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“INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF FIQH” …

“INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF FIQH”

Intermediate Level Islamic course in English for Adults conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (Singapore)


Published in Education , Spiritual
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  • Salam.
    It may be quite difficult to understand when i first attended Ust Zhul's class, but after the second round, alhamdulillah, its much better now. Guess the only thhing that i need to buck up is to learn more about our history though history hasnt been my favourite subject in school...
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  • 1. “ INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF FIQH ” Intermediate Level Islamic course in English for Adults conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) LESSON # 4 – BRIEF HISTORY OF THE ‘ ULAMA MADZAAHIB (ISLAMIC SCHOLARS OF JURISPRUDENCE) And say: O Lord! Increase for me my knowledge Using text & curriculum he has developed especially for Muslim converts and young Adult English-speaking Muslims. “ To seek knowledge is obligatory upon every Muslim (male & female)”
  • 2.  
  • 3. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) AL-QUR’AN , THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD AND THOSE APPOINTED AS THE SOURCE FOR GUIDANCE
  • 4. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) “ O You who believe ! Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger, and those charged with authority from among you. If you differ in anything among yourselves, refer it back to Allah and to His Messenger, if you do believe in Allah and the Last day : That is best and most suitable for final determination.” ( Qur’an : An-Nisa’ : 4 :59 ) AL-QUR’AN , THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD AND THOSE APPOINTED AS THE SOURCE FOR GUIDANCE
  • 5. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) GUIDELINE FROM THE PROPHET S.A.A.W .
  • 6. “ (‘Ali ibn Abi Talib r.a. said) “I asked: ‘O Messenger of Allah! (What are we to do when) matters come before us wherewith there is no (explicit) indication regarding them in the Qur’an nor in the Sunnah from you regarding them (regarding its ruling)?’ (The Prophet s.a.w.) he said: “You are to gather together the learned ( ‘ulama ) amongst them” – or he may have said “The worshippers ( ‘abideen ) from amongst the Believers” – “Convene with them shura (mutual consultations to derive a collective decision) in regard to religious rulings. Do not decide based upon (idea or knowledge of) only one (singular) person’s thought.” ( Hadith reported by Ibnu Abdil Barr ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) GUIDELINE FROM THE PROPHET S.A.A.W .
  • 7. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) GUIDELINE FROM THE PROPHET S.A.A.W .
  • 8. (When the Prophet s.a.w. was about to send Muadz ibn Jabal r.a. to Yemen) he said (to Muadz): “How would you judge (give religious decision for people)? “ He (Muadz) replied: “(I will judge) With what is in the Book of Allah”. Rasulullah then said: “What if you cannot find (any) in it?” Muadz replied: “(Then, I will judge) with the Sunnah of Rasulullah s.a.w.”. Rasulullah then said: “What if you cannot find in the Sunnah?” He replied :”( Then) I will make ‘ijtihad (exertion) with my reasoning.” (Then the Rasulullah s.a.w.) he said: “All praise be to Allah Who granted taufiq (success in this test) for the messenger of Allah’s messenger!”. ( Hadith reported by Tirmidzi ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) GUIDELINE FROM THE PROPHET S.A.A.W .
  • 9. “ (Honour) My successors, may Allah s.w.t. be Merciful towards them!.” He was asked: “Who are your successors O Messenger of Allah?” And he said: “They are those who revive my Sunnah and teaches them to the servants of Allah.” ( Hadith of the Prophet s.a.w .) GUIDELINE FROM THE PROPHET S.A.A.W . All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
  • 10. “ And whoever amongst you lives after me will see many conflicts (disagreements), let him then adhere to whatever they know o f my Sunnah and the Sunnah of my Rightly guided Khalifah.” ( Hadith reported by Ahmad ) GUIDELINE FROM THE PROPHET S.A.A.W . All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
  • 11. “ The best of mankind – (believers) – are in my generation, then (a generation) after it, and then (another generation) after that.” ( Hadith reported by Bukhary and Muslim ) GUIDELINE FROM THE PROPHET S.A.A.W . All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
  • 12. ‘ UMAR IBN AL-KHATTAB R.A. ‘ ALI IBN ABI TALIB R.A. IBN MAS-UD R.A. IBN ‘UMAR R.A. IBN ABBAS IBN ABDUL MUTALIB R.A. ZAYD IBN TSAABIT R.A. COMPANIONS WHO GAVE MANY FATWAS All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
  • 13. ‘ ABDULLAH IBN UMAR R.A. A’ISHAH BNTE ABU BAKR R.A. ABU HURAYRAH R.A. SA-’ID AL-MUSAYYAB AL-MAKHZUMI R.A. URWAH BIN ZUBAYR BIM AWWAM R.A. ‘ ALI BIN HUSSAYN ZEIN AL-’AABIDEEN R.A. MUHAMMAD BIN ‘ALI BIN HUSSAYN AL-BAQIR R.A. THOSE WHO GAVE FATWA IN MADINA AL-MUNAWWARAH All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
  • 14. ‘ ABDULLAH IBN ABBAS IBN ABDUL MUTTALIB R.A. MUJAHID IBN JABR (MAULA OF BANI MAKHZUM) R.A. IKRIMAH (MAULA OF IBNU ABBAS) R.A. ATHA’ IBN ABI RABAH (MAULA OF QURAYSH) R.A. ABU ZUBAYR MUHAMMAD IBN MUSLIM R.A. THOSE WHO GAVE FATWA IN MAKKAH AL-MUKARRAMAH All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
  • 15. ALQAMAH IBN QAIS AN-NAKHA-’IE R.A. THOSE WHO GAVE FATWA IN KUFA (SECOND CAPITAL) MASRUQ IBN AJDA’ AL-HAMDANI R.A. UBAYDAH IBN ‘AMIR AS-SILMANI AL-MURADI R.A. AL-ASWAD IBN YAZID AN-NAKHA-’IE R.A. IBRAHIM IBN YAZID AN-NAKHA-’IE R.A. SHURAIH IBN HARITH AL-KINDI R.A. SA-’EED IBN JUBAYR (MAULA WALIBAH) R.A. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
  • 16. ANAS IBN MALIK AL-ANSARIY R.A. THOSE WHO GAVE FATWA IN BASRA (IRAQ) ABU ‘ALIYA RAFI’ IBN MAHRAN AR-RAYANI R.A. HASSAN IBN HASSAN YASSAR (MAULA ZAID IBN TSABIT) R.A. ABU SHA’-TSA JABIR IBN ZAID (IBN ABBAS COMPANION) R.A. MUHAMMAD IBNU SIRRIN (MAULA OF ANAS IBN MALIK) R.A. QATADAH IBN DI-’AMAH AD-DAUSI R.A. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
  • 17. ‘ ABDUR RRAHMAN IBN GHUNMIN AL-ANSARIY R.A. THOSE WHO GAVE FATWA IN SHAM (SYRIA) ‘ AIDZULLAH IBN ‘ABDULLAH AL-KHULANI R.A. QABISHAH IBN DZUAIB R.A. QABISHAH IBN DZUAIB R.A. ‘ UMAR IBN ‘ABDUL AZIZ IBN MARWAN R.A. RAJA’ AL-HAYAH AL-KINDI R.A. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
  • 18. ‘ ABDULLAH IBN ‘AMR AL-’ASH R.A. THOSE WHO GAVE FATWA IN MISR’ (EGYPT) ABUL KHAYR MARTSAD IBN ‘ABDULLAH AL-YAZINI R.A. YAZIB IBN ABUL HABIB (MAULA AL-AZDI) R.A. YAHYA IBN ABU KATSIR R.A. THAWUS IBN KAISAN AL-JUNDI R.A. WAHAB IBN MUNABBIH AS-SAN’AANI R.A. THOSE WHO GAVE FATWA IN YEMEN All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
  • 19. PERIOD OF CONSOLIDATION AND FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF THE VARIOUS SCIENCES ‘ ILM AL-QIRA’AT WA AL-TAFSIR ‘ ILM AL-HADITH - SEERAH ‘ ILM AL-FIQH WAL USUL-AL-FIQH ‘ ILM AL-KALAM ‘ ILM JARH WA TA’DIL – ‘ILM MUSTALAH AL-HADITH ‘ ILM TASAWWUF –TAZKIYAH AN-NUFUS All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) ETC..
  • 20. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
  • 21. “ Those who listen to the Word, and follow the best (meaning) in it: those are the ones whom Allah has guided, and those are the ones endued with understanding.” ( Qur’an: Az-Zumar:39:18 )
  • 22. FOUNDERS OF MADZAAHIB IN FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) IMAM JA’FAR IBN MUHAMMAD AS-SODIQ R.A. (83 AH - 198 AH)
    • Born in Madinah, he belongs to the illustrious family of the Prophet’ s household ( AHLUL BAYT ) through Imam Muhammad al-Baqir ibn ‘Imam Ali ibn Imam Hussain ibn Imam ‘Ali ibn Abi Tolib with Sayyidatina Fatimah Az-Zahra binte Rosulillah s.a.a.w.
    • Regarded as the sixth Imam of the Shiite, he was also the teachers of many scholars including Sunni Imams like Malik and even Abu Hanifah.
  • 23. FOUNDERS OF MADZAAHIB IN FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) IMAM JA’FAR IBN MUHAMMAD AS-SODIQ R.A. (83 AH - 198 AH)
    • Because of persecution by the ruling powers of the ‘Ummayad and the Abbasid, the Shi’ite Madzhab later evolved separately from the mainstream Sunni schools through the subsequent Imams from his descendants.
    • The other branch of Shi’ite evolved earlier was the Zaydi which refer to the followers of Imam Zayd ibn ‘Ali (Zayn al-’Abidin) ibn Hussain ibn ‘Ali ibn ‘Abi Tolib.
  • 24. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) IMAM ABU HANIFAH AL-NU’MAN BIN TSABIT R.A. (80 AH - 150 AH) FOUNDERS OF MADZAAHIB IN FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE)
    • A Tabi’in born in Kufah and had studied under many surviving Ashaabi Rasul (Prophet’s companions) there such as Anas ibn Malik, Sahl ibn Sa’ad etc. and learnt many Ahadith from them.
    • After learning under many scholars in Kufah, he went on to Makkah and Madinah to take knowledge from many other scholars who were students of well-known companions and other Tabi’in scholars there.
  • 25. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) IMAM ABU HANIFAH AL-NU’MAN BIN TSABIT R.A. (80 AH - 150 AH) FOUNDERS OF MADZAAHIB IN FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE)
    • Although he too regarded the Qur’an, Sunnah and Ijma’ as the important primary sources, he had limited access to much of Ahadith in Kufah (unlike Imam Malik in Madinah). Thus he was best known for the use of juristic analogical deduction ( Qiyas ) and Istihsan (Equitable Preference) – as methods of IJTIHAD , whence his school were called Ahlul-Ra’yu (People of Juristic Reasoning)
  • 26. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) IMAM ABU HANIFAH AL-NU’MAN BIN TSABIT R.A. (80 AH - 150 AH) FOUNDERS OF MADZAAHIB IN FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE)
    • His famous disciples were:
    • Qadhi Abu Yusuf – appointed by Caliph Harun ar-Rashid as the chief judge ( Qadhi al-Qudhat )
    • Imam Muhammad ibn al-Hassan As-Shaybani – one of the teacher of Imam As-Shafi’ie.
    • Imam Zufar well-known scholar of Hadith and especially of Qiyas (analogical deduction).
  • 27. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) IMAM MALIK BIN ANAS R.A. (93 AH – 179 AH) FOUNDERS OF MADZAAHIB IN FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE)
    • Born and raised in Madinah ar-Rasul (City of the Prophet), he learnt from and met many of the students of Companions (Sahabah) of the Prophet s.a.w. And he compiled the famous book on Hadith of the prophet s.a.w. – “ Al-Muwatta’ ”.
    • His notable teachers were Imam Ja’far as-Sodiq, Abu Radim Nafi’ ibn ‘Abdur Rahman, Nafi’, Muhammad ibn Yahya al-Ansari, Yahya ibn Sa’-id and Hishan ibn ‘Urwah.
  • 28. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) IMAM MALIK BIN ANAS R.A. (93 AH – 179 AH) FOUNDERS OF MADZAAHIB IN FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE)
    • The greatest contribution of Imam Malik was the codification of the Madinan Fiqh.
    • Imam Malik had recourse to many transmitters of Ahadith and thus his important compilation of “ Al-Muwatta’ “ which he systematically arranged in accordance with the practice of the Deen. Imam Shafi’ie and Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal both studied and memorized this and regarded this book as second to the Qur’an.
  • 29. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) IMAM MALIK BIN ANAS R.A. (93 AH – 179 AH) FOUNDERS OF MADZAAHIB IN FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE)
    • He also regarded ‘Amal Ahll Madina -the “Practice of the People of Madina” and Masalih Mursalah - “Public interest or welfare ” to be also important basis for Fiqh unlike Imam As-Shafi’ie. Although as Muhaddith , Imam Malik placed importance upon Hadith, yet he was still regarded by Ibn Qutaybah as Ahlul-Ra’yy in matters of FIQH .
    • Later, tension grew between those who literally follow Ahadith, better known as Ahlul-Hadith , with those identified as Ahlul-Ra’yu .
  • 30. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) IMAM MALIK BIN ANAS R.A. (93 AH – 179 AH) FOUNDERS OF MADZAAHIB IN FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE)
    • Some of his famous disciples were:
    • Imam Muhammad ‘Idris As-Shafi’ie
    • Imam Yahya ibn Yahya al-Masmudi
    • Imam Abu Muhammad ibn Wahb ibn Salmah al-Fahri al-Misri
    • Imam Muhammad ibn al-Mubarak
    • Imam Muhammad ibn Hassan al-Shaybani
  • 31. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) IMAM MUHAMMAD BIN ‘IDRIS AS-SHAFI-’IE R.A. (150 AH – 204 AH) FOUNDERS OF MADZAAHIB IN FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE)
    • Born in Gaza from a Qurayshi descent, raised amongst a Yemenite tribe and later travelled with his mother to Makkah when he was ten years old.
    • At an early aged he already memorised the whole Qur’an, the Ahadith compilation Al-Muwatta’ of Imam Malik, while studying jurisprudence and being mentored by well-known jurists in Makkah – the Mufti Muslim Khalid al-Zanji ,and Imam Sufyan ibn ‘Uyayna.
  • 32. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) FOUNDERS OF MADZAAHIB IN FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE)
    • At 23, he travelled to Madinah and became a student of Imam Malik ibn Anas until his teacher’s death.
    • Later went to Yemen. His reputation attract the Caliph’s attention but Imam Shafi’ie’s frankness, brought him in conflict with the ruler. Jealous of his reputation his enemies made unfounded allegations against him and he was arrested amongst the conspirators against the Abbassid rulers, and brought to face the Caliph in Iraq.
    IMAM MUHAMMAD BIN ‘IDRIS AS-SHAFI-’IE R.A. (150 AH – 204 AH)
  • 33. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) IMAM MUHAMMAD BIN ‘IDRIS AS-SHAFI-’IE R.A. (150 AH – 204 AH) FOUNDERS OF MADZAAHIB IN FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE)
    • He eloquently defended himself and enthralled the Caliph with his knowledge, not only the Deen but also regarding Greek philosophy and medicine.
    • His acquaintance with Imam Al-Hassan ibn Muhammad al-Shaybaniy and Qadhi Abu Yusuf (disciples of Abu Hanifah) benefitted him much regarding Imam Abu Hanifah’s juristic methodology,
  • 34. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) IMAM MUHAMMAD BIN ‘IDRIS AS-SHAFI-’IE R.A. (150 AH – 204 AH) FOUNDERS OF MADZAAHIB IN FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE)
    • Thus, Imam Ash-Shafi-’ie can be said to be expert on both methodologies of Imam Malik and Abu Hanifah.
    • Imam Ash-Shafi-’ie then wrote the important treatise and codified a systematic approach to the principles of Islamic jurisprudence in his important work: “Kitab ar-Risaalah fi-Usul al-Fiqh”. To correct the over-reliance upon rational legal deduction over textual evidence which became rampant, especially when the Caliph became influenced by the Mutazilites.
  • 35. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) IMAM MUHAMMAD BIN ‘IDRIS AS-SHAFI-’IE R.A. (150 AH – 204 AH) FOUNDERS OF MADZAAHIB IN FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE)
    • It was Imam Ash-Shafi-’ie who reasserted the pre-eminence of Ahadith over Qiyas , and revived the effort amongst his followers to ensure its proper collection and preservation.
    • He also wrote “ Kitab al-Umm ” in which he presented views of his teachers as well as his own regarding many issues which made it clear that Imam Ash-Shafi-’ie was an authority of his own.
  • 36. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) IMAM MUHAMMAD BIN ‘IDRIS AS-SHAFI-’IE R.A. (150 AH – 204 AH) FOUNDERS OF MADZAAHIB IN FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE)
    • He became well-known while in Harran, Syria and Makkah where his fame attracted many scholars from all over the Muslim world and his school of jurisprudence spread far and wide.
    • Finally left Makkah for Egypt and remained there till his death. His school was so well accepted the many renown Islamic scholars themselves, even in later times prefer to be regarded as followers of this school of jurisprudence, even though many of them have attained the rank of Mujtahid.
  • 37. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) FOUNDERS OF MADZAAHIB IN FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE)
    • Some of these famous or notable scholars of this school:
    • Imam Al-Muzani
    • Imam Al-Mawardi
    • Imam An-Nawawiy
    • Imam Al-Haramain
    • Imam Al-Ghazaliy
    • Imam ‘Izzuddin ibn Abdul Salam
    • Imam Al-Baqilany
    IMAM MUHAMMAD BIN ‘IDRIS AS-SHAFI-’IE R.A. (150 AH – 204 AH)
  • 38. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) FOUNDERS OF MADZAAHIB IN FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE)
    • Some of these famous or notable scholars of this school:
    • Most Muhaddithin: Imam Bukhary, Muslim, Tirmidzi, Ibn Majah, Baihaqy, Ibn Hajar, Abu Dawud, Ad-Darimi, An-Nasa-i, Daruqutni, etc.
    • Imam Abul Hassan al-Ash’ariy, Juneid al-Baghdadi, At-Tabari, Ar-Razi, As-Suyuti, As-Subki, etc.
    IMAM MUHAMMAD BIN ‘IDRIS AS-SHAFI-’IE R.A. (150 AH – 204 AH)
  • 39. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) IMAM AHMAD IBN HANBAL R.A. (164 AH – 241 AH) FOUNDERS OF MADZAAHIB IN FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE)
    • Imam Abu ‘Abdillah Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Hanbal is mostly known as a Muhaddith although he is acknowledged to be a Mujtahid on Fiqh having studied under Imam Muhammad Idris As-Shafi-’ie, Bishr ibn al-Mufaddal, Waki’ ibn al-Jarrah etc.
    • As a Muhaddith, even his teachers and other muhaddithin take Ahadith from him. His famous work is “ Musnad Ahmad ”.
  • 40. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) IMAM AHMAD IBN HANBAL R.A. (164 AH – 241 AH) FOUNDERS OF MADZAAHIB IN FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE)
    • He is well-known for piety and detachment (Zuhud), and his school relies much upon Ahadith on Fiqh – much akin Maliki school – but not limiting it only from narrators in the Hijaz but elsewhere too.
    • But unlike his teacher Imam Ash-Shafi’ie, his followers and school of jurisprudence was limited and today mostly confine only to the peninsula of Arabia.
  • 41. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) IMAM AHMAD IBN HANBAL R.A. (164 AH – 241 AH) FOUNDERS OF MADZAAHIB IN FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE)
    • He was strict and very cautious in his adherence to the ways of the pious predecessors, that when the Caliph sought his service as a Qadhi he refused. He was even flogged for rejecting the Mu’tazilite’s assertion regarding the createdness of the Qur’an but remained steadfast upon his principle.
  • 42. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) IMAM AHMAD IBN HANBAL R.A. (164 AH – 241 AH) FOUNDERS OF MADZAAHIB IN FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE)
    • His jurisprudence later was somewhat revived by Imam Ibn Taymiyyah and his student Ibn Qayyim Al-Jauziy.
  • 43. OTHER LESS KNOWN OR EXTINCT MADZAAHIB All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) IMAM ZAYD IBN ‘ALI IBN HUSSAYN (80 AH – 122 AH) IMAM LAYTH IBN SA’AD (97 AH – 174 AH) IMAM SUFYAN AL-TSAURIY (100 AH – 160 AH) IMAM DAWUD IBN ‘ALI AD-DHAZHIRI (199 AH – 269 AH)
  • 44. Who is better in speech than one who calls (men) to Allah, works righteousness, and says "I am of those who bow in Islam"? ( Qur’an: Fussilat: 41: 33 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
  • 45. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
  • 46. " Verily Allah does not remove knowledge from the (hearts of the) people, rather he takes away knowledge by taking away its people (the true scholars – ‘ULAMA ), until there are no more scholars, the people then take leaders that are ignorant, and when they are asked, and give fatwas – religious rulings, (they give) without knowledge, so they misguide and are misguided.“ ( Hadith reported by Ashaab as-Sunnan from Ibnu ‘Umar r.a .) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
  • 47. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
  • 48. “ When a trust ( AMANAH )is neglected, then wait for the time (of its destruction).” Somebody ask: ‘ How shall this be neglected O Messenger of Allah?’ He the replied: “When a matter (affair) is given over, not to its rightful (legitimate) person ( AHLIHA ), then wait for its time (of destruction).” ( Hadith reported by Bukhary ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )
  • 49. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) “ WAFAYAT-AL A’YAN AN-BA ABNAZ-ZAMAN ” – Ibn Khallikan “ TABAQAT AL-SAFI’IYYAH AL-KUBRA ” – As-Subki “ TARIKH BAGHDAD ” – Khatib Al-Baghdadi “ TABAQAT ” – Ibn Abi Ya’la “ TADZKIRAH AL-HUFFAZ ” – Adz-Dzahabiy WaAllaahu a’lam
  • 50. http://an-naseehah.blogspot.com/ http://introductiontotauhid.blogspot.com/ http://oyoubelievers.blogspot.com/ http://al-amthaal.blogspot.com/ http://zhulkeflee-archive.blogspot.com/ http://criteriaforaholybook-quran.blogspot.com/ http://with-the-truthful.blogspot.com/ http ://muqaddam-nurul.blogspot.com/ All welcome to visit my web-blog: All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 )