[Slideshare]fiqh course-#7-khilafiyyah(2011)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

[Slideshare]fiqh course-#7-khilafiyyah(2011)

on

  • 934 views

“INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF FIQH” ...

“INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF FIQH”
Intermediate Level Islamic course in English for Adults conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (Singapore)
LESSON # 7 –
“IKHTILAAF“ –
DIFFERENCE OF OPINION
AMONGST THE MADZAAHIB

Statistics

Views

Total Views
934
Slideshare-icon Views on SlideShare
708
Embed Views
226

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
25
Comments
0

5 Embeds 226

http://an-naseehah.blogspot.com 197
http://www.an-naseehah.blogspot.com 15
http://an-naseehah.blogspot.sg 7
url_unknown 5
http://an-naseehah.blogspot.se 2

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    [Slideshare]fiqh course-#7-khilafiyyah(2011) [Slideshare]fiqh course-#7-khilafiyyah(2011) Presentation Transcript

    • “ INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF FIQH ” Intermediate Level Islamic course in English for Adults conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) LESSON # 7 – “ IKHTILAAF“ – DIFFERENCE OF OPINION AMONGST THE MADZAAHIB And say: O Lord! Increase for me my knowledge Using text & curriculum he has developed especially for Muslim converts and young Adult English-speaking Muslims. “ To seek knowledge is obligatory upon every Muslim (male & female)”
    • All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL.
    • All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) “ O ye who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those charged with authority among you. If ye differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger if ye do believe in Allah and the Last Day: that is best, and most suitable for final determination.” ( Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 49 ) IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL.
      • During the Battle of the Confederates, the Prophet is reported to have said to his Companions:
      • "Do not perform the mid-afternoon (`asr) swolah until you get to the [place of] Banu Qurayzah."
      • While still on their way, the time of the swolah came ....
      All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) PRECEDENCE DURING TIME OF THE PROPHET 1
      • ... Some of the companions said, "We will not perform the swolah until we get to the [place of] Banu Qurayzah" while some others said, "We shall pray. That [saying of the Prophet] will not prevent us [from praying now]."
      • The matter was later brought before the Prophet and he did not disapprove of either group.
      • ( Hadith reported by Bukhary and Muslim )
      All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
      •   `Amr ibn al `Aas r.a. said: “ One cold night during the Dhaat al Salaasil campaign, I had a wet dream.
      • I feared that if I performed Ghusl’ [necessary bath after ritual impurity] I would die [from the cold].
      • So I performed Tayammum [dry ablution] instead, then performed the Fajr’ swolah (dawn prayer) with my companions. ...
      All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) ANOTHER PRECEDENCE DURING TIME OF THE PROPHET 2
      •   .... This was mentioned to the Prophet who asked:
      • “ Amr! You performed the prayer with your companions while you were in a state of impurity [junub]?”
      • Whereupon I recalled to him the verse of the Qur'an:
      • `And kill not yourselves. Indeed God has been most Merciful to you.' (Qur’an: Surah An-Nisa’: 4: 29)
      • The Prophet laughed and said nothing.
      • ( Hadith reported by Abu Dawud and Hakim )
      All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
      • Abu Sa’ed al-Khudri r.a. said: “Two men went on a journey. The time for prayer ( Swolah ) came and, as there was no water, they performed Tayamum (dry ablution).
      • Then they continued and later came upon water, while still within the time of the prayer. So, one of them took ablution and re-performed the (same) prayer ( Swolah ), whole the other man did not.
      • When they met the Messenger of Allah s.a.w., they enquired from him as to the proper procedure in such a case....
      All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) ANOTHER PRECEDENCE DURING TIME OF THE PROPHET 3
      • ... He (Messenger of Allah s.a.w,) said to the one who did not repeat the prayer ( Swolah ), : “You have acted (correctly) according to the Sunnah and your prayer is sufficient for you.”
      • He then turned to the other man and said: “You will get double the reward.”
      • ( Hadith reported by Abu Dawud and Nasa-’ie )
      All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
    • All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
      • “ ikhtilaaf ” denotes taking a different position or course from that of another person either in opinion, utterance, or action. To differ or have a different opinion.
      • The related word “ khilaaf ” (discord) - although from the same root as “ ikhtilaaf ” sometimes used synonymously - mean “ difference, disagreement, or even conflict ” is broader in meaning with implication of concept of direct opposition; whereas “ ikhtilaf ” is to be “ different which does not necessarily imply conflict ” .
      All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
      • “ Dialectics ” ( Jadal ) implies “ carrying out a discussion in a contentious manner in order to gain the upper hand. ” The term ‘ jadal ’ in the original is used in the sense of " braiding " a rope. It conveys the sense of stretching and arm-twisting exercised by disputants while each endeavours to force the other to accept his point of view.
      All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
      • Sometimes a dispute may become severe and harsh with the disputant's only concern being, to get the better of his opponent. There is no concern for finding out the truth or for clarifying what is right. This precludes any form of mutual understanding or agreement. The term “dissension” ( shiqaaq ) may be applied to such a situation (disunity; a breach in relation, etc.).
      All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
      • The differences or “ ikhtilaf ” which occurred among our forebears in early Muslim history, and which continue to be with us, are part of this natural manifestation of variety.
      • This is a phenomenon – “ ikhtilaf ” could prove to be positive and extremely beneficial, provided that such differences do not exceed their limits; and provided they remain within the standard norms of ethics and proper behaviour – ADAB .
      All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
    • All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) IKHTILAF (holding to deferring views) MUNAZA-’A (asserting a difference in one’s opinion) MUJADALAH (disputation - argumentation) MUFARRAQOH – INSHIQAQ (divisive - enmity) IF NOT MANAGED WILL GO DOWN THE SLIPERRY SLOPE
    • All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
    • “ If Allah had so willed, succeeding generations would not have fought among each other, after clear (Signs) had come to them, but they (chose) to wrangle, some believing and others rejecting. If Allah had so willed they would not have fought each other; but Allah fulfils His plan.” ( Qur’an: Baqarah: 2: 253 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
    • All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
    • “ And hold fast, all together by the rope which Allah (stretches out for you), and be not divided among yourselves; and remember with gratitude Allah's favour on you; for ye were enemies and He joined your hearts in love so that by His Grace, ye became brethren; and ye were on the brink of the pit of fire, and He saved you from it. Thus doth Allah make his signs clear to you: that ye may be guided.” ( Qur’an: Aali ‘Imran: 3: 104 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
    • All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) “ And obey Allah and His Messenger; and do not fall into disputes, lest ye lose heart and your power depart; and be patient and persevering: for Allah is with those who patiently persevere.” ( Qur’an: Anfal: 8: 46 )
      • The Companions ( AS-HAABI ), may God be pleased with them, tried as far as possible not to disagree. They did not make much about marginal issues but treated the matters that posed controversy in the light of the Prophet's guidance. This manner of dealing with actual situations normally does not leave much room for argumentation, let alone dispute and discord.
      • If differences occurred despite attempts to avoid them, the Companions would quickly refer the disputed issue to the Qur'an and to the Prophet, and any controversy would be quickly dispelled.
      All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
      • The Companions reacted with a ready obedience and commitment to the judgment of the Qur'an and the Prophet and their complete and total submission to it.
      • The Prophet used to point out to his Companions what was right and what was wrong with regards to controversial questions open to interpretation. On their part, the Companions had mutual trust in the genuineness of each other's judgments. This approach guaranteed the preservation of mutual respect among fellow Muslims who differed, and also kept fanaticism and bigotry at bay.
      All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
      • Commitment to God-consciousness ( TAQWA ) and avoidance of personal whims ( HAWA ) made the pursuit of truth alone the goal of those who differed over an issue. It did not matter to anyone in a discussion whether the truth was voiced by him or by another person.
      • They adhered steadfastly to the Islamic norms of behaviour during argumentation ( ADAB ). They discussed matters politely and amicably, avoiding the use of vile and insulting language. Each was prepared to listen attentively to the other.
      All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
      • They eschewed hypocrisy and flattery as far as possible and exerted every effort to investigate an issue objectively. This practice, characterized by the seriousness of the argument and respect for the other person, would force the disputant into either accepting the other point of view or advancing a better opinion.
      All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
    • All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) “ Whosoever engages in any disputation (debate) without (basing his argument with) knowledge, Allah’s anger is upon him until he leaves it (the disputation).” ( Hadith quoted by Imam Ibn Hajar in “Az-Zawajir ”)
    • All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) “ Three things will afflict (calamity upon) the religion: Learned scholars who are immoral; leaders who are unjust (oppressive); and those who give religious decree (Ijtihad) are ignorant.” ( Hadith reported by Ad-Dailamy from Ibn ‘;Abbas r.a.) ”)
    • All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) “ Amongst you, after receiving guidance, you will not go astray except for those who then enter into debates (merely for argument sake) .” Then he (Prophet s.a.w.) recited a verse (Qur’an: Zukhruf: 43: 58): “ They raise not the objection save for argument. Nay! but they are a contentious folk.” ( Hadith quoted by Imam Ibn Hajar in “Az-Zawajir ”)
    • “ Whoever seeks knowledge (intending) to argue with the learned (scholars), or to brag with the foolish; or with it to attract peoples’ attention to himself; Allah will make him to enter the Hell-fire.” ( Hadith also reported by Tirmidzi and Ibn Majah ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
    • “ ( ‘ilm ) Knowledge without Adab , is like (having) fire (but) without wood (fuel); and Adab without knowledge ( ‘ilm ) , is like (having) the Soul (but) without body.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
    • “ To leave (i.e. to refrain from) responding to the ignorant, is (already itself) a response.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
    • “ For he who seek the Truth, one proof (basis) is sufficient; Whereas to a contentious arrogant person, a thousand (proofs) will never satisfy him.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
      • The Muslims from whichever MADZAAHIB , are in agreement with most rulings in FIQH .
      • It is only in areas of details (i.e. where several interpretations are possible from the Qur’an and Ahadith ); or when no explicit basis ( QAT-’IE ) can be adduced from these primary sources - that IJTIHAD are permitted to be done.
      • It is in this context of IJTIHAD by the different schools or by scholars that issues of KHILAAFIYAH occurs. This point is to be understood.
      All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
      • Regarding IJTIHAD , the Prophet Muhammad s.a.a.w. said:
      All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) “ When a jurist judges by making IJTIHAD (exhausting his scholarly ability to derive the ruling) and his ruling is correct, his reward will be double, And when his IJTIHAD is in error, (still) he receives one reward.” ( Hadith reported by Bukhary and Muslim )
      • Thus, those who are quick to brand as reprehensible innovation ( BID’AH ) regarding the other MADZAAHIB ’s religious ruling on a matter which differ from theirs - only exposes their ignorance (or rather, arrogance) on the matter.
      • This is because, since IKHTILAF is in principle, the outcome of IJTIHAD (even if found to be wrong, it is still in compliance with this Sunnah), so how can it then become a BID’AH ?
      All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
      • An Islamic scholar who has a different view point (on issues which has no QAT-’IE basis) and chose not to follow other scholars in matters of their IJTIHAD (thus the IKHTILAF ) , yet they would never condemn the others’ opinion and claim his view to be the only correct one.
      • NOTE : There can be no IJTIHAD in which a matter has a conclusive basis from primary sources or on ( U S UL ) principles unanimously agreed upon.
      All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
      • Just as in any legal ruling, jurist would only present his legal basis – ratio decidendi – so that it may be compared with what the other scholars(jurists) have relied upon.
      • By this, it imply that though other juristic rulings are generally also correct, but he differ with them only in regard as to which view he preferred or regarded as more accurate or has a stronger basis.
      All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
      • Those who imagine that KHILAAFIYAH ought to be eradicated (thus their aversion to MADZAAHIB ), must examine their own understanding of FIQH , as well as their reason for wanting to do this now, when Ulama’ before them had always tolerated these with ADAB .
      • They seem to forget the humility of Imam Malik r.a. who refused the Caliph’s suggestion to make his “ Al-Muwatta ’” as the official text for every one.
      All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
      • Also, they obviously (or conveniently?) forget that IKHTILAAF had always existed even amongst the ASHAABIY (companions) of the Prophet s.a.w. who, himself, had tolerated them in most instances.
      • Although there are exceptions as when a different opinion of certain companion was rejected by the Prophet s.a.w. , but the types of opinions he warned them against (or corrected even), were those hastily done, or made from ignorance (without knowledge), or which may lead to immorality, or in matters contradicting known principles of the Qur’an and As-Sunnah.
      All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
    • All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) Jaabir r.a. Narrated, “We were on a journey and on of us was injured. Later he had a wet dream (thus in Janabah ). He asked his companions “Can I perform Tayamum (dry ablution using dust)?” They said “No, not if you have water!” So he performed Ghusl’ (full obligatory bathe) and, he died. When they came to the Messenger of Allah s.a.w. , they informed him concerning what had happened. ........ PRECEDENCE DURING TIME OF THE PROPHET
    • All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) ... He (the Messenger s.a.w.) said: “ They killed him, Allah will kill them. Do you not ask if you do not know? The remedy for ignorance is to ask question! He could have performed Tayamum and prevent water from his wound or wrapped it with something and wipe over the wrapping, and wash the rest of the body.” ( Hadith reported by Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, Daruqutni and Ibn Sakin )
    • All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
    • All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
    • “ (Honour) My successors ( Khulafa’ ), may Allah s.w.t. be Merciful towards them!.” He was asked: “ Who are your successors ( Khulafa’ ) O Messenger of Allah?” And he said: “ They are those who revive my Sunnah (Way or traditions) and teaches them to the servants of Allah.” ( Hadith of the Prophet s.a.w .) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
    • All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
    • " Verily Allah does not remove knowledge from the (hearts of the) people, rather he takes away knowledge by taking away its people (the true scholars – ‘ULAMA ), until there are no more scholars, the people then take leaders that are ignorant, and when they are asked, and give fatwas – religious rulings, (they give) without knowledge, so they misguide and are misguided.“ ( Hadith reported by Ashaab as-Sunnan from Ibnu ‘Umar r.a .) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
    • All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
    • “ When a trust ( AMANAH )is neglected, then wait for the time (of its destruction).” Somebody ask: ‘ How shall this be neglected O Messenger of Allah?’ He the replied: “When a matter (affair) is given over, not to its rightful (legitimate) person ( AHLIHA ), then wait for its time (of destruction).” ( Hadith reported by Bukhary ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
    • “ If anyone contends with the Messenger even after guidance has been plainly conveyed to him, and follows a path other than that becoming to men to Faith, We shall leave him in the path he has chosen, and land him in Hell, what an evil refuge.” ( Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 115) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
      • We are aware of certain groups whose agenda is to encourage ideas of ‘liberalism’ , inciting anarchy and deviationist ideas amongst the general Muslim mass, but they cite the teachings of tolerance for KHILAAFIYYAH ” as an excuse or justification for themselves.
      • We must reiterate that we are only to tolerate KHILAAFIYYAH amongst true practicing Islamic scholars – ‘ULAMA AL-’AAMILEEN.
      • KHILAAFIYYAH does not include those of the ignorant, or those clear erroneous and deviant teachings of the pseudo-scholars.
      All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
      • We have to warned that, there are Orientalists and their Western-schooled Muslim academician with similar traits, undermining the position and attempting to usurp the position of true traditional Islamic scholars.
      • These are pseudo-’ULAMA introducing deviant teachings disguised as KHILAAFIYYA , conveniently omitting to mention the real or principle issue which the true ‘ULAMA had already highlighted and proven as an obvious deviancy. They knew that most ordinary Muslims are unaware.
      All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
      • Their approach is by applying methodologies and alien standards or criteria - imposing it upon the Muslims academic discourse e.g. Hermeneutics, humanism, femininism, modernism. Secularism, pragmatism, contextualism ,etc. - they wish the Muslims to adopt or adapt.
      • They insist that Islam ought to be changed in accordance with these ‘progressive’ standards – without critically analyzing these in the light of the SHARI-’AH first.
      All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
      • Islamic scholars have already refuted these standards, but many of these pseudo-scholars are either dishonest by pretending that these refutations never existed, or perhaps they themselves are unaware of it because most of them do not read Arabic.
      • Thus English-speaking Muslims may be very susceptible to these controversies disseminated by them.
      All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
      • Such ideas are mostly disseminated on the internet, in books, through closed door seminars, research groups, etc. done within certain exclusive circles or study-groups in non-Arabic languages, even sponsored by Western universities and ‘Foundations’ – while omitting , challenging, attacking and even distorting some of the views of the traditional Islamic scholars amongst themselves.
      All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
      • There may be amongst them known Islamic scholars exiled to or domiciled in the West. Some are true and sincere scholars while there are others who may have been rejected by their peers for some deviancy or even heresy which they held and promoted.
      • Some other pseudo-scholars may be seeking recognition via associating themselves with such scholars. Others perhaps may even be “academics-for-hire” type obviously are under the payroll of their ‘patrons’, with certain agenda against Islamic ascendancy and the spread of traditional Islam.
      All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
    • “ An immoral man of learning is a great evil, yet a greater evil is an ignoramus leading a ‘godly’ life. Both are a great trial (FITNAH) everywhere, to whomever depends to them both (for guidance), in holding on to his religion” REFLECTION : We would indeed be afflicted with this Fitnah (trial). Only with appropriate knowledge and irshaadah , and more importantly Taufiq wal-Hidaa-ya from Allah SWT. would we be saved from its evil. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
    • “ O ye who believe! if you are conscious of and fear Allah ( TAQWA ), He will grant you a criterion ( FURQAN -to judge between right and wrong), remove from you (all) evil (that may afflict) you, and forgive you: for Allah is the Lord of grace unbounded.” ( Qur’an: Anfaal: 8: 29 ) REMEMBER THIS IMPORTANT COMMAND All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
    • ALLAA-HUM-MA – ARI-NAL-HAQ-QA - HAQ-QAN WAR- ZUQ-NAT - TI-BAA- ’A WA-ARI-NAL – BAA-TWILA – BAA-TWI-LAAN WAR-ZUQ-NAJ – TI –NAA - BAH “ O Allah! Make us see the Truth to be true and grant us the ability to follow it. And make us see Falsehood to be false and grant us the ability to reject it.” IMPORTANT DU’A All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
    • http://an-naseehah.blogspot.com/ http://introductiontotauhid.blogspot.com/ http://oyoubelievers.blogspot.com/ http://al-amthaal.blogspot.com/ http://zhulkeflee-archive.blogspot.com/ http://criteriaforaholybook-quran.blogspot.com/ http://with-the-truthful.blogspot.com/ http ://muqaddam-nurul.blogspot.com/ All welcome to visit my web-blog: All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )