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“INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF TAUHEED” …

“INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF TAUHEED”
Intermediate Level Islamic course in English for Adults conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail

Criterion of Antithesis

SOME IMPORTANT CORNERSTONE OF ISLAMIC THOUGHTS
Surmise (conjecture) is not the same as Truth
Limitations of the Mind
Visualization and Conception
Man's Limitation

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  • 1. #3 a IN THE NAME OF ALLAH MOST COMPASIONATE LESSON MOST MERCIFUL “INTRODUCTION TO THE M LE ODU E S STUDY OF TAUHEED” A NEW -COUR Intermediate Level Islamic course in English for Adults CH ] BAT [2012 conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail IT CAN ALSO BE A 16 weekly class started from: 3 March 2012 REFRESHER COURSE FOR MUSLIM Every Saturday night @ 8pm – 10pm PARENTS, EDUCATORS, Wisma Indah, 450 Changi Road, IN CONTEMPORARY SINGAPORE. #02-00 next to Masjid Kassim OPEN TO ALL For further information and registration contact E -mail : ad.fardhayn.sg@gmail.com or +65 81234669 developed96838279English-speaking Using curriculum he has / +65 especially for Muslim converts and young English-speaking Adult Muslims. “To seek knowledge is obligatory upon every Muslim (male & female)”All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 2. “And remember! your Lord caused to be declared (publicly): "If ye are grateful, I will add more (favours) unto you; but if ye show ingratitude, truly My punishment is terrible indeed." (Qur’an: ibrahim: 14: 7)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) )
  • 3. ROB-BANAA- AN-FA’-NAA -BI-MAA- ‘AL-LAM-TA-NAA O our Lord! Make us to benefit from what You have taught us.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) )
  • 4. ROB-BI –’AL-LIM- NAL- LA-DzI- YAN-FA- ‘UNA O Lord! Teach us whatever that is beneficial for us.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) )
  • 5. A MODERN PARABLE “THE JIG-SAW PUZZLE” By : Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) ) 5
  • 6. Information gathered are like pieces of jig-saw puzzle.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) ) 6
  • 7. Information gathered are like pieces of jig-saw puzzle. It may seem quite easy to get them, especially when they seemed to be scattered about almost everywhere.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) ) 7
  • 8. Some people are keen to only gather them, to pick them up, to steal these pieces, and are obsessed with merely having as much of them as possible – not realizing its true meaning, its true significance, its true place and purpose.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) ) 8
  • 9. Thus, some people may feel that they have ‘knowledge’, whereas what they possess may just be merely ‘information’.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) ) 9
  • 10. Actually by “knowledge”, we are referring to the relevant “meaning of that subject that we seek to acquire, arriving in our soul ...”All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) ) 10
  • 11. The “Soul” (or sometimes referred to as the ‘heart’, ‘mind’ or ‘intellect’) is the spiritual Self of who we are - our cognitive essence, capable of knowing and of learning.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) ) 11
  • 12. When we speak of “knowledge” as referring to “meaning” , it is:All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) ) 12
  • 13. When we speak of “knowledge” as referring to “meaning” , it is: “ ... the arrival of meaning of not just the subject per se, but how it relates to whatever knowledge which we already possess within our soul.”All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) ) 13
  • 14. Thus education is said to be “organic” liken to a living organism – which pertains to the growth of our soul.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) ) 14
  • 15. Thus education is said to be “organic” liken to a living organism – which pertains to the growth of our soul. Education is not a mechanical construct, but it entails nurturing of something with Life – educators to be likened as the gardeners not engineers.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) ) 15
  • 16. Actually, (in Islamic education), when acquiring any pieces of it (information), you (as students) should also be learning what its meaning and significance is, and how it is to be applied (fixed) unto what you already possess thus far – increasing your growth.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) ) 16
  • 17. This can only be possible when such pieces are given to you by one who has true ownership of these, and who consents to give them to you and helps you with how you should understand them, and to form (or attach) them unto your own overall worldview.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) ) 17
  • 18. Thus, you must also be learning from the right person, i.e. those who has ‘seen’ the full - the completed picture. Only they are the ones who can rightfully teach you how you are to make each pieces to become meaningful to what you already possess.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) ) 18
  • 19. And the manner or approach towards making it meaningful (enlightening), may be seen from various perspectives (angles) amongst fellow students in the same class, because each student may have a limited vision of what the teacher was teaching.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) ) 19
  • 20. Thus traditional teachers often encourage revision – (if individually, the Malay term used, that I remember was “menderas”), or if in group discussion, as “halaqah” (study circle).All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) ) 20
  • 21. Thus traditional teachers often encourage revision – (if individually, the Malay term used, that I remember was “menderas”), or if in group discussion, as “halaqah” (study circle). Group sharing exercise, enhances your learning.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) ) 21
  • 22. N M RI E) S TA RCI E ( EX • Get into groupings (not more than 8) and do a brief self-introduction to each other in this new group. • Discuss briefly – from given notes #1 & #2 - what has thus far been covered in “Introduction to Tauheed” - up to the previous lesson “Causes of wrong thinking”.. “Can I get to know you ? What have • Briefly – share - what ‘take-ways*’ you had we learnt?” noted from the lesson; feedback, comments; additional “*ah…haa-h s !”. • Prepare a summary (synopsis). Each group to present a brief RECAP for the class to ease the continuation of the next lesson. HALAQAH You are given only 30 minutes to complete this assignmentAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 23. RE-CAP PREVIOUS LESSONAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 24. RE-CAP PREVIOUS LESSONAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 25. RE-CAP PREVIOUS LESSONAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 26. RE-CAP PREVIOUS LESSONAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 27. TO CONTINUEAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 28. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 29. Criterion of Antithesis Intellectual perception of all things, material or spiritual, tangible or intangible, revolves around 3 postulates: [1] inevitability (WAJIBAH); When the evidence presents itself convincingly, such that we have to make a certain conclusion (judgement) and cannot remain neutral or uncommitted.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 30. Criterion of Antithesis Intellectual perception of all things, material or spiritual, tangible or intangible, revolves around 3 postulates: [2] possibility (HARUS); This generally is a position of neutrality, neither an acceptance nor a categorical rejection, but we remain open. (just like in cases when we say to it as: "Maybe, maybe not, or perhaps").All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 31. Criterion of Antithesis Intellectual perception of all things, material or spiritual, tangible or intangible, revolves around 3 postulates: [2] possibility (HARUS); This generally is a position of neutrality, neither an acceptance nor a categorical rejection, but we remain open. (just like in cases when we say to it as: "Maybe, maybe not, or perhaps").All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 32. Criterion of Antithesis Intellectual perception of all things, material or spiritual, tangible or intangible, revolves around 3 postulates: [2] possibility (HARUS); This generally is a position of neutrality, neither an acceptance nor a categorical rejection, but we remain open. (just like in cases when we say to it as: "Maybe, maybe not, or perhaps").All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 33. Criterion of Antithesis Intellectual perception of all things, material or spiritual, tangible or intangible, revolves around 3 postulates: [3] impossibility (MUSTAHIL). In Islam, this third postulate in thinking is termed rational impossibility or absurdity or antithesis‘.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 34. Criterion of Antithesis [3] impossibility (MUSTAHIL). The word impossible may be clear to simplest of people. Here we are not taking its meaning in the general sense, but rather specific to thinking process - the ratio. i.e. rationally impossible or absurd, which our mind cannot even register. Not ‘impossible’ because it seems uncommon. But some of the best educated young people fail to differentiate between these two kinds of impossibilities (common and rational):All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 35. NOTE: There are 2 kinds of ‘impossibility’ • (a) Rational impossibility, whose existence or non-existence, when visualised, is unacceptable to the mind (e.g. when we say that “one ” is the quarter of "two" and not half of it , or that a part of an object is larger than the object itself !!!) Or, when a proposition presented which inherently is self-contradictory, or inconsistent. Thus, rightfully we have basis to reject such assertion or proposition .All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 36. NOTE: There are 2 kinds of ‘impossibility’ • (b) Common impossibility is that which, while not altogether unacceptable to the mind, does seem so by the force of our habit or to consider it as such because it it does not occur ordinarily (customarily). • Eventually, however, we learn that it is not the same as rational impossibility (e.g. like soaring to the sky, taking to people and seeing things from far corners of the earth or landing on the moon.) • Actually, common impossibility still falls under the category of possible (HARUS) i.e. it is still not rationally impossible, and we remain neutral or open towards it – neither to accept yet nor to reject outright.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 37. NOTE: There are 2 kinds of ‘impossibility’ • The criterion for dismissing a piece of information does not lie in the fact that it seems improbable and strange, but that it must be something which produces a mental antithesis * , an obvious absurdity - something glaringly inconsistent and therefore self- evidently false. •Antithesis : “Contrast of ideas expressed by parallelism of strongly contrasted •words; opposition, contrast, direct opposite, or consisting of two opposites, contradiction, inconsistency to reason. etc. “All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 38. NOTE: There are 2 kinds of ‘impossibility’ • Hence if a contention (proposition) produces such antithesis, we repudiate it, and if it does not, then we should refrain from repudiating it although we do not as yet believe it. • We need to substantiate with evidence and convincing basis - for both cases, either of acceptance or categorical rejection. Without which, we hold to an open mind.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 39. NOTE: There are 2 kinds of ‘impossibility’ • Therefore, an educated young man should not forget to differentiate between these two kinds of impossibilities whenever he engages in an argument within himself about God, religion, and the Quran.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 40. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 41. “When a person possesses deep thought, Then by everything is a lesson taught.”-Imam Abu Hamid al-Ghazali (Rahimahullah)
  • 42. 1. Pick up the paper and fall in the dustbin. 2. Both of you stand together separately. 3. Why are you looking at the monkey outside when I am inside. 4. Will you hang the calendar or else, I will hang myself. 5. I have 2 daughters, both are girls. 6. Give me a blue pen of any colour. 7. The principal is revolving in the corridor. 8. All of you stand in a straight circle. 9. Open the window let the air-force come in.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 43. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 44. Surmise (conjecture) cannot be the same as Truth "Yet behold, never can surmise (conjecture) take the place of Truth" (Q: Najm 53 :28)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 45. Surmise (conjecture) cannot be the same as Truth • From this verse, it stresses exactly the minds logical process for establishing a fact or negating it. • In the matter of certitude, there is a great difference between proof and denial. • Thus we can be absolutely certain about an existence of an object if such existence is proven scientifically or logically.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 46. Surmise (conjecture) cannot be the same as Truth • But we should not categorically deny the existence of an object or a piece of information just because there is no proof of it - unless the visualisation of that object or information produces a mental antithesis. •Antithesis : “Contrast of ideas expressed by parallelism of strongly contrasted •words; opposition, contrast, direct opposite, or consisting of two opposites, contradiction, inconsistency to reason. etc. “All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 47. Surmise (conjecture) cannot be the same as Truth • If, however, the object or information is in the realm of possible, then we should look at it the way we look at everything that is not impossible. i.e. neither to accept it unquestionably nor to deny it categorically.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 48. TO CONTINUEAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 49. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 50. Limitations of the mind Another cornerstone of Islamic thought based on principles of the Quran is the distinction made on the between perceptions of the visible and invisible worlds. There are two kinds of perceptions: • (1) perception of the true essence of an object, and • (2) perception of the evidence of its existence, although absolute perception of its essence may not be possibleAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 51. Limitations of the mind The human mind can more or less perceive the essence of objects within a limited scope, the scope of the tangible world. But in the world of the intangible, it can only deduce the existence of an object from its attributes or effects. This is an established fact. This latter kind of perception enables us to ascertain the existence of God and some of His attributes of perfection through the signs He has given us, and not because we can perceive His true essence.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 52. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 53. Visualization and Conception • Human minds ability to abstraction (and deduction) enables him to know the reality of a thing beyond merely the physical perception. • Thus distinction between visualization and conception - is another cornerstone of Islamic thought, which springs forth from the principles of the Quran.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 54. Visualization and Conception VISUALIZATION • “ To perceive the object with our senses or the minds eye by picturing its essence” and CONCEPTION • “Being aware of the existence of an object without the need to form a mental image of its essence” -All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 55. Visualization and Conception • We cannot visualize all things we conceive. • For, we may conceive the existence of an object through its manifestations, although we may not be able to visualize its form. • The fact that we cannot visualize an object already conceived to exist, does not justify the claim that it does not exist.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 56. Visualization and Conception • Thus, for example, although we cannot imagine (visualize) that a paper, if cut in half and then stacked and pieces are each cut in half again, 45 times and stacked, would make a pile that reach the clouds; yet we can conceive it (i.e. its possibility) after a simple mathematical calculation.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 57. Visualization and Conception • Again, if a television set falls in our midst from one of the galaxies, would it not prove to us the existence of its maker and indicate that, that ‘being’, is a wise and intelligent scientist? • Yet, despite this knowledge (concerning some of his attributes), we cannot visualize the essence of that maker because we have not seen or felt him; we do not know whether he is a human being or a robot.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 58. Visualization and Conception • But would it be logical to deny his existence altogether? .... just because we cannot visualize his essence, although we did conceive his existence as well as some of his attributes?All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 59. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 60. Mans Limitation Another cornerstone of Islamic thought based on the principles of the Quran is that we are incapable of perceiving the beginnings and ends of things. This is a fact. That is the way our minds and senses were created, even in the material world in which we live in, our limitations are obvious.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 61. Mans Limitation A sound that is too loud deafens us, and a light that is too bright blinds us as it blinded Prophet Moses a.s. Excessive closeness to an object prevents us from seeing it, and so does excessive remoteness from it. If this is true of the tangible world, it is much more so of the intangible world! TO BE CONTINUEDAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 62. All welcome to visit my web-blog: http://an-naseehah.blogspot.com/ http://introductiontotauhid.blogspot.com/ http://oyoubelievers.blogspot.com/ http://al-amthaal.blogspot.com/ http://zhulkeflee-archive.blogspot.com/ http://criteriaforaholybook-quran.blogspot.com/ http://with-the-truthful.blogspot.com/ http ://muqaddam-nurul.blogspot.com/ 62All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012