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Slideshare [nusms-2013]-on-being-muslim-series#2-(22-october-2013)
 

Slideshare [nusms-2013]-on-being-muslim-series#2-(22-october-2013)

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    Slideshare [nusms-2013]-on-being-muslim-series#2-(22-october-2013) Slideshare [nusms-2013]-on-being-muslim-series#2-(22-october-2013) Presentation Transcript

    • IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL. “BEING MUSLIM STUDENTS” SERIES # 2 Presentation by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail for ” MUS1101E- Undergrad Muslim Workshop“ organize by NUS Muslim Society” - Singapore YIH (Yusuf Ishak House) (Tuesday) 22 October 2013 @ 7.30 pm NUS (National University of Singapore) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • AS PREVIOUSLY EXPLAINED What shall we define? Determine to know? Perhaps we begin by asking this question … All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • “O you who have believed, be conscious of (and fear) Allah (TAQWA) as He should be feared and do not die except as Muslims [ MUSLIMUN – those in submission to Him].” (Qur’an: Aali ‘Imran: 3: 102) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • And [mention] when your Lord took from the children of Adam - from their loins - their descendants and made them testify of themselves, [saying to them], "Am I not your Lord?" They said, "Yes, we have testified." [This] - lest you should say on the day of Resurrection, "Indeed, we were of this unaware." (Qur’an: A’raf: 7: 172) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • “Yet go on reminding [all who would listen]: for, verily, such a reminder will profit the believers. And [tell them that] I have not created the invisible beings and men to any end other than that they may [know and] worship Me . [But withal,] no sustenance do I ever demand of them, nor do I demand that they feed Me : for, verily, Allah Himself is the Provider of all sustenance, the Lord of all might, the Eternal!” (Qur’an: Dzariat: 51: 55-58) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • Mankind is called (insaan) – a word whose roots is similar with the word (nis-yaan; nasiy) – meaning “forgetfulness; to forget”. Prophets came to ‘remind’; and thus the Qur’an is also named as “ “ (Adz-Dzikr) meaning -‘the Reminder’ Islam asserts that mankind, naturally has a pure instinct (fitwrah saleema) to know of God’s existence. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • The ability to perceive the existence of a Supreme Being (God) is innate in human nature ( Fitwrah), and it is this instinctive cognition that explains why in every culture there is a term referring to the Supernatural Divine - God. In this verse we are told that, spiritually, our soul has already testified to Allah’s Lordship prior to our physical sojourn on this earth. Thus it is the Arabic term for “man” has that meaning “to forget”, and messengers were sent but to be (MUDZAKKIR) the ones to give “reminders” (DZIKR) to man, as well as the “Warner” (NADZEERA) regarding the consequence for heedlessness of this Reality. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • “Our Lord! Indeed we heard a crier calling to the faith saying: "Believe in your Lord"; so we did believe. Our Lord, forgive us our sins, and wipe out our evil deeds and make us die with the truly pious.' 'Our Lord, fulfil what You promised to us through Your Messengers, and disgrace us not on the Day of Resurrection; indeed You never go back on Your promise." (Qur’an: Aali ‘Imran: 3: 193-194) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • (Say:) ”Behold, my prayer, and [all] my acts of worship, my living and my dying are for God [Allah alone, Who is], the Sustainer of all the worlds, in whose divinity none has a share: for thus have I been bidden – and I shall [always] be foremost among those who surrender themselves to Him (MUSLIMEEN).” (Qur’an: Surah al-An’am:6:162) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • “– and I shall [always] be foremost among those who surrender themselves to Him (MUSLIMEEN).” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • AS PREVIOUSLY EXPLAINED All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • AS PREVIOUSLY EXPLAINED  Due to this, for most of us, our parents have sent us to ‘Islamic religious classes’ for our basic (FARDHU’AIN) , as well as to then attend conventional school.  Yet, both types of education have different aims, objectives and concerns.  Unfortunately many later emphasized too much upon conventional schooling and neglected continuing with their crucial Islamic Fardhu’ain learning and education . “Allah has not made for any man two hearts in his (one) body “ (Qur’an: Ahzab: 33: 4) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) 18
    • LE ARAB AP “Once a man was watching, with much amazement, how a caterpillar he once saw has now wrapped itself and transformed into pupa. Through its opaque cocoon, the man could see a colourful butterfly forming within it. It was now about to break forth, yet nature requires it to undergo the stage which is rather slow requiring it to struggle out of its cocoon.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • LE ARAB AP “What the man saw was a helpless creature, in agony being trapped and had to endure what seems to be a long, painful struggle to freedom. So he decided to lessen the agony and assisted it by cutting, to enlarge the opening so that it can easily emerge from the constraining shell.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • LE ARAB AP “Thenceforth, a butterfly emerged. Yet it remained attached, clinging on to the remnant of its previous shelter. And he watched how it stood there for a considerably long time. The man had expected it to flutter away, readily displaying its beautiful wings elegantly.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • LE ARAB AP “On closer inspection, the man discovered to his horror, that the part of the butterfly wings was deformed – The man regretfully realized that this was due to his ‘intervention’ which unknowingly had deprived the butterfly from undergoing a crucial process needed for its transformation - in accordance with nature (FITRAH), as every butterfly should.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • LE ARAB AP REFLECT : HAVE WE MISSED ANY CRUCIAL STAGE IN OUR DEVELOPMENT ? All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • LE ARAB AP REFLECT : HAVE WE MISSED ANY CRUCIAL STAGE IN OUR DEVELOPMENT ? “So direct your face toward the religion, inclining to truth. [Adhere to] the fitrah of Allah upon which He has created [all] people. No change should there be in the creation of Allah. That is the correct religion, but most of the people do not know.” Qur’an: Rum: 30: 30) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • “Every child is born in a state of pure innocence ( FITWRAH), It is the parents then who would make him to become a Jew or a Christian or a Pagan.” (Hadith reported by Bukhary) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • “O YOU who have attained to faith! Ward off from yourselves (i.e. save yourself) and those who are close to you (AHLI-KUM) that fire [of the hereafter] whose fuel is human beings and stones: [lording] over it are angelic powers awesome [and] severe, who do not disobey Allah in whatever He has commanded them, but [always] do what they are bidden to do.” (Qur’an: Tahrim: 66: 6) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • CE E S IN TH ICE ADV RE All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL. “Which then is best?― he that layeth his foundation on piety (TAQWA) to Allah and His Good pleasure (REDHA)?― or he that layeth his foundation on an undermined sandcliff ready to crumble to pieces? And it doth crumble to pieces with him, into the fire of Hell. And Allah guideth not people that do wrong.” (Qur’an: Taubah: 9:109) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL.  ”Seest thou not how Allah sets forth a parable?― a goodly Word like a goodly tree, whose root is firmly fixed, and its branches (reach) to the heavens― It brings forth its fruit at all times, by the leave of its Lord. So Allah sets forth parables for men, in order that they may receive admonition; (Qur’an: Ibrahim: 14: 24-25) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • TAUHEEDIC PARADIGM All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • AR W G IN N “When people TATRUKU - leave (set aside) the affairs of their DEEN – religion, because of their concern in improving their worldly matters, then Allah will open upon them much danger (harm).” (Hadith reported by Ahmad) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • Every tree begun from a seed, and would  grow in stages – from seedling into a plant  which from its onset develops several  important crucial components viz. Its roots,  its stems which then grow into trunk and  branches, its barks and leaves etc. All of these has to be nurtured and let to  grow in tandem – as and when conditions  permits. If any of these is neglected, or process for  their growth stymied to only allow one  component to be fully developed without  these others – then the tree may be harmed.  All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) TASAWWUR ISLAM
    • ‘AMAL                 [Islam] Belief Submission Faith Obedience Conviction Practice IIMAN IHSAN Best or Righteous Conduct Faith without obedience is meaningless; and obedience without Faith is  mere rituals and may even lead to hypocrisy.  Together, Faith and Obedience must lead to Righteousness with IHSAN  which essentially focus in our intention to sincerely serve Allah s.w.t.  Thus, in these three aspects can one be said to be true in his submission  to the Will of Allah (as Muslim). All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • TAUHEEDIC PARADIGM All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) 38
    • TAUHEEDIC PARADIGM ‘ILM TAUHEED - ‘AQIDAH (Creed or Theology)   All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • TAUHEEDIC PARADIGM ‘ILM TAUHEED - ‘AQIDAH (Creed or Theology)   Purpose / Objective Development of  Certainty (Belief) Awareness of Reality / Truth Develop discernment between  Truth & Falsehood, What is involved? ‘Aql -  (proper use of Reason / Intellect) Fitrah - Instincts & innate feeling (perception) Tauqifiy – Revelations & reliable traditions    What is the Effect? To develop firm conviction, strong principle, Commitment to concept of Unity & Justice of Allah (Tauheed); knowing the true purpose, role and Destiny of Man. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) 40
    • TAUHEEDIC PARADIGM ‘ILM TAUHIID - ‘AQIDAH (Creed or Theology)   RELEVANT COMPLEMENTARY  Purpose / Objective KNOWLEDGE: Development of  Certainty (Belief) Languages, Logic & philosophy, Awareness of Reality / Truth Epistemology, Biology, Botany, Develop discernment between  Truth & Falsehood, Chemistry, Physical sciences, Astronomy, Geology, History, Anthropology, Marine & Space, What is involved? Etc. ‘Aql -  (proper use of Reason / Intellect) Fitrah - Instincts & innate feeling (perception) Tauqifiy – Revelations & reliable traditions    What is the Effect? To develop firm conviction, strong principle, Commitment to concept of Unity & Justice of Allah (Tauheed); knowing the true purpose, role and Destiny of Man. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) 41
    • TAUHEEDIC PARADIGM ‘ILM TAUHEED - ‘AQIDAH (Creed or Theology)   ST E JU D UL E MOD PLET NEW COM WHEN ART ST ND S A E WILL NCE A OU AK INT LL ANN WI IF INTERESTED – ENQUIRE FROM  ORGANIZER “INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF TAUHEED” Intermediate Level  Islamic course in English for Adults conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • TAUHEEDIC PARADIGM ‘ILM  FIQH (Practical Laws for life; Learning of the Shari’ah)   All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • TAUHEEDIC PARADIGM ‘ILM  FIQH (Practical Laws for life; Learning of the Shari’ah)   Purpose / Objective Development of  Correct Practices; Submission & Obedience to Will of Allah (Islam) What is involved? Knowing the law, rules as Guidance to every aspect of life Capability to implementing them in life    What is the Effect? To develop a community of people,  Inviting to what is  good Enjoining what is right, and forbidding evil, Advocating the fulfilment of AMANAH (Trust) As Allah’s Khalifah (vicegerent), Establishing the Brotherhood of Man in  The servitude of One God. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) 44
    • TAUHEEDIC PARADIGM ‘ILM  FIQH (Practical Laws for life; Learning of the Shari’ah)   Purpose / Objective Development of  Correct Practices; Submission & Obedience to Will of Allah (Islam) BROAD EXTENT OF TOPICS COVERED IN FIQH What is involved? ‘ibadah (personal devotion / worship)   Knowing the law, rules as Guidance to every aspect of life          Muamalah (social transaction)  Capability to implementing them in life                      Munakahah (Marriage & family)  What is the Effect?                             Irth / fara’id (Distribution of wealth) To develop a community of people,                                      Jinayah (crimes & punishment) Inviting to what is  good                                               Qodha’iyah (judiciary) Enjoining what is right, and forbidding evil, Advocating the fulfilment of AMANAH (Trust)                                                  jihad / Da’wah (struggle in war & peace) As Allah’s Khalifah (vicegerent),                                                            imarah (Leadership/government) Establishing the Brotherhood of Man in  The servitude of One God. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) 45
    • TAUHEEDIC PARADIGM ‘ILM  FIQH (Practical Laws for life; Learning of the Shari’ah) RELEVANT COMPLEMENTARY KNOWLEDGE:   All applied sciences, technology Purpose / Objective and skills, knowledge of economics, politics, social &  Development of  Correct Practices; administrative  Submission & Obedience to Will of Allah (Islam) sciences etc. that can assist in the  fulfilment of establishing justice, order, peace,  What is involved? harmony, prosperity, physical  Knowing the law, rules as Guidance to every aspect of life Capability to implementing them in life with moral progress, and the well-being     of Man & society, etc. What is the Effect? To develop a community of people,  Inviting to what is  good Enjoining what is right, and forbidding evil, Advocating the fulfilment of AMANAH (Trust) As Allah’s Khalifah (vicegerent), Establishing the Brotherhood of Man in  The servitude of One God. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) 46
    • TAUHEEDIC PARADIGM ‘ILM  FIQH (Practical Laws for life; Learning of the Shari’ah)   ST E JU D UL E MOD PLET NEW COM WHEN ART ST ND S A E WILL NCE A OU AK INT LL ANN WI IF INTERESTED – ENQUIRE FROM  ORGANIZER “INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF FIQH ” Intermediate Level  Islamic course in English for Adults conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • TAUHEEDIC PARADIGM ‘ILM AKHLAQ / TASAWWUF /  IRFAN (Science of human Disposition/ Sufism)   All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • TAUHEEDIC PARADIGM ‘ILM AKHLAQ / TASAWWUF / IRFAN (Science of human Disposition/ Sufism)   Purpose / Objective Development of Righteous Personality Purification/perfection of the Self What is involved? Reforming or purification of the Self (Nafs) Best behaviour in relationship with Allah,  within oneself, and with others. Knowledge of Self and of Allah (Gnosis)     What is the Effect? Development of Most noble personality traits Founded on Love of Allah, of all His prophets [Nabiyyin]  especially the Seal of Prophethood Muhammad s.a.w.,  his Household [itrah or Ahlul-bayti wa Aali -Rasul] and loyal Companions [Ashaab],  In fellowship with the Truthful [siddiqqin], the Witnesses & martyrs [shuhada] and the  Righteous servants of Allah [Solihin]; Striving to purify the Self (Nafs) and  adorning it with the Exalted Moral traits of Our Beloved Prophet Muhammad s.a.w.  (The Perfected Man – “Insan Kaamil”) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) 49
    • TAUHEEDIC PARADIGM ‘ILM AKHLAQ / TASAWWUF / IRFAN (Science of human Disposition/ Sufism)   RELEVANT COMPLEMENTARY KNOWLEDGE: Purpose / Objective This aspect of development requires Development of Righteous Personality practical behaviour, the aspect of being  Purification/perfection of the Self and becoming. Its  area of development  is the inner Self, the ‘human psyche’ or What is involved? the state of the Soul reflected in his  Reforming or purification of the Self (Nafs) Disposition (Akhlaq). Therefore, the close  Best behaviour in relationship with Allah,  equivalent may perhaps be ‘human’ psychology,  within oneself, and with others. behavioural sciences, manners & discipline,  etc. Knowledge of Self and of Allah (Gnosis)     What is the Effect? Development of Most noble personality traits Founded on Love of Allah, of all His prophets [Nabiyyin]  especially the Seal of Prophethood Muhammad s.a.w.,  his Household [itrah or Ahlul-bayti wa Aali -Rasul] and loyal Companions [Ashaab],  In fellowship with the Truthful [siddiqqin], the Witnesses & martyrs [shuhada] and the  Righteous servants of Allah [Solihin]; Striving to purify the Self (Nafs) and  adorning it with the Exalted Moral traits of Our Beloved Prophet Muhammad s.a.w.  (The Perfected Man – “Insan Kaamil”) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) 50
    • TAUHEEDIC PARADIGM ‘ILM AKHLAQ / TASAWWUF /  IRFAN (Science of human Disposition/ Sufism)   NG NNI RU TLY UGUS T EN URR INCE A ) C Y 3 ( S 2O1 NESDA WED RY IGHT EVE N “INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF ‘ILM AL-AKHLAQ ” Intermediate Level  Islamic course in English for Adults conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • In 1998, while in PERGAS, I responded to criticisms upon the  Madrasah by writing a paper from my research (copy available on  my web link  “http://An-naseehah.blogspot.com” ). In that paper, I’ve argued that the current “Madrasah education”  (although it has the potential to be Islamic), yet it is not  necessarily equal to what a truly “Islamic education” really is. In fact, the Muslims have, since colonial times, moved from a  single holistic system of education (TAUHIDIC) into adopting a   dualistic system - dichotomising the religious from the secular. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • In fact with this, the Muslims have somewhat moved away from  an “eclectic to specialist approach” (the Islamic approach of  prioritizing Fardhu ‘ain knowledge before knowledge of Fardhu  kifaaya) into accepting an education system that is less and less  eclectic but emphasise more on specialization – driven by socioeconomic needs rather than developing the Fitrah in people to  their fullest potential.  Today - a system that educates or rather ‘develops’ people for  the work-force - as though people are to be exploited as future  market resources –  i.e. driven by politico-economic policy. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • I was asked: “Is it still possible for Muslims to strive to become Islamic scholars in the likes of the such illustrious, eclectic, profound Ulama’ – (scholar / thinker / philosopher) like e.g. AlGhazali, Ibn Rushd, Al-Biruni, Ibn Khaldun, Ibn Sinna etc. ? ” Actually this concern was already raised by many, especially  since the dismantling of the last Ottoman Caliphate. The waning  influence of the Muslims and their being colonized and exposed  to imperialists’ rule had indeed drastically changed our  approach to education. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • Whatever remaining Islamic institutions of learning became  more concerned towards essentially preserving only the  “knowledge of the Deen”, because with limited resources and  antagonistic colonial rulers, to be safeguarding this was of the  highest priority. The ummah was under siege.  Thus it is the traditional ”Madrasah” in our community evolving  to be what it is today, the urgent need was indeed to fulfil a  very important command in the Qur’an:   All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • “Nor should the Believers all go forth together: if a contingent from every expedition remained behind, they could devote themselves to studies in religion and admonish the people when they return to them― that thus they (may learn) to guard themselves (against evil).” (Qur’an: Taubah: 9: 122) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • Apart from the lack of resources, those scholars and  philanthropists within the Ummah barely managed to preserve  this traditional full-time Madrasah, whereas the majority  Muslims opted into sending their children to the conventional  schools established by the colonial masters.  Interestingly a general but relevant question was raised from an  ‘aleem from the Nusantara, to Syed Rashid Redha (of  “alManar”) which was then given over to be responded by  Amir Shakib Arslan as a book entitled: “Limaa-dza ta-akharal Muslimuuna...” – which analysed the reasons for Muslims  decline. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • A RECOMMENDED READING Author: Amir Shakib Arslan; Rashid Rida (foreword)  Publisher: Islamic Book Trust (2004)  Pages: 148 Binding: Paperback  Description from the publisher:  New Revised Edition, Paperback, 172 pages First published in the 1930s, this was a response to a letter from Shaykh  Muhammad Bisyooni Umran of Indonesia requesting the author to explain the  causes of Muslim weakness at the present and the causes of the strength of the  Europeans and the Japanese, the factors behind their glorious empires and  sovereignty, their power and wealth. His response, written in a state of great  agitation became one of the masterpieces of eloquence and a proof of his wisdom.   All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • But the most significant happened in 1977 with the  First World Conference on Muslim Education held in Makkah.  Concerned  Muslims must read the deliberations of these prominent Muslim  scholars in the “Islamic Education Series” published by King   Abdulaziz University, Jeddah. (ISBN 0-340-23607-8)       TOPICS IN THIS SERIES: Crisis in Muslim Education  Aims & Objective of Islamic Education  Muslim Education in the Modern World  Curriculum and Teacher Education  Philosophy Literature and Fine Arts ...... Etc. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • Syed M. Naquib Al-Attas asserts, it is: “... to produce a good  man. What is meant by ‘good’ in our concept of ‘good man’?  The fundamental element inherent in the concept of  education in Islam is the inculcation of ‘ adab’ (ta’dib), for it is  ‘adab’ in the all-inclusive sense I mean, as encompassing the  spiritual and material life of a man that instils the quality of  goodness that is sought after. Education is what the Prophet  Muhammad s.a.a.w. meant by Adab : All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • Syed M. Naquib Al-Attas asserts, it is: “... to produce a good  man. What is meant by ‘good’ in our concept of ‘good man’?  The fundamental element inherent in the concept of  education in Islam is the inculcation of ‘ adab’ (ta’dib), for it is  ‘adab’ in the all-inclusive sense I mean, as encompassing the  spiritual and material life of a man that instils the quality of  goodness that is sought after. Education is what the Prophet  Muhammad s.a.a.w. meant by Adab : “My Lord educated me (ADABANI) , and made my education (TA’DIB) most excellent.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • EQUIVALENT TERMS USED IN ISLAM  facts, information MA’-LUMAT (information; facts) Skills  SINA’-AH (skills, industrious); Knowledge ’ILM – (science and knowledge)  education  TA-ADDIB; - which includes TA’-LIM; TAR-BIYYAH; TAZKIYYAH, etc. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) FANNIYAH (artistry);
    • EPISTEMOLOGY Amongst the definitions: “....... Knowledge is the arrival (husul-                 )* of the meaning  (ma’na-                 ) of a thing or object of knowledge in the soul of the  subject; and simultaneously,..... Knowledge is the soul’s arrival  (wusul-                 ) at the meaning of that thing or the object of  knowledge.”     By “meaning” (ma’na-             ) is: “the recognition of the proper place of anything in a system ...” Prof. Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) * “attainment; acquirement” is a better translation.
    • EPISTEMOLOGY  Thus, perspective of Education in Islam can be defined: “... Recognition and acknowledgement, progressively instilled  into man, of the proper places of things in the order of  creation, such that it leads to the recognition and  acknowledgement of the proper place of God in the order of  being and existence.” ______________________________________________________ Quoted from: “The Educational Philosophy and Practice of  Syed  Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas” by Wan Mohd Nor Wan Daud (ISTAC  publication). ___________________________________________________ In other words, it is all about – “ADAB ” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • LEST WE FORGET PERSPECTIVE  FROM  AN ISLAMIC WORLDVIEW All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) TASAWWUR ISLAM
    • Ta’lim (                (generally it means, “to teach” or “the teaching”  of knowledge as different from information, but a profound  understanding of this word requires us to know the root word    “‘ilm”  which is different from “ma’lumat ” Ta’allum  (             ) “to learn or be taught knowledge”  consider definition of knowledge ( All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) )  . TASAWWUR ISLAM
    • Tarbiyyah ( ) – although used by many Islamist to  refer to education (perhaps influenced by the Western  methodology), it’s use to refer to ‘education’ is not appropriate  due to its narrow and limited scope when applied to the Islamic  approach to education, because our Islamic worldview regarding  man is unlike those from the Western outlook that still regards  man as an animal specie (although evolved). All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) TASAWWUR ISLAM
    • Tarbiyyah ( ) –   has the meanings “education,  upbringing, breeding, raising (of animals), instruction, pedagogy,  etc.  From which we have term “murabbin” (               ) “educator, (as  well as) breeder, tutor etc. Yet, it is too general a term and can also be applied in terms of  raising, breeding and training of animals.  All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) TASAWWUR ISLAM
    • Darasa ( ( – “to learn, to study under a teacher,  instructor, lecturer etc. ( mudarris  -                   ). Thus a school is called a “madrasah” (                     ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) TASAWWUR ISLAM
    • All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) TASAWWUR ISLAM
    • “Ta’-dib” (                    ) – preferred term for ‘education’, from the  term ‘Adab’ (                  ) meaning: –       “good breeding, nurture, manners, refinement, cultured,          decorum, propriety, social grace,  educated, etc.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) TASAWWUR ISLAM
    • SI S BA Hadith from Ibn Mas’ud r.a.: “Verily! The Qur’an is Allah’s Banquet on earth, so learn thoroughly, then, from (or of) His Banquet.” [1] [1] S.M.Naquib Al-Attas “Islam and Secularism” page 150 All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) TASAWWUR ISLAM
    • SI S BA Thus,“ Adab” in the original basic sense (in Arabic) is the “inviting to a banquet.” The idea of a banquet implies the host is a man of honour and  prestige, and that many people are present; that the people who  are present are those who in the host’s estimation are deserving of  the honour of the invitation, and they are therefore people of  refined qualities and upbringing who are expected to behave as  befits their station, in speech, conduct and etiquette.”  [1] [1] S.M.Naquib Al-Attas “Islam and Secularism” page 149 All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) TASAWWUR ISLAM
    • SI S BA “From amongst the rights of a children upon their parents are, that they be instilled (to be educated by them) with Adab and to be given a good name.” (Hadith of the Prophet s.a.w. reported by Baihaqy from Ibnu ‘Abbas r.a.) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) TASAWWUR ISLAM
    • SI S BA “Educate (nurture – ‘addibu’) your children with the best education (ADAB).” (Hadith of the Prophet s.a.w. narrated by Ibnu Majah ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) TASAWWUR ISLAM
    • SI S BA PROPHET MUHAMMAD S.A.A.W. SAID: AD-DA-BANI – ROB-BEE - FA -AH-SA-NA – TA’ –DI-BEE “My Lord educated me, and made my education most excellent.” (Hadith) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) TASAWWUR ISLAM
    • All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • PREVIOUSLY EXPLAINED Independent – by community HALAQAH KUTTAB VISITING ISLAMIC SCHOLARS QUR’AN SCHOOL Government controlled BRITISH ENGLISH SCHOOLS ENGLISH SCHOOLS MOSQUE ARABIC SCHOOL (Madrasah) MADRASAH Home-based study circles; Family trust; MUIS - mosgues; Islamic organizations; VERNACULAR SCHOOLS Asaatizah absorbed by M.O.E into vernacular schools to teach I.R.K. (Islamic Religious knowledge) INTEGRATED SCHOOLS FULL ENGLISH MEDIUM SCHOOLS private schools ; individual scholars; etc. TEACHING I.R.K TOTALLY SCRAPPED All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • Western colonial powers introduced their schooling system,  even though natives already have their own- i.e. either  vernacular or religious based. When linked to economic and job opportunities,  which  favoured cohorts from such schools, private native or  religious full-time schools lost its appeal. Yet, Muslims  students generally were provided Islamic religious classes outside school hours at home, mosques or the madrasah  (part-time). All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • Full-time madrasah gradually evolved distinctly to focus in  producing the elite – “teachers of Islam” - to ensure the rest of  the Muslims  are guided with their Islamic knowledge. Thus, other Muslim students were made to adapt to this  “dualistic education system” – full-time conventional school  (academic) and part-time (religious) taught by these teachers. The full-time Madrasah is therefore an exception rather than  the rule; fully private and independent, constituting only less  than 4% of the total cohorts; sustained by the community &  philanthropists. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • Students who were sent to these full-time Madrasah originally, were those with parents with altruistic-religious  reasons, not due to economic gains as their primary reason. The basic curriculum at the primary level were equally  needed by those who do not attend full-time  Madrasah. To  accommodate these, traditional Madrasah extended their  function or assign their students to conduct part-time  Madrasah. We in Singapore have had over 30 registered  independent madrasahs but today it dwindled to only 6  which are as full-time schools. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • When at one time, IRK (Islamic Religious Knowledge) was  incorporated in government schools which somewhat took on the  function which independent Madrasah had fulfilled, its proliferation  and existence then became  regarded as less urgent. Lulled into the  availability of ‘alternative’, many of these part-time Madrasah lost  its appeal leading to lesser cohorts and gradually became neglected.  When IRK  was scrapped from being taught in government schools, it  hence left a major void. We have not yet fully recovered from this ‘traumatic’ loss . The  truncation from our tradition and loss of Adab - has now caused  many to ‘experiment’ with many kinds of curriculum or approaches.  All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • Any education system is never neutral from a dominant philosophy  or worldview guiding its approach, method and curriculum. Education for Muslims must be founded upon one – TAUHEEDIC – paradigm, following a single-united, yet holistic curriculum.  Therefore, Muslims exposure to this dualistic system, pose a dilemma  to contemporary Muslims.  Some who attempt to integrate the syllabus with the so-called  “dunyawi - ukhrawi ” labelling are themselves unclear of how actual  Islamic categorization of knowledge should be.  All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • From the Islamic perspective, the priority knowledge for Muslims is the  “DEENIYYAT” –(knowledge of the religion of Islam). Unfortunately some has wrongly as adopted another term -  “UKHRAWIYYAT” instead, which preposterously imply “knowledge  pertaining to the Hereafter.”  Islam as “AD-DEEN” provides guidance in both this world and the  Hereafter, and has never  accepted such false  ‘UKHRAWI-DUNIYAWI’  categorization of knowledge. They may have been influenced by  Secularism and certain Orientalists’ misrepresentation of Islam. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • Perhaps they have misunderstood the term “UKHRA-UKHRAWIYYAH”  used by traditional scholars. “UKHRA” or “AAKHAR” literally means “other”  As in acquiring knowledge, a Muslim firstly must seek “ DEENIYAT”  DEENIYAT (transmitted knowledge of the religion), which serves to guide Muslims’   other pursuits in life.  And Islam does not limit beneficial knowledge only on the transmitted  knowledge of the religion but in fact made it obligatory also towards all  “other” (AAKHAR) beneficial worldly knowledge. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • So, if we come across the term “UKHRAWIY” relating to category of knowledge, it is in fact referring to the meaning “other available relevant worldly science” the acquisition of it is also a religious obligation for the Muslims, not “AL-AAKHIRAT” as meaning Hereafter. So, we should desist misusing the terms UKRAWI-DUNYAWI to refer to religious knowledge vis-à-vis worldly science - but instead use “DEENIYAT-DUNYAWIYAT” or to use Imam Ghazalie’s title to his magnum opus – ”IHYA – ‘ULUM-AD-DEEN” WaAllaahu a’lam All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • We have to extricate ourselves from this confusion and dilemma by being vigilant, and to be informed of, or be with, and study from, well-acknowledged Islamic scholars and thinkers in the movement currently on-going: All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • Amongst the remedies is the “ISLAMIZATION” movement – for both types in these dualistic education system – envisaged since 1977. Although this process can be applied wherever required in whichever system, yet it is to be most effective at the higher level (tertiary) prior to these graduates assuming their roles as scholars - educators of the Ummah. The anti-thesis to “Islamization” is really “Secularism” which every Muslim aspiring to be scholars must know profoundly too, so that they can appreciate the relevant responses, so that a complete and Islamized education can be achieved. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • A RECOMMENDED READING The author deals with fundamental problems faced by contemporary Muslims and provides real solutions, beginning with a discussion on ‘The Contemporary Western Christian Background’ in Chapter (I), followed by his analysis of the concepts (which he newly defines) of ‘secular’, ‘secularization’, and ‘secularism’ in Chapter (II). All this is then contrasted in Chapter (IV) of the book entitled ‘Islam: The Concept of Religion and the Foundation of Ethics and Morality’. Based on all the preceding explanation, the author proceeds to analyze the Muslim ‘dilemma’ by declaring that it should be resolved primarily through what he calls the “dewesternization of knowledge” or, conversely, the “islamization of contemporary knowledge”, an original concept conceived and elucidated by the author for the past three decades. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) ISLAM AND SECULARISM
    • A RECOMMENDED READING Prolegomena to the Metaphysics of Islam by Muhammad Naquib Syed Al-Attas This is a very important book. No book of its kind, in profundity as well as magnitude of scope and comprehensive grasp of modern intellectual challenges facing the contemporary Muslim World, appeared in the last century. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • A RECOMMENDED READING Wan Mohd Nor Wan Daud, The Educational Philosophy and Practice of Syed Muhammad Naquib Al‑ Attas, ISTAC, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Although there are several groups promoting the ‘Islamization’ agenda especially in the West, the use of this term and its idea was first mooted by Prof. Syed M. Naquib Al-Attas. Many who are critical of ‘Islamization’ may have mistaken what others are attempting without knowing what was advocated originally by him. The author have presented how Al-Attas’ seminal ideas may have been ‘hijacked’ and misrepresented. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • A RECOMMENDED READING Islam And The Plight Of Modern Man by Seyyed Hossein Nasr This is one of the most important writings of the author on the subject of the encounter and interrelation between Islam and modernism. Addressed at once to Muslims and Westerners, the author deals in depth with the intellectual and spiritual crisis of modern man as well as the dilemmas of the contemporary Muslim faced with the daunting challenge of the modern world. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • A RECOMMENDED READING Traditional Islam in the Modern World by Seyyed Hossein Nasr An elaboration and defence of "traditional" Islam, as opposed to the modernist and fundamentalist forms, by one of the best-informed, most articulate Muslims of our time. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • A RECOMMENDED READING “Today, there are few intellectual issues more important to the contemporary Islamic world than the relation of Islam and modern science and in this central discourse the voice of Osman Bakar remains among the most pertinent. Among his many writings, the present book holds a privileged position and the appearance of a new edition of it is itself proof of the pertinence of this opus and the continuous interest in it. “ --Seyyed Hossein Nasr All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) Tawhid and Science By : Osman Bakar
    • A RECOMMENDED READING “The lives and the ideas of the three thinkers discussed in Classification of Knowledge in Islam - al-Farabi (870-950AD), al-Ghazzali (1058-1111AD) and Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi (1236-1311AD) - cover the pivotal period of Islamic history from the first flourishing of the philosophical sciences to the sacking of Baghdad by the Mongols. In addition, each of these three thinkers was either a founder or an eminent representative of a major intellectual school in Islam.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) Classification of Knowledge in Islam: A Study in Islamic Philosophies of Science By : Osman Bakar
    • CE E S IN TH ICE ADV RE All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • ADDENDUM “Those who do not know that they do not know.” THE HEEDLESS “Those who know that they do not know.” THE IGNORANT “Those who do not know that they know.” THE NEGLIGENT “Those who know that they know.” THE WISE SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TRULY WISE And the wise (those who truly know), will always look at what they are still ignorant of, maintaining humility , striving to continue learning, rather than become conceited with whatever little they had already learnt. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • ADDENDUM BLACK space represents Infinite Knowledge “We don’t even know that we don’t know them” The GREEN area represents whatever Knowledge that we have. RED line (circumference) indicates our encounter with knowledge which we now realize we do not know; which motivates us to acquire them. The beginning of Wisdom is when you realize you do not know! *Extracted and elaborated from “Beginners’ Manual on Islam” by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj ismail (PERGAS) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • ADDENDUM BLACK space represents Infinite Knowledge “We don’t even know that we don’t know them” The GREEN area represents whatever Knowledge that we have. When we acquire these, our knowledge grows (DARK GREEN area ) *Extracted and elaborated from “Beginners’ Manual on Islam” by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj ismail (PERGAS) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • ADDENDUM BLACK space represents Infinite Knowledge “We don’t even know that we don’t know them” The GREEN area represents whatever Knowledge that we have. When knowledge grows, the circle will expand. But with this expansion the circumference (RED line) also increases. Remember: RED line (circumference) indicates our encounter with knowledge which we now realize we do not know. When we acquire these, our knowledge grows (DARK GREEN area ) “The more we know, the more will we encounter aspects of knowledge which we do not know. And only realization of this which motivates us to grow in learning” *Extracted and elaborated from “Beginners’ Manual on Islam” by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj ismail (PERGAS) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • ADDENDUM All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • ADDENDUM ”It is He (Allah) Who has sent amongst the Unlettered a messenger (Prophet Muhammad s.a.w.) from among themselves, to YAT-LU ‘ALAY-HIM AA-YAATIHI rehearse to them His Signs, to YU-ZAK-KIHIM sanctify them (to make them grow), and to YU-’AL-LI-MU-HUM instruct (teach) them in Scripture and Wisdom― although they had been, before, in manifest error― “ (Qur’an: Jumu’ah:62: 2) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • ADDENDUM “We are (much) in need of a little Adab, from (that of) going out (seeking) after much of ‘ilm (knowledge)” (Imam ‘Abdullah ibn al-Mubarak) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • ADDENDUM “(‘ilm) Knowledge without Adab, is like (having) fire (but) without wood (fuel); and Adab without knowledge (‘ilm) , is like (having) the Soul (but) without body.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • “Halia ini tanam-tanaman, Ke barat juga akan rebahnya, Dunia ini pinjam-pinjaman, Ke akhirat juga akan sudahnya” “Ginger is a plant that grows in clumps, Towards the west it’s shoot will turn, Life in this world is but on borrowed times, For the Hereafter is where all must eternally return” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • Tinggi sungguh gunung Daik, Mercunya nampak terang berkilau, Kalau asal benih yang baik, Jatuh ke laut menjadi pulau. “Majestic is mount Daik with awe and radiance, With the sun atop its peak they appear to merge, If a seed is truly derived from that of excellence, When thrown in the sea an island will emerge” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • “Salam menghadap, hamba dan dayang, Raja bermalam di dendang teruja, Dalam kitab ada terlarang, Perkara yang haram jangan dicuba.” “ With looks so dignified, all the servant and maiden, With manners and charm, before the resting king, The Book (Qur’an) has clarified all that is forbidden, Whatever is ‘haram’ therefore, refrain yourself from doing” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • “Berburu ke padang datar, Mendapat rusa belang kaki, Berguru kepalang ajar, Bagaikan bunga kembang tak jadi” “To go hunting on the plains deserted, Tracking a deer till it meet its doom, If in learning one is lazy, dull and half-hearted, Like flower bud that wilted, before it can ever bloom.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • “Ke hulu memotong pagar, Jangan terpotong batang durian, Carilah guru tempat belajar, Jangan menyesal dihari kemudian.” “The fence needs cutting as well as cleaning, But do not destroy the branch of the durian tree, Seek out a teacher to guide you in your learning, Lest great is the regret, your future will be.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
    • All welcome to visit my web-blog: http://an-naseehah.blogspot.com/ http://introductiontotauhid.blogspot.com/ http://oyoubelievers.blogspot.com/ http://al-amthaal.blogspot.com/ http://zhulkeflee-archive.blogspot.com/ http://criteriaforaholybook-quran.blogspot.com/ http://with-the-truthful.blogspot.com/ http ://muqaddam-nurul.blogspot.com/ All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) 113