is very much deficient. </li></ul><ul><li>This was compounded when many of these new ‘ SALAFIS ’ even condemned other Muslims studying the Islamic traditional sciences of Theology ( ‘ ilmu kalam ), logic ( mantiq ), philosophy ( falasifah ), Sufism ( Tasawwuf ) etc. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 67. <ul><li>A revived interest of promoting his opinions, especially in the early 20 th century Arabia, led to the ‘ literalist ’ group using it to re-introduce many controversial discourses. </li></ul><ul><li>In the absence of right TA’WIL , the general Muslims thus would be easily misled to think in anthropomorphic terms. </li></ul><ul><li>Although aware of this danger, yet many from this group adamantly promoted this kind of discourse and some even went on to condemn all those doing TA’WIL (or even the following of a MADZHAB ) as wrong, nay as “deviancy” . </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 68. <ul><li>To gain credence from public, they even styled themselves as the SALAFIYYIN – (or SALAFIS ), as though implying, that the rest of the Muslims have not adhered to the true methodology of the “ early pious predecessors ”, but them. </li></ul><ul><li>We need to qualify and acknowledge that we do not here refer to those who are true and legitimate followers of any MADZAAHIB . We respect those amongst them who identify themselves with the HANABALI and AHLIL-HADITH rather than using SALAFI label exclusively for themselves. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 69. <ul><li>It is the misappropriation of the label “ SALAFI ” which is misleading, and therefore needs to be highlighted and corrected. </li></ul><ul><li>This ‘movement’ which was formed rather late (truncated) in history, still belongs to the KHALAF period, and cannot be the “ SALAF “ as referred to by the the Prophet s.a.w. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus we would rightfully termed them as NEO-SALAFIS . </li></ul><ul><li>waAllaahu a’lam </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 * NEO – means “new”
  • 70. <ul><li>Who are the “ PSEUDO-SUFIS ” ? </li></ul><ul><li>Islam has to be implemented in three aspects, viz. Belief, Practice and Perfection – ( IIMAN-ISLAM-IHSAN ). </li></ul><ul><li>It is from IHSAN , that later on, the Sciences of the “Self” ( ‘ ILMUN-NAFS ) or “Human Disposition” ( AKHLAQ ), or “Purification of the Self” ( TAZKIYA-AN-NAFS ), or Detachment ( ZUHUD ), or “Knowledge of the Divine“ ( IRFAN ), or Sufism ( TASAWWUF )” etc. were developed. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 71. <ul><li>Who are the “ PSEUDO-SUFIS ” ? </li></ul><ul><li>Those who take exception to these terminologies (especially TASAWWWUF ) should first understand that the general definition of these, are in fact all referring to a common objective of: </li></ul><ul><li>“ the practice of Islam at the level of IHSAN .” </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 72. <ul><li>Who are the “ PSEUDO-SUFIS ” ? </li></ul><ul><li>Those who take exception to these terminologies (especially TASAWWWUF ) should first understand that the general definition of these, are in fact all referring to a common objective of: </li></ul><ul><li>“ the practice of Islam at the level of IHSAN .” </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 “ Al-Ihsan (righteousness or best conduct) is that you worship (serve) Allah as though you are seeing Him; while you see Him not, yet truly He sees you” ( Hadith reported by Muslim )
  • 73. <ul><li>Who are the “ PSEUDO-SUFIS ” ? </li></ul><ul><li>As in all things Islam, there are ADAB to be strictly obeyed. This aspect IHSAN in fact, are regarded as the aspect of perfecting a Muslim’s state of “ Submission or worship or servitude to Allah .” </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, this comes after development of their correct belief ( IIMAN ) and proper understanding of the Shari’ah ( FIQH ), without which, those indulging in this may be led astray – NA-UUDZU-BILLAAH . (we seek Allah’s protection) </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 74. <ul><li>Who are the “ PSEUDO-SUFIS ” ? </li></ul><ul><li>We should heed the warning and advice of Imam Malik r.a. who said: </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 “ He who TASAWWAFA (practices Sufism) without learning FIQH (Sacred Law) corrupts his Faith (becomes a ZINDIQ ), while he who learns FIQH (Sacred Law) without TASAWWUF (practicing Sufism) corrupts himself (become FASIQ ). Only he who combines the two proves True ( TAHAQQUQ ).” ( Iqaz al-himam fee sharh al-Hikam )
  • 75. <ul><li>Who are the “ PSEUDO-SUFIS ” ? </li></ul><ul><li>As we have learnt, that the primary cause for SHIRK is ignorance, especially when acts of worship and matters pertaining to the religion are “ blindly imitated ”. Rituals are followed rather than knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>It is from this group that many religious terminologies (special terms pertaining to AQEEDAH as used by the true MUTASAWWIF ) may also be “carelessly parroted” to the general public by them, which may cause FITNAH . </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 76. <ul><li>Who are the “ PSEUDO-SUFIS ” ? </li></ul><ul><li>Yet it is doubtful that most of them (and the general Muslim public) truly understand their profound and exclusive meanings. Thus the ignorance is compounded. </li></ul><ul><li>This is further exacerbated by many of them neglecting the pursuit in serious learning of the DEEN , but instead they promote highly their “ zikr ” sessions to people who may actually have little or inadequate basic Islamic knowledge. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 77. <ul><li>Who are the “ PSEUDO-SUFIS ” ? </li></ul><ul><li>And just like the NEO-SALAFIS , these NEO-SUFIS also in a way, are claiming exclusivity for themselves, as though implying (and some don’t even hide their arrogance by asserting that) other Muslims who do not identify themselves with their group ( TARIQAH ), are not really “ practicing Islam at the level of IHSAN ” or perhaps “ not as good as us the SUFIS ”. </li></ul><ul><li>WaAllaahu a’lam </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  • 78. <ul><li>Who are the “ PSEUDO-SUFIS ” ? </li></ul><ul><li>And just like the NEO-SALAFIS , these NEO-SUFIS also in a way, are claiming exclusivity for themselves, as though implying (and some don’t even hide their arrogance by asserting that) other Muslims who do not identify themselves with their group ( TARIQAH ), are not really “ practicing Islam at the level of IHSAN ” or perhaps “ not as good as us the SUFIS ”. </li></ul><ul><li>WaAllaahu a’lam </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 TO BE CONTINUED - إِنْشَاءَالله

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