[Slideshare]intermediate islam introductnakhlaq-lesson#6a (10-dec-2011)
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“INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF ‘ILM -AL-AKHLAQ ” ...

“INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF ‘ILM -AL-AKHLAQ ”

Intermediate Level Islamic course in English for Adults conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail

LESSON # 6 –

“VARIOUS STATES OF THE NAFS”

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[Slideshare]intermediate islam introductnakhlaq-lesson#6a (10-dec-2011) Presentation Transcript

  • 1. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL. INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF ‘ ILM AL-AKHLAQ “ Verily! You (Muhammad) are upon the most exalted (Kuluq) disposition.” Using text & curriculum he has developed especially for Muslim converts and young Adult English-speaking Muslims. “ To seek knowledge is obligatory upon every Muslim (male & female)” “ INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF ‘ ILM -AL-AKHLAQ ” Intermediate Level Islamic course in English for Adults conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail LESSON # 6 – “ VARIOUS STATES OF THE NAFS” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
  • 2.
    • Learning is organic, and new lesson are taught to expand further from what has previously been covered. In Qur’anic classes, students had to revise first the previous lessons before being taught further. If their revision is not favorable, the teacher will not proceed to teach any new lesson.
    • You are to refer to your notes and the PowerPoint slides available.
    • From the list of topic or sub-topics, as reference for your group – discuss and prepare to do a brief presentation to the class for each topics or sub-topics.
    “ Can I get to know you ? What have we learnt?” You are given only 30 minutes to complete this assignment TAMRIN (EXERCISE) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 3. TO CONTINUE LESSON # 6 – All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 4.
    • ‘ Ulama (scholars) of Tasawwuf/ ‘Ilmul Ahklaq , has identified various states in which the human “ Nafs ” (self) may be in. It does not mean that there are many “ nafs ” in a person, but it simply means to describe the nature of characteristic of the “ Nafs ” which can be subjected to change.
    • Perhaps we can describe this state as the dominate “ mood ” of our “ Nafs ”. One has to be aware of one’s state – termed as “ Haal ”. From the lower imperfect state, one has to strive to overcome them thereby attaining towards the subsequent level until one reaches the higher and perfect state.
    All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 5. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 6.
    • As explained previously “ Nafs ” is that “ consciousness that is you ”. The state of our consciousness in our nafs (self) varies according to its development. Because man is firstly aware of himself, naturally he seeks to satisfy his self due to tendencies motivated by the inherent powers within him which is constantly developing.
    • His awareness of himself is naturally stronger than the awareness of others. Thus his impulses are primarily concern with only fulfilment of its own desires and satisfaction.
    All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 7.
    • If this obsession continues while he is still oblivious to the relationship with others besides himself, unconcerned as to its moral implication, whether it is detrimental to others or not, not even caring about the effect that his present actions will have on his future, etc. - the danger of such a trait in that person is obvious.
    • This state is basic in everyone, and serves as the motive for it incite man towards acting out his will and desire. This is called “ nafs al-‘amarah ”- the commanding self.
    All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 8.
    • Concerning this state of the nafs (self), it is stated in the Holy Qur’an:
    All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) “ And yet, I am not trying to absolve myself: for, verily, man's inner self ( NAFS ‘AMMARAH ), does incite [him] to evil, and saved are only they upon whom my Sustainer bestows His grace. Behold, my Sustainer is much forgiving, a dispenser of grace!“ ( Qur’an: Yusuf: 12: 53 )
  • 9.
    • It is this uncontrolled impulses which is termed as “ Nafs al-’amarah ”, the commanding Self and if not guided, often it is in conflict with what the mind regards as a moral good.
    • Many of us are still in this state - impulsive selfish and reckless.
    • We don’t seem to want to (reason) give a thought to what we are doing. Our only concern is to be able to satisfy ourselves.
    All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 10.
    • We pamper our Self or Ego and regard it to be THE most important consideration.
    • We forget who we actually are, and in Whose presence we exist. We may even entertain a grandiose notion of our bloated Ego - “ I am better than he ” not by any moral or objective standard but because “ I feel I am better ”.
    • Sometimes attributing ourselves a bigger than life importance, carrying ourselves about with an air of arrogance. Even our expectations from others also may be of the unrealistic kind.
    All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 11.
    • We sometimes tend to be overly sensitive, even “ paranoia ”; entertaining to our suspicion - where benefit of doubt should be given to others. We harbour “conspiracy theories” and easily accept evil suggestions and whisperings of Satan and of bad people inciting enmity and conflict, judging others without evidence.
    • Our capacity to “ love” , which is a natural traits or tendency within us - is wholly directed more to our Self. We look at ourselves always as perfect and unblemished, and expecting others to look at us likewise.
    All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 12.
    • We expect praises for ourselves and resent (even become angry) at any form of criticism even though it is well-meant and true!
    • Instead of reflecting and considering upon what is being said, we immediately react impulsively because our feelings are “ hurt ”; our bloated Ego is punctured.
    • Some resent because of who is saying it rather than what is being said, because in his estimation, the other person is lesser than he.
    • With this deluded self-admiration, advice from others to reform in him whatever shortcomings, will be difficult if not impossible.
    All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 13.
    • Thus, a person whose Nafs (self) is in this state, is emotionally and directly linked to his “ Quwwah ” (innate powers) which automatically transform it into reaction with his organs.
    • His tongue, his hands and all other organs are enslaved to follow the dictates of this commanding Self. He or she will become very impulsive, hasty and quick to temper.
    • Reason and thought processes are completely ignored.
    All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 14. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 15.
    • Although the dominant state in a person’s “ Nafs ” may be the Commanding Self, Allah s.w.t. has also equipped this “ nafs ” to undergo another state called “ Nafs al-law-waa-mah ”.
    • The literal translation of this is “ the reproaching self ” or “ the accusing self ”.
    • This state usually in some people appears as an after-thought to an act. Especially when the negative effect of that act becomes apparent.
    All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 16.
    • Through experience and knowledge, this aspect of the “ Nafs ” serves as the counter to whatever suggestions put forth by the commanding self; you may equate it to what is called “ conscience ”.
    • Its dominance over the commanding state, marks the beginning of morality in person.
    All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 17.
    • Thus within us is a battle of sort for dominance between these two states. Usually because the commanding state has been dominant, suggestions from our “ Nafs al-law-waa-mah ” may even at times be ignored or opposed.
    • Islam teaches us to always listen to this state, as it is naturally in agreement with all of its moral teachings and serves as an advocate within man.
    • To constantly neglect listening to this state may cause the effect of its “voice” to be gradually diminished.
    All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 18.
    • When it [i.e. “ Nafs al-law-waa-mah ”] is completely suppressed in a person, then “ Na’uudzubillah ”[we seek refuge in Allah from this] that person will be completely immoral.
    All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) “ NAY! I call to witness the Day of Resurrection! But nay! I call to witness the accusing voice of man's own conscience!” ( Qur’an: Qiyamah: 75: 1-2 )
  • 19.
    • As humans, this innate consciousness in the “self” will also serve as evidence for or against us in the hereafter.
    • It is quite impossible to deny promptings from within ourselves, whereas advice from others can simply be rejected, ignored and forgotten.
    • Also, we may deceive others into having them believe whatever we want them to believe about ourselves. But we cannot deceive our own selves! (only those who are sick and self-deluded perhaps?)
    All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 20. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 21. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 22. “ O ye who believe! (be conscious of and ) fear Allah and let every soul look to what (provision) he has sent forth for the morrow (hereafter). Yea, (be conscious of and) fear Allah: for Allah is well-acquainted with (all) that ye do.  And be ye not like those who forgot Allah; and He made them forget their own souls! Such are the rebellious transgressors!  Not equal are the Companions of the Fire and the Companions of the Garden: it is the Companions of the Garden, that will achieve Felicity.” ( Qur’an: Surah al-Hashr: 59: 18-20 )  All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 23.
    • Central to the teaching of Islam is consciousness of the Oneness of God ( TAU H EED ). This consciousness then permeates to teach us to consider our attitude and relationships towards our Creator, ourselves and others. It should lead to not merely an awareness but to instil reverential fear of transgression ( TAQWA ).
    • Knowing Who Allah is, necessarily teaches us our place in His vast kingdom and what our relationship with them should be. Without consciousness of Allah, due to strong obsession with ourselves, three (3) “ ailments ” may accrue in our “ Nafs ” which impedes us from the proper relationship with Allah, ourselves and others:
    All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 24. EGO-CENTRICITY LEADS TO VARIOUS MORTAL SINS IN OUR RELATIONSHIPS: All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 25. EGO-CENTRICITY LEADS TO VARIOUS MORTAL SINS IN OUR RELATIONSHIPS: “ By the NAFS (Soul, or self) , and the proportion and order given to it; And its enlightenment as to its wrong and its right;― Truly he succeeds that purifies it, And he fails that corrupts it!” ( Qur’an: as-Shams: 91: 7-10 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 26. EGO-CENTRICITY LEADS TO VARIOUS MORTAL SINS IN OUR RELATIONSHIPS: SELF All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) RELATIONSHIP TO HIMSELF
  • 27. EGO-CENTRICITY LEADS TO VARIOUS MORTAL SINS IN OUR RELATIONSHIPS: SELF THE SIN OF SELF-CONCEIT* All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) * Vainglorious; self-centred RELATIONSHIP TO HIMSELF
  • 28. EGO-CENTRICITY LEADS TO VARIOUS MORTAL SINS IN OUR RELATIONSHIPS: SELF ALLAH All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) RELATIONSHIP TOWARDS ALLAH
  • 29. EGO-CENTRICITY LEADS TO VARIOUS MORTAL SINS IN OUR RELATIONSHIPS: SELF ALLAH THE SIN OF INGRATITUDE* All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) * Obstinacy; unyielding RELATIONSHIP TOWARDS ALLAH
  • 30. EGO-CENTRICITY LEADS TO VARIOUS MORTAL SINS IN OUR RELATIONSHIPS: SELF OTHERS All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) RELATIONSHIP TOWARDS OTHERS
  • 31. EGO-CENTRICITY LEADS TO VARIOUS MORTAL SINS IN OUR RELATIONSHIPS: SELF OTHERS THE SIN OF ARROGANCE* All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) * Proud; haughty RELATIONSHIP TOWARDS OTHERS
  • 32. “ Verily, man's inner self ( NAFS ‘AMMARAH ), does incite [him] to evil, and saved are only they upon whom my Sustainer bestows His grace. Behold, my Sustainer is much forgiving, a dispenser of grace!“ ( Qur’an: Yusuf: 12: 53 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 33. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) “ MAKE due allowance for man's nature (by forgiving them), and enjoin the doing of what is right; and leave alone all those who choose to remain ignorant. And if it should happen that a prompting from Satan stirs thee up [to blind anger], seek refuge with Allah: behold, He is all-hearing, all-knowing.” ( Qur’an: A’-raf: 7: 199-200 )
  • 34. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) “ Verily, they who are conscious of Allah ( TAQWA ) bethink themselves [of Him] whenever any dark suggestion from Satan touches them - whereupon, lo! they begin to see [things] clearly, even though their [godless] brethren would [like to] draw them into error: and then they cannot fail [to do what is right].” ( Qur’an: A’-raf: 7: 201-202 )
  • 35. “ O Allah! Make us see the Truth to be true and grant us the ability to follow it. And make us see Falsehood to be false and grant us the ability to reject it.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 36. O Allah! There is none who can withhold what You send, nor send whatever You withhold All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 37. Neither can they guide whom You leave astr ay Nor can they lead astray whom You have guided All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 38. Neither can they give whatever You deprive, nor can they deprive to whom You give All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 39. Neither (can any) draw closer those whom You cast, nor (can any) be cast those whom You draw closer All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 40. O Allah! Bestow upon us from Your blessings, and Your mercy, and Your grace and Your provisions. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 41. O Allah! I ask You for the eternal delight (favours) that never ends nor fades away. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 42. O Allah! I ask You for provisions (favours) on the Day of deprivation (Hereafter), and the safety on the Day of fear (Judgement Day). All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 43. O Allah! I seek refuge with You from the evil repercussions of what You have given us and from the evil of what You have deprived us of. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 44. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 45. "Our Lord, do not impose blame upon us if we have forgotten or erred. Our Lord, and lay not upon us a burden like that which You laid upon those before us. Our Lord, and burden us not with that which we have no ability to bear. And pardon us; and forgive us; and have mercy upon us. You are our protector, so give us victory over the disbelieving people." All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 46. O Allah! Make faith ( iiman ) dear to us and beautify it in our hearts and make disbelief ( Kufr ), sinning ( Fusuq ) and rebelliousness ( `isyan ) hateful to us, and make us among the rightly guided ( Raa-shi-duun ). All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 47. O Allah! Allow us to die as Muslims, live as Muslims and join us with the ranks of the righteous ones, without tasting humiliation or turmoil. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 48. ‘ And (may Allah send) salutations and prayers upon Mu h ammad and upon the household and companions of Mu h ammad (the pure ones of his family and all the loyal followers). All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 49. “ Glory to thy Lord the Lord, of Honour and Power! (He is free) from what they ascribe (to Him)! And Peace on the Messengers! And praise to Allah, the Lord and Cherisher of the Worlds.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 50. http://an-naseehah.blogspot.com/ http://introductiontotauhid.blogspot.com/ http://oyoubelievers.blogspot.com/ http://al-amthaal.blogspot.com/ http://zhulkeflee-archive.blogspot.com/ http://criteriaforaholybook-quran.blogspot.com/ http://with-the-truthful.blogspot.com/ http ://muqaddam-nurul.blogspot.com/ All welcome to visit my web-blog: All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)