#2                      IN THE NAME OF ALLAH                      MOST COMPASIONATE                      MOST MERCIFUL    ...
PREVIOUS LESSON            THE      M BER R EME ….All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
PREVIOUS LESSON                         .                  BE R …      E       M  REMAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj I...
PREVIOUS LESSON                R            MBE       R EME T….          THAAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
PREVIOUS LESSON                R            MBE       R EME T….          THAAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
PREVIOUS LESSON            THE      M BER R EME ….All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
U               E                 TIN             CON          TO   ….All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
CONSIDER:                   Our learning journey is never static.        When we strive to understand deeper a given obj...
CONSIDER:                   Our learning journey is never static.        Perhaps the common ‘understanding’ of what cons...
CONSIDER:                   Our learning journey is never static.        We should ponder deeper on the saying:         ...
Epistemology: from Greek ἐ πιστήμη(epistēmē),                   meaning "knowledge, science",                   and λόγος ...
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
OXFORD DICTIONARIES’ DEFINITION:                  Knowledge is a collection of facts, information,                  and/or...
EQUIVALENT TERMS USED IN ISLAM                                                                     MA’-LUMAT           fac...
EPISTEMOLOGY          Amongst the definitions:          “....... Knowledge is the arrival (husul-                       )*...
EPISTEMOLOGY               Thus, perspective of Education in Islam can be defined:              “... Recognition and ackno...
EPISTEMOLOGYAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
EPISTEMOLOGY         “Has there not been over Man a long period of Time, when he was             nothing--(not even) menti...
(Allah) Most Gracious! It is He Who has taught                           (‘ALAMA) the Quran. He has created man: He       ...
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
”It is He (Allah) Who has sent amongst the Unlettered                     a messenger (Prophet Muhammad s.a.w.) from      ...
“As well as (to confer all these benefits upon) others of them, who              have not already joined them: and He is E...
EPISTEMOLOGY             To understand how we as human learn, let us analyse             the computer (a product attempted...
EPISTEMOLOGY                                   INPUT -         PROCESSING - OUTPUTAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Isma...
EPISTEMOLOGY                 KEYBOARD                                                           THUMB-DISK-DRIVES         ...
EPISTEMOLOGY                                                    THE FIVE SENSES:        • KEYBOARD                       ...
EPISTEMOLOGY                         PROCESSING TAKES                                                     OUTPUT          ...
EPISTEMOLOGY         • Control unit – storage, speed            Memory         • ROM – Read only memory                  ...
EPISTEMOLOGY         SCREEN MONITOR                                           PRINTER - SCANNER                           ...
EPISTEMOLOGY         • Monitor – screen                                                    Speech         • Printer – sca...
EPISTEMOLOGYAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
• Thus, what our Prophet Muhammad s.a,w. received was             not something new - as this phenomena had already       ...
EPISTEMOLOGYAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
• Whatever is outside of the                        • Knowledge resides in the         person – to be regarded as         ...
• Information may not                          • Knowledge has to do         necessarily convey any                      w...
Every one may have equal                  Yet, there can be         access to a given                         difference i...
Just as raw data input are               It is when cognition of          meant to be processed by                 man are...
THUS the Qur’an categorize                   • THUS the Qur’anic          these (information) as:                        a...
Note:                  Arabic word “universe” and “a scholar; one who                       is knowledgeable” is spelt:   ...
IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST GRACIOUS, MOST MERCIFUL                                                                        ...
ADDENDUM        “Those who do not know that they do not know.”             THE HEEDLESS         “Those who know that they ...
ADDENDUM            BLACK space represents            Infinite Knowledge            “We don’t even know            that we...
ADDENDUM            BLACK space represents            Infinite Knowledge                                                  ...
SINCERE ADVICE TO MUSLIM ‘ INTELLECTUALS ’All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
 Beginning of wisdom in a person is when he  CONSIDER:                                realizes that he does not know.    ...
•    Western scientific approach to knowledge, uses “scepticism” as method          of enquiry. Whether it is “philosophic...
•    Our analysis of any new information (potential knowledge) is not             made, as though from a void (tabula rasa...
•    Also remember, “one cannot ‘deny’ a thing to exist merely on the            premise that it is not as yet known (prov...
•    Muslims, who may have missed their subsequent acquisition           regarding this in their FARDHU’AIN lessons on the...
Muslims make a clear distinction between :        YAQEEN –                            ”belief (in a certainty)”; and      ...
LEVELS OF CERTAINTY                    LEVELS OF UNCERTAINTY         ‘ILMUL YAQEEN                             RAIBA – sus...
A SCHOLAR WROTE (POEM)                              “Knowledge is hostile to the haughty youth,                           ...
A SCHOLAR WROTE (POEM)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
A SCHOLAR WROTE (POEM)                                   “Neither the teacher nor the physician                           ...
Lesson # 2         A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE COURSE & METHOD OF APPROACH                  • USING OF REASON (AQLIYYAH)      ...
“AND ON EARTH there are signs [of Allah’s                          existence, visible] to all who are endowed with inner  ...
“[All this have We expounded in this] blessed divine writ                     which We have revealed unto thee, [O Muhamma...
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
“And We have certainly created for Hell many                             of the jinn and mankind. They have hearts        ...
The Holy Quran calls upon people to think and to draw conclusions            through thought process.            It even r...
•    Thus, in Islam, we are provided basic guidelines - basic lessons on             how to think correctly.        •    F...
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
“Now if thou pay heed (follow) unto the majority of those                     [who live] on earth, they will but lead thee...
1. Reliance on conjecture instead of sure knowledge        •    The phrase: * “nothing but guess (conjecture)”         * i...
1. Reliance on conjecture instead of sure knowledge              Apart from leading man astray from spiritual truths, such...
"And do not follow (pursue) anything of which thou hast no                   knowledge: verily (thy) hearing and sight and...
1. Reliance on conjecture instead of sure knowledge       •    Muslims are to be taught that there is distinction between ...
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
2. Bias and inclination towards base desires            If man wants to judge rightly, he should fully maintain his       ...
2. Bias and inclination towards base desires       •    If man is not neutral and his thinking is lop-sided, the pointer o...
2. Bias and inclination towards base desires       •    If man is not neutral and his thinking is lop-sided, the pointer o...
2. Bias and inclination towards base desires       •    The concept of justice (al-adl ) are to be applied in analysis, pu...
TO BE CONTINUED – INSHA-ALLAHAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
All welcome to visit my web-blog:          http://an-naseehah.blogspot.com/          http://introductiontotauhid.blogspot....
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“INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF TAUHEED” Intermediate Level Islamic course in English for Adults conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail

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  1. 1. #2 IN THE NAME OF ALLAH MOST COMPASIONATE MOST MERCIFUL LESSON “INTRODUCTION TO THE M LE ODU E S STUDY OF TAUHEED” A NEW -COUR Intermediate Level Islamic course in English for Adults CH ] BAT [2012 conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail IT CAN ALSO BE A 16 weekly class started from: 3 March 2012 REFRESHER COURSE FOR MUSLIM Every Saturday night @ 8pm – 10pm PARENTS, EDUCATORS, Wisma Indah, 450 Changi Road, IN CONTEMPORARY SINGAPORE. #02-00 next to Masjid Kassim OPEN TO ALL For further information and registration contact E -mail : ad.fardhayn.sg@gmail.com or +65 81234669 developed96838279English-speaking Using curriculum he has / +65 especially for Muslim converts and young English-speaking Adult Muslims. “To seek knowledge is obligatory upon every Muslim (male & female)”All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  2. 2. PREVIOUS LESSON THE M BER R EME ….All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  3. 3. PREVIOUS LESSON . BE R … E M REMAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  4. 4. PREVIOUS LESSON R MBE R EME T…. THAAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  5. 5. PREVIOUS LESSON R MBE R EME T…. THAAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  6. 6. PREVIOUS LESSON THE M BER R EME ….All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  7. 7. U E TIN CON TO ….All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  8. 8. CONSIDER:  Our learning journey is never static.  When we strive to understand deeper a given object of knowledge, seeking to discover whatever profound meanings contain within it, requiring much thinking, contemplation in processing our thoughts while interacting with the information, till we uncover layers upon layers of meanings, thereby increasing our understanding, we are adding quality and it is this this mode of acquisition which I deem as “vertical”.  Thus, to me a Muslim’s learning is never static, although the subjects we may be speaking of is similar, especially those regarded as “Fardhu ‘Ain” which I always like to re-visit and share.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  9. 9. CONSIDER:  Our learning journey is never static.  Perhaps the common ‘understanding’ of what constitute Fardhu ’Ain, amongst our community, may have been grossly misperceived because too often, we imply increase in knowledge only in the horizontal sense.  Knowledge of the Fardhu ‘Ain for a Muslim is always judged in accordance with whatever obligations he is commanded by the religion to uphold. As this responsibilities increases when his social role changes, so too would be the Fardhu ‘Ain knowledge he has to or obligated (by our religion) or to (religiously) acquire them.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  10. 10. CONSIDER:  Our learning journey is never static.  We should ponder deeper on the saying: “To seek knowledge is obligatory upon every Muslim (male & female)”  If you say, “knowledge” then we should ask what is “knowledge”?  Is there a difference between the ‘traditional’ Islamic perspective of it with what was taught by the ‘conventional’ worldview?  Is there no difference between “knowledge” and “information” ?  Are there not many types or categories of knowledge? How do we go about prioritizing them? ... etc.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  11. 11. Epistemology: from Greek ἐ πιστήμη(epistēmē), meaning "knowledge, science", and λόγος (logos), meaning "study of" - is the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope (limitations) of knowledge. It addresses the questions: What is knowledge? How is knowledge acquired? How do we know what we know?All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  12. 12. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  13. 13. OXFORD DICTIONARIES’ DEFINITION: Knowledge is a collection of facts, information, and/or skills acquired through experience or education or (more generally) the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject. It can be implicit (as with practical skill or expertise) or explicit (as with the theoretical understanding of a subject); and it can be more or less formal or systematic.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  14. 14. EQUIVALENT TERMS USED IN ISLAM MA’-LUMAT facts, information (information; facts) SINA’-AH (skills, industrious); Skills FANNIYAH (artistry); ’ILM – Knowledge (science and knowledge) education TA-ADDIB; - which includes TA’-LIM; TAR-BIYYAH; TAZKIYYAH, etc.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  15. 15. EPISTEMOLOGY Amongst the definitions: “....... Knowledge is the arrival (husul- )* of the meaning (ma’na- ) of a thing or object of knowledge in the soul of the subject; and simultaneously,..... Knowledge is the soul’s arrival (wusul- ) at the meaning of that thing or the object of knowledge.” By “meaning” (ma’na- ) is: “the recognition of the proper place of anything in a system ...” : Prof. Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas * “attainment; acquirement” is a better translation.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  16. 16. EPISTEMOLOGY Thus, perspective of Education in Islam can be defined: “... Recognition and acknowledgement, progressively instilled into man, of the proper places of things in the order of creation, such that it leads to the recognition and acknowledgement of the proper place of God in the order of being and existence.” Quoted from: “The Educational Philosophy and Practice of Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas” by Wan Mohd Nor Wan Daud (ISTAC publication).All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  17. 17. EPISTEMOLOGYAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  18. 18. EPISTEMOLOGY “Has there not been over Man a long period of Time, when he was nothing--(not even) mentioned?― Verily We created Man from a drop of mingled sperm, in order to try him: so We gave him (the gifts), of Hearing and Sight. We showed him the Way: whether he be grateful or ungrateful (rests on his will).” (Qur’an: al-Insan: 76:1-3)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  19. 19. (Allah) Most Gracious! It is He Who has taught (‘ALAMA) the Quran. He has created man: He has taught him AL-BAYAAN : speech (and Intelligence) (Qur’an: ar-Rahmaan: 55:1-4)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  20. 20. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  21. 21. ”It is He (Allah) Who has sent amongst the Unlettered a messenger (Prophet Muhammad s.a.w.) from among themselves, to rehearse to them His Signs, to sanctify them, and to instruct them in Scripture and Wisdom― although they had been, before, in manifest error― “ (Qur’an: Jumu’ah:62: 2)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  22. 22. “As well as (to confer all these benefits upon) others of them, who have not already joined them: and He is Exalted in Might, Wise. Such is the Bounty of Allah, which He bestows on whom He will: and Allah is the Lord of the highest bounty.” (Qur’an: Jumu’ah: 62: 3-4)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  23. 23. EPISTEMOLOGY To understand how we as human learn, let us analyse the computer (a product attempted by human to create an imitation or artificial intelligence) Computerization is a total system comprising of: [1] INPUT [2] PROCESSING [3] OUTPUTAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  24. 24. EPISTEMOLOGY INPUT - PROCESSING - OUTPUTAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  25. 25. EPISTEMOLOGY KEYBOARD THUMB-DISK-DRIVES SCANNER MOUSE FEED TO CPU TO BE PROCESSEDAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  26. 26. EPISTEMOLOGY  THE FIVE SENSES: • KEYBOARD SIGHT, SOUND, TOUCH, SMELL, • MOUSE TASTE. • THUMB/DISK DRIVE  TRUE REPORT • SCANNER  EXTRA-SENSORY -INSPIRATION, • BLUE- DREAM, INTUITION, BURST OF TOOTH/WIRELESS BRILLIANCE COMPUTER HUMAN BEINGAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  27. 27. EPISTEMOLOGY PROCESSING TAKES OUTPUT PLACE HERE (FEEDBACK) INPUTAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  28. 28. EPISTEMOLOGY • Control unit – storage, speed  Memory • ROM – Read only memory  Linguistic & literacy • RAM – Random access memory  Logic & music • BIOS – Basic input-output  Deductive - inductive System  Speculative extrapolation • DOS – Disk operating System;  Emotive - empathy Drivers etc.  Contemplative - intuition • ALU – Arithmetic logic unit  Extraneous linkage COMPUTER HUMAN BEINGAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  29. 29. EPISTEMOLOGY SCREEN MONITOR PRINTER - SCANNER THUMB-DISK-DRIVES FROM CPU TO OUTPUT OR BE SAVED, PRINTEDAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  30. 30. EPISTEMOLOGY • Monitor – screen  Speech • Printer – scanner  Actions • Thumb-drive • Disk-drive  Creativity • Sound-system  Behaviour • Projector  Disposition (akhlaq) • Other devices COMPUTER HUMAN BEINGAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  31. 31. EPISTEMOLOGYAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  32. 32. • Thus, what our Prophet Muhammad s.a,w. received was not something new - as this phenomena had already occurred before him. • Thus those, termed the “People of the Book” amongst those of Abrahamic line i.e. the Jews and Christians, would be the independent parties than can corroborate - not deny but confirm this.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  33. 33. EPISTEMOLOGYAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  34. 34. • Whatever is outside of the • Knowledge resides in the person – to be regarded as person – and is also an information ( ) – not attribute (sifat- ) of knowledge ( ). the person him/herself.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  35. 35. • Information may not • Knowledge has to do necessarily convey any with “meanings” – meanings, but can be which may include subjected to process or abstract concepts and interpretation – by a human construct beyond the – striving to seek and material forms. arriving at understanding of “meanings” from it.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  36. 36. Every one may have equal Yet, there can be access to a given difference in levels and information. depths of knowledge to a given information, depending upon who contemplates upon it.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  37. 37. Just as raw data input are It is when cognition of meant to be processed by man are applied to the computer , our readings, process these observations, news, data information, that he and information etc. are may be said to arrive objects to be understood at knowledge (i.e. and possible meanings from when it becomes it to be comprehended by us meaningful). human.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  38. 38. THUS the Qur’an categorize • THUS the Qur’anic these (information) as: approach for man’s education enjoins him “Signs” – aayat ( ) to “Read” ( ) these Al-Qur’an – aayat Qawliyyah signs to arrive at the Universe – aayat Kauniyah “meanings” – regarding the REALITY.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  39. 39. Note: Arabic word “universe” and “a scholar; one who is knowledgeable” is spelt: ( )All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  40. 40. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST GRACIOUS, MOST MERCIFUL ADDENDUM Especially required since most participants in this class are Muslims who may require this important reminder.* * Hope those non- Muslim or participants A REMINDER TO MUSLIMS FROM new to Islam in this class can understand and LESSONS ON ISLAMIC “ADAB” appreciate the reason for this prelude LESSONS FROM BEGINNERS’ COURSEAll Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) 40
  41. 41. ADDENDUM “Those who do not know that they do not know.” THE HEEDLESS “Those who know that they do not know.” THE IGNORANT “Those who do not know that they know.” THE NEGLIGENT “Those who know that they know.” THE WISE SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TRULY WISE And the wise (those who truly know), will always look at what they are ignorant of, maintaining humility , striving to continue learning, rather than become conceited with whatever little they had already learnt. LESSONS FROM BEGINNERS’ COURSEAll Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  42. 42. ADDENDUM BLACK space represents Infinite Knowledge “We don’t even know that we don’t know them” RED line (circumference) indicates our encounter with knowledge which we now realize we do not know; which motivates us to acquire them. The GREEN area represents whatever Knowledge that we have. The beginning of Wisdom is when you realize you do not know! *Extracted and elaborated from “Beginners’ Manual on Islam” by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj ismail (PERGAS) LESSONS FROM BEGINNERS’ COURSEAll Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  43. 43. ADDENDUM BLACK space represents Infinite Knowledge When knowledge grows, the circle will “We don’t even know expand. But with this expansion the that we don’t know them” circumference (RED line) also increases. Remember: RED line (circumference) indicates our encounter with knowledge which we now realize we do not know. The GREEN area represents whatever Knowledge that we have. When we acquire these, our knowledge grows (DARK GREEN area ) “The more we know, the more will we encounter aspects of knowledge which we do not know. And only realization of this which motivates us to grow in learning” *Extracted and elaborated from “Beginners’ Manual on Islam” by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj ismail (PERGAS) LESSONS FROM BEGINNERS’ COURSEAll Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  44. 44. SINCERE ADVICE TO MUSLIM ‘ INTELLECTUALS ’All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  45. 45.  Beginning of wisdom in a person is when he CONSIDER: realizes that he does not know. Behold! Abraham said: "My Lord! show me how You give life to the dead. He said: "Do you not then believe?" He said: "Yea! but to satisfy my own understanding.“ * (Qur’an: Baqarah: 2: 260) * literally: “to make my heart tranquil”All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  46. 46. • Western scientific approach to knowledge, uses “scepticism” as method of enquiry. Whether it is “philosophical scepticism” (which even denies possibility of knowledge) or “methodological scepticism”, we Muslims must be very careful of those who are using this when ‘learning’ and ‘teaching’ knowledge of al-Islam. • This is because it (scepticism) posited ‘denial’ to any thesis which cannot be empirically substantiated. Whereas, in matters of belief, Islam does not limit proof only in the use of the five senses (EMPIRICAL), but also include the proper use of the intellect (REASONING), innate pure instinct (FITRAH SALIMAH), as well as reliance upon true and reliable report (TAUQIFIY) especially authenticated revelations.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  47. 47. • Our analysis of any new information (potential knowledge) is not made, as though from a void (tabula rasa), removing every known truth which we already hold, as a basis or criteria. • Especially when learning in Islam, a Muslim cannot be expected to learn something objectively (like the secularist), but must always subject himself/herself to every truth regarding the REALITY thus far acquired, and to build upon it. Just like Prophet Ibrahim a.s. , his ‘intellectual curiosity’ is not necessarily scepticism, and does not require him to negate whatever faith he already holds.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  48. 48. • Also remember, “one cannot ‘deny’ a thing to exist merely on the premise that it is not as yet known (proven) by him to exist. “ • For even to ‘deny’ something, Islam requires a “proof” for its falsity. Without which one is simply to hold to a neutral position (neither reject nor accept), remaining open and not to blatantly deny it. • In FARDHU ‘AIN, Muslims will be taught (in this module, insha-Allah) how to think; especially the three intellectual postulates: (HUKM ‘AQAL) – i.e. WAJIB (inevitability), HARUS (possibility), and MUSTAHIL (rational impossibility). • Have we learnt this? Perhaps many “may not know, that they know!”All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  49. 49. • Muslims, who may have missed their subsequent acquisition regarding this in their FARDHU’AIN lessons on their development of AQEEDAH, but went on to be trained in ‘scepticism’ may be spiritually (intellectually) harmed. They should be told that “scepticism” is not knowledge, but only an admission of one’s “ignorance.” • A doubt, or rather intellectual curiosity, only if managed with humility, leads to wisdom. So do not use scepticism as though it is a badge to highlight one’s ‘intellectual superiority ’ in learning – (whereas it is but a conceited ‘cynicism ’ , pretentiously disguised as “wisdom”!) • So please, be humble. Adhere to the ADAB in learning.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  50. 50. Muslims make a clear distinction between : YAQEEN – ”belief (in a certainty)”; and SHAKK – “sceptical (with doubts)”. We are guided by one of the principles (QAWAA-ID) : “Certainty cannot be removed (overruled) by Doubt”All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  51. 51. LEVELS OF CERTAINTY LEVELS OF UNCERTAINTY ‘ILMUL YAQEEN RAIBA – suspicious misgivings; Certainty with knowledge and wavering doubt; uncertainty; Intellection. ‘AINUL YAQEEN SHAKK – doubt,; uncertainty, Certainty by sight and sensory distrust; sceptical; perception. DZONN – conjecture; assumption; HAQQUL YAQEEN yet still not certain; guess; inclining True certainty – ‘tasting’; towards holding opinion even though direct experience of Reality; still without valid proof of certainty.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  52. 52. A SCHOLAR WROTE (POEM) “Knowledge is hostile to the haughty youth, just as flood water is hostile to the highlands.”All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  53. 53. A SCHOLAR WROTE (POEM)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  54. 54. A SCHOLAR WROTE (POEM) “Neither the teacher nor the physician advise you unless they are honoured. So bear your disease patiently if you have wronged its healer ; and be satisfied with your ignorance if you have wronged a teacher.”All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  55. 55. Lesson # 2 A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE COURSE & METHOD OF APPROACH • USING OF REASON (AQLIYYAH) • AS ONE OF THE MEANS OF DEVELOPING IIMAN (FAITH)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  56. 56. “AND ON EARTH there are signs [of Allah’s existence, visible] to all who are endowed with inner certainty, just as [there are signs thereof] within your own selves: can you not, then, see?” (Qur’an: Dzaariyat: 51: 20-21)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  57. 57. “[All this have We expounded in this] blessed divine writ which We have revealed unto thee, [O Muhammad,] so that men may ponder over its mes-sages, and that those who are endowed with insight may take them to heart.” (Qur’an: Swad: 38: 29)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  58. 58. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  59. 59. “And We have certainly created for Hell many of the jinn and mankind. They have hearts with which they do not understand, they have eyes with which they do not see, and they have ears with which they do not hear. Those are like livestock; rather, they are more astray. It is they who are the heedless.” (Qur’an: A’raf: 7: 179)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  60. 60. The Holy Quran calls upon people to think and to draw conclusions through thought process. It even regards thinking as part of worship, and does not recognise the belief in its doctrinal tenets if it is not the outcome of correct thinking. Islam in this connection has paid attention to a basic point, that although people are capable of thinking, still they can end up with erroneous conclusion - if they neglect to use, or inappropriately allow certain factors to influence their thought process.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  61. 61. • Thus, in Islam, we are provided basic guidelines - basic lessons on how to think correctly. • Firstly, in the Quran, it has pointed out the major causes which lead to wrong thinking and has explained what to do to avoid error and deviation.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  62. 62. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  63. 63. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  64. 64. “Now if thou pay heed (follow) unto the majority of those [who live] on earth, they will but lead thee astray from the path of Allah: they follow but [other peoples] conjectures, and they themselves do nothing but guess *. Verily, thy Sustainer knows best as to who strays from His path, and best knows He as to who are the right- guided.” (Qur’an: An-’am: 6: 116-117)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  65. 65. 1. Reliance on conjecture instead of sure knowledge • The phrase: * “nothing but guess (conjecture)” * i.e. They only guess regarding the true nature of human life and its ultimate destiny, the problem of revelation, the relationship between God and man, the meaning of good and evil etc. – metaphysical questions.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  66. 66. 1. Reliance on conjecture instead of sure knowledge Apart from leading man astray from spiritual truths, such guesswork gives rise to arbitrary rules of conduct and self imposed inhibitions.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  67. 67. "And do not follow (pursue) anything of which thou hast no knowledge: verily (thy) hearing and sight and heart - all of them - will be called to account for it (on Judgement Day)." (Qur’an: Bani Israil : 17 :36)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  68. 68. 1. Reliance on conjecture instead of sure knowledge • Muslims are to be taught that there is distinction between knowledge (ilm) and conjecture or guesswork (dzonn); between absolute and relative; between what are reliable and unreliable reports, and how to distinguish between them; etc. It exposes the fallacy of merely following the majority without concern for substantiation of truth, which seems to be the common approach, albeit erroneously adopted by people, in matters of religion.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  69. 69. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  70. 70. 2. Bias and inclination towards base desires If man wants to judge rightly, he should fully maintain his impartiality. In other words, he should seek Truth only, and accept without hesitation what evidence proves. He should behave exactly like a judge in a court of justice, who while studying a case ought to be neutral to the claims of both parties. If he is biased towards one party, the arguments in favour of that party will unconsciously attract his attention and the arguments against it will automatically be missed by him. That is what will mislead the judge.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  71. 71. 2. Bias and inclination towards base desires • If man is not neutral and his thinking is lop-sided, the pointer of his thinking will unconsciously be inclined towards his personal liking and personal desire. That is why the Holy Quran regards the base desires as much a source of error as reliance on guess and conjecture. Allah says :All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  72. 72. 2. Bias and inclination towards base desires • If man is not neutral and his thinking is lop-sided, the pointer of his thinking will unconsciously be inclined towards his personal liking and personal desire. That is why the Holy Quran regards the base desires as much a source of error as reliance on guess and conjecture. Allah says : "They follow nothing but conjecture and that which they desire. “ (Qur’an : Najm : 53: 23)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  73. 73. 2. Bias and inclination towards base desires • The concept of justice (al-adl ) are to be applied in analysis, putting things in their appropriate place, requiring impartial appraisal of all relevant views available to be considered and not suppressed or overlooked. Often, this would be difficult when one inclines to own desires (hawa) or self-interest, therefore we are to be extra cautious of our own failings.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  74. 74. TO BE CONTINUED – INSHA-ALLAHAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  75. 75. All welcome to visit my web-blog: http://an-naseehah.blogspot.com/ http://introductiontotauhid.blogspot.com/ http://oyoubelievers.blogspot.com/ http://al-amthaal.blogspot.com/ http://zhulkeflee-archive.blogspot.com/ http://criteriaforaholybook-quran.blogspot.com/ http://with-the-truthful.blogspot.com/ http ://muqaddam-nurul.blogspot.com/ 75All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
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