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(Slideshare) lesson#1b)tauheed sept-course-(12-sept-2012)

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  • 1. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH MOST COMPASIONATE MOST MERCIFUL LESSON #1b “INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF RO DUC ING TAUHEED – (AQA’ID) ” INT TART E S CO URS Intermediate Level Islamic course in English for Adults A NEW -2012] conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail OF SEPT [ IT CAN ALSO BE A 18 weekly class starting: 5th SEPTEMBER 2012 REFRESHER COURSE Every Wadnesday night @ 8pm – 10pm FOR MUSLIM Wisma Indah, 450 Changi Road, PARENTS, EDUCATORS, #02-00 next to Masjid Kassim IN CONTEMPORARY SINGAPORE. OPEN TO ALL For further information and registration contact E -mail : ad.fardhayn.sg@gmail.com or +65 81234669 developed96838279English-speaking Using curriculum he has / +65 especially for Muslim converts and young English-speaking Adult Muslims. “To seek knowledge is obligatory upon every Muslim (male & female)”All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012 Updated 12 Sept 2012
  • 2. This module # Intermediate on: PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVE Development of Certainty (Belief) Awareness of Reality / Truth Develop discernment between Truth & Falsehood,All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 3. A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE COURSE & METHOD OF APPROACH By : Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail Previous Lesson Intermediate Islamic Course conducted (since 1990s)All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 4. Previous LessonAll Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 5. Basic and most fundamental message of Islam is the KALIMATUT-TAUHEED (Statement concerning the Absolute Oneness of God), in Arabic: LAA-ILAA-HA-IL-LALLAAH “There is no other god (object of worship) except Allah (God)." Previous LessonAll Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 6. The message of Islam is very simple and exact, yet profound. It stresses upon mankind to recognize the Truth that there is only one God, the Creator, Sustainer, Cherisher of the Universe, -besides Whom there is no other god. Previous LessonAll Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 7. The Arabic proper noun “Allah” for God, refers to the One Supreme Being, Who is Absolute, Unique and without equal. “Allah” : Arabic proper noun; name for God, it refers to the One and Only, the Unique Creator, Lord Sustainer of the Universe, Who Alone is God – there is none besides Allah. No equivalent translation in non-Semitic language. Previous LessonAll Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 8. From the above statement, there are 2 aspects which we are required to confirm and develop Faith (iiman) in : (1) Recognizing and be convinced in the existence of God; And (2) That there is none other except ‘Allah’, the Absolute One God (i.e. He is without equal or partner; sharing with no one His Divinity, for there is none like Him) . Previous LessonAll Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 9. Previous LessonAll Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 10. TAUQIFIYYAH - i. e. by relying upon true report, which have already been ascertained as to its reliability as being authoritative – for Muslims, the using of evidence from the Al-Qur’an (Revelation) and authenticated Ahadith (Sunnah - sayings, actions or consent of the Prophet); true report or news from many verifiable sources such that it eliminates doubts to its veracity. Previous LessonAll Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 11. Previous LessonAll Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 12. FITRAH - i.e. by relying upon our natural or innate human instincts, intuitions; Previous LessonAll Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 13. Previous LessonAll Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 14. ‘AQLIIYAH - i.e. by the using of the faculty of reasoning, thought process; Previous LessonAll Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 15. Unlike other religion, Islam recognizes the use of reasoning faculty, and in fact it encourages man to use them because, from the point of view of Islam, the mind or reasoning faculty is the greatest gift of God. Previous LessonAll Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 16. Although reason itself cannot fathom the infinite mysteries yet it is the means by which man can verify and confirm truth. And in this very way has the Quran spoke to man and invite them to recognize the existence of God. Previous LessonAll Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 17. It provides verifiable arguments to convince the doubters, by methods of pondering upon certain observable phenomena in ourselves and our surroundings: Previous LessonAll Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 18. Previous LessonAll Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 19. (1) Things that we see around us are new and were created . Creation must emanate from outside creation i.e. the Uncreated. (2) Things are in constant state of motion. We cannot conceive motion to have perpetually existed without a beginning (i.e. it must start from a state of motionless). (3) The dependability of things towards a cause or initiator . So where do all things began? Previous LessonAll Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 20. (4) The existence of a unified order in the universe . To attribute this order to random chance is most improbable without a universal will (intelligent force). (5) The realization that for this universe to exist as it does, there must be a Sustainer. The complexity for its being sustained, and dependability of things to other things affecting it besides itself, indicate the determination by a cosmic force.‘ Previous LessonAll Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 21. (6) Inherent preparedness in our creation, as well as in animals, plants, etc. This preparedness cannot be something evolved because without it, that animals or plants would not have any chance to begin to survive in the first place. (7) Time and the aging factor in our Universe. This would make us ponder concerning the meta-concept of the infinity (past) and eternity (future) - the concepts of the Divine. Previous LessonAll Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 22. (8) The law of probability. The computation which actually informs us (mathematically) of the utter remoteness of creation being the outcome of chance accidents. Previous LessonAll Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 23. A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE COURSE & METHOD OF APPROACH TO CONTINUE ...All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 24. The term TAUHEED is derived from Arabic word "Ahad”(Absolute One) - "Wahada" (Oneness attested) “Yuwaa-hidu" (he unify or attest to the Oneness) – “Tauhii-dan” (you attest to its Oneness). Therefore it implies an act of attesting to the Belief in the Oneness of Allah (God) Who is the Absolute One; by first by seeking knowledge and verifying the truth in them, so as to arrive at conviction in our hearts and mind, and manifesting the effect of this in our life, through words and deeds.All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 25. There are five approaches or methodology (types) of attesting to the existence of the One and only God (Allah) – in the Islamic tradition (that I was taught) , which as Muslims we are to be inculcated with - each having a specific expectation, as will be explained herewith, are :All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 26. (1) TAUHIID AL-KHALI-QIYYAH That we affirm and are convinced that every creation in the universe was created by One Absolute Creator, Allah (God) of all the worlds – Who alone is the Uncreated Being.All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 27. (2) TAUHEED AR-RUBUB-BIYYAH In considering the ever-presence harmonious co-existence of the universe and orderliness despite it multitudes and complexities, it should lead to acknowledgement that the entire Universe is sustained and cherished, by the One God (Allah) - Who has no equal, partner nor associates. These are obvious signs that over all things One Absolute Divine power prevail. Allah (God) has power which is ever present and constantly manifested thereby.All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 28. ( 3) TAUHEED AL - ULU-HIYYAH or UBUDIYYAH In terms of concept of Who is the “Divine” (Theological doctrine), the acknowledgement that there is only One God (Allah), Who Alone is Divine, deserving of our worship and servitude. There is no god except Him. He is Allah the Absolute, Eternal. Who has no equal nor partner. The Most besought unto Whom we rely.All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 29. ( 3) TAUHEED AL - ULU-HIYYAH or UBUDIYYAH Allah, the One and only God, deserving of our worship or servitude (with our entire life) , and we are to deny and reject every forms of associating His Divinity with anyone or anything else. This associating or ascribing others with God is antithetical to Tauheed, termed as “ SHIRK ”.All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 30. ( 3) TAUHEED AL - ULU-HIYYAH or UBUDIYYAH Since we know that our being created is but to fulfil a reason best known to our Maker, therefore we are to manifest our acknowledgement of this in our life through a total form of worship or servitude (‘UBUDIYAH) by following the Guidance from Him, established by the Messenger of Allah, the last and final Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. – after whom there will be not be sent any other.All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 31. (4) TAUHEED AS-SIFAT Our knowledge of God’s attributes must never be tainted by ‘anthropomorphic’ tendencies. Thus, Muslims are to affirm and attest that Allah, the Unique God as having all the attributes of perfection, befitting His Majesty and Holiness, and reject all the absurd attributes which man may attribute to Him - as the rationalist (Mutazilites) had done, imputing imperfections in God when they try to fathom the knowledge about God using the human mind, the ratio as the highest and definitive criteria.All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 32. (4) TAUHEED AS-SIFAT In Islam, the knowledge of Who is God (Allah), must come from God (Allah) - Revelation. Those verses which require interpretation must be consistent with the clear and explicit verses as guideline which will never be ridiculous nor opposed to basic logic. Thus the Islamic doctrines derived would not be some absurd notion, myths, superstitions, ideas or concepts antithetical to reason.All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 33. (4) TAUHEED AS-SIFAT Traditionally, the 13 or 20 attributes of God (SIFAATULLAAH) are taught in traditional Islamic scholarship, to counter such absurdities as perpetuated by others - using basis from both Revelation (NAQLIYYAH) and reason (‘AQLIYYAH).All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 34. (4) TAUHEED AS-SIFAT This method serves as refutation towards the deviations of the rationalists, literalists and innovators who appeared later in history, much influenced by philosophy of others. This is required for upholding the original creed or doctrine of the AHL-AS-SUNNAH WAL-JAMA’AH - of the Salafus- Soliheen (the pious predecessors).All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 35. (5) TAUHEED AL-ASMA That we affirm and attest that Allah is One, Unique, unmatched in His Exaltedness and has all the Beautiful Names which He has revealed and we glorify, invoke and beseech Him by These Holy Names.All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 36. (5) TAUHEED AL-ASMA Affirmations of which require us also to reflect some of His attributes in ourselves, by reciprocating those godly quality in our life, such as in His Compassion, Mercy, Justice etc. so as to be deserving of His Compassion, Mercy etc.All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 37. (5) TAUHEED AL-ASMA Through observing many of His Signs in nature, we reflect our belief in these Names - and try to read and confirm these attributes and of the act (AF-‘AL) - of the One God - which are manifested in the Quran (AYAAT QAW-LIYYAH) and in the whole creations and alternations of night and day (AYAAT KAUNIYAH).All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 38. The true aspiration towards being close to our Compassionate and Loving Creator, has to begin by knowing Him and with striving towards achieving His Pleasure (Mardhaa-tillah - ) following the path of TAUHEED – leading to the love of Allah. To attain this, Allah s.w.t. has provided the Guidance and the Guide, the Last Messenger, Seal of the Prophethood, Prophet Muhammad s.a.a.w.:All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 39. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 40. Say [O Prophet]: "If you love Allah, follow me (TABI-’UUNI), [and]Allah will love you and forgive you your sins; for Allah is much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace.“ Say: “(TA-’AH - Obey) Pay heed unto Allah and the Messenger.” And if they turn away - verily, Allah does not love those who deny the truth (KAAFIRIN).” (Qur’an: Aali ‘Imran: 3: 31-32)All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 41. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 42. Say [O Prophet]: "I am but a mortal man like all of you. It has been revealed unto me that your God is the One and Only God. Hence, whoever looks forward [with hope and awe] to meeting his Sustainer [on Judgment Day], let him do righteous deeds, and (LAA YUSH-RIK) let him not ascribe unto anyone or anything a share in (‘IBAADATI - ROB) the worship due to his Sustainer!" (Qur’an: Kahfi: 18: 110)All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 43. CONCLUSION: Thus the Concept of Tauheed which serves as the foundation of the teachings of Islam can only be accomplished by following no other way except the way shown by Allah s.w.t. through His prophets and Messengers.All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 44. CONCLUSION: The Last of Allah’s Prophets and Messengers, who came to supersede them all, guided by Allahs revelation to establish al-Islam as the perfected Deen al-Islam, is prophet Muhammad ibnu Abdillah s.a.w - the Last Messenger and the Seal of prophethood.All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 45. CONCLUSION: And certainly there will be no other prophet after him. That is why the Kalimah of al-Islam for every Muslim must be completed with : MUHAM-MADUR-RA-SUU-LULLAH "Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah".All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 46. CONCLUSION: And further elaborations after TAUHEED would include aspects emanating from it such as: (AL- ‘ADALAH) : QADHA’-WAL-QADR (SAM-’IYYAT) : AL-GHAYB– RISAALAH - NUBUWWAT (AL-AAKHIRAH) QIYAMAH – HISAB – MIZAN – SIRAT – JANNAH - AN-NARAll Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 47. A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF ITS HISTORY AND RELEVANCE FOR MUSLIMSAll Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2012
  • 48. U E TIN CON . TO …All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 49. CONSIDER:  Our learning journey is never static.  When we strive to understand deeper a given object of knowledge, seeking to discover whatever profound meanings contain within it, requiring much thinking, contemplation in processing our thoughts while interacting with the information, till we uncover layers upon layers of meanings, thereby increasing our understanding, we are adding quality and it is this this mode of acquisition which I deem as “vertical”.  Thus, to me a Muslim’s learning is never static, although the subjects we may be speaking of is similar, especially those regarded as “Fardhu ‘Ain” which I always like to re-visit and share.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 50. CONSIDER:  Our learning journey is never static.  Perhaps the common ‘understanding’ of what constitute Fardhu ’Ain, amongst our community, may have been grossly misperceived because too often, we imply increase in knowledge only in the horizontal sense.  Knowledge of the Fardhu ‘Ain for a Muslim actually is always judged in accordance with whatever obligations he/she is commanded by the religion to uphold. As this responsibilities increases when his social role changes, so too would be the Fardhu ‘Ain knowledge he/she has to or obligated (by our religion) or to (religiously) acquire them.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 51. CONSIDER:  Our learning journey is never static.  We should ponder deeper on the saying: “To seek knowledge is obligatory upon every Muslim (male & female)”  If you say, we seek “knowledge” then we should ask what is “knowledge”?  Is there a difference between the ‘traditional’ Islamic perspective of its meaning with what was taught by the ‘conventional’ worldview?  Is there any difference between “knowledge” and “information” ?  Are there not many types or categories of knowledge? How do we go about prioritizing them? ... etc.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 52. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 53. Epistemology: from Greek ἐ πιστήμη(epistēmē), meaning "knowledge, science", and λόγος (logos), meaning "study of" - is the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope (limitations) of knowledge. It addresses the questions: What is knowledge? How is knowledge acquired? How do we know what we know?All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 54. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 55. OXFORD DICTIONARIES’ DEFINITION: Knowledge is a collection of facts, information, and/or skills acquired through experience or education or (more generally) the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject. It can be implicit (as with practical skill or expertise) or explicit (as with the theoretical understanding of a subject); and it can be more or less formal or systematic.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 56. EQUIVALENT TERMS USED IN ISLAM MA’-LUMAT facts, information (information; facts) SINA’-AH (skills, industrious); Skills FANNIYAH (artistry); ’ILM – Knowledge (science and knowledge) education TA-ADDIB; - which includes TA’-LIM; TAR-BIYYAH; TAZKIYYAH, etc.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 57. EPISTEMOLOGY Amongst the definitions: “....... Knowledge is the arrival (husul- )* of the meaning (ma’na- ) of a thing or object of knowledge in the soul of the subject; and simultaneously,..... Knowledge is the soul’s arrival (wusul- ) at the meaning of that thing or the object of knowledge.” By “meaning” (ma’na- ) is: “the recognition of the proper place of anything in a system ...” : Prof. Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas * “attainment; acquirement” is a better translation.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 58. EPISTEMOLOGY Thus, perspective of Education in Islam can be defined: “... Recognition and acknowledgement, progressively instilled into man, of the proper places of things in the order of creation, such that it leads to the recognition and acknowledgement of the proper place of God in the order of being and existence.” Quoted from: “The Educational Philosophy and Practice of Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas” by Wan Mohd Nor Wan Daud (ISTAC publication).All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 59. EPISTEMOLOGYAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 60. EPISTEMOLOGY “Has there not been over Man a long period of Time, when he was nothing--(not even) mentioned?― Verily We created Man from a drop of mingled sperm, in order to try him: so We gave him (the gifts), of Hearing and Sight. We showed him the Way: whether he be grateful or ungrateful (rests on his will).” (Qur’an: al-Insan: 76:1-3)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 61. (Allah) Most Gracious! It is He Who has taught (‘ALAMA) the Quran. He has created man: He has taught him AL-BAYAAN : speech (and Intelligence) (Qur’an: ar-Rahmaan: 55:1-4)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 62. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 63. ”It is He (Allah) Who has sent amongst the Unlettered a messenger (Prophet Muhammad s.a.w.) from among themselves, to rehearse to them His Signs, to sanctify them, and to instruct them in Scripture and Wisdom― although they had been, before, in manifest error― “ (Qur’an: Jumu’ah:62: 2)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 64. “As well as (to confer all these benefits upon) others of them, who have not already joined them: and He is Exalted in Might, Wise. Such is the Bounty of Allah, which He bestows on whom He will: and Allah is the Lord of the highest bounty.” (Qur’an: Jumu’ah: 63: 3-4)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 65. EPISTEMOLOGY To understand how we as human learn, let us analyse the computer (a product attempted by human to create an imitation or artificial intelligence) Computerization is a total system comprising of: [1] INPUT [2] PROCESSING [3] OUTPUTAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 66. EPISTEMOLOGY INPUT - PROCESSING - OUTPUTAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 67. EPISTEMOLOGY KEYBOARD THUMB-DISK-DRIVES SCANNER MOUSE FEED TO CPU TO BE PROCESSEDAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 68. EPISTEMOLOGY  THE FIVE SENSES: • KEYBOARD SIGHT, SOUND, TOUCH, SMELL, • MOUSE TASTE. • THUMB/DISK DRIVE  TRUE REPORT • SCANNER  EXTRA-SENSORY -INSPIRATION, • BLUE- DREAM, INTUITION, BURST OF BRILLIANCE TOOTH/WIRELESS COMPUTER HUMAN BEINGAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 69. EPISTEMOLOGY PROCESSING TAKES OUTPUT PLACE HERE (FEEDBACK) INPUTAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 70. EPISTEMOLOGY • Control unit – storage, speed  Memory • ROM – Read only memory  Linguistic & literacy • RAM – Random access memory  Logic & music • BIOS – Basic input-output  Deductive - inductive System  Speculative extrapolation • DOS – Disk operating System;  Emotive - empathy Drivers etc.  Contemplative - intuition • ALU – Arithmetic logic unit  Extraneous linkage COMPUTER HUMAN BEINGAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 71. EPISTEMOLOGY SCREEN MONITOR PRINTER - SCANNER THUMB-DISK-DRIVES FROM CPU TO OUTPUT OR BE SAVED, PRINTEDAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 72. EPISTEMOLOGY • Monitor – screen  Speech • Printer – scanner  Actions • Thumb-drive • Disk-drive  Creativity • Sound-system  Behaviour • Projector  Disposition (akhlaq) • Other devices COMPUTER HUMAN BEINGAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 73. EPISTEMOLOGYAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 74. Thus, what our Prophet Muhammad s.a,w. received was not something new - as this phenomena had already occurred before him. Thus those, termed the “People of the Book” amongst those of Abrahamic line i.e. the Jews and Christians, would be the independent parties than can corroborate - not deny but confirm this.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 75. EPISTEMOLOGYAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 76. Whatever is outside of the Knowledge resides in the person – to be regarded as person – and is also an information ( ) – not attribute (sifat- ) of knowledge ( ). the person him/herself.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 77. Information may not Knowledge has to do necessarily convey any with “meanings” – meanings, but can be which may include subjected to process or abstract concepts and interpretation – by a human construct beyond the – striving to seek and material forms. arriving at understanding of “meanings” from it.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 78. Every one may have equal Yet, there can be access to a given difference in levels and information. depths of knowledge to a given information, depending upon who contemplates upon it.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 79. Just as raw data input are It is when cognition of meant to be processed by man are applied to the computer , our readings, process these observations, news, data information, that he and information etc. are may be said to arrive objects to be understood at knowledge (i.e. and possible meanings from when it becomes it to be comprehended by us meaningful). human.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 80. THUS the Qur’an categorize THUS the Qur’anic these (information) as: approach for man’s education enjoins him “Signs” – aayat ( ) to “Read” ( ) these Al-Qur’an – aayat Qawliyyah signs to arrive at the Universe – aayat Kauniyah “meanings” – regarding the REALITY.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 81. Note: Arabic word “universe” and “a scholar; one who is knowledgeable” is spelt: ( )All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 82. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST GRACIOUS, MOST MERCIFUL ADDENDUM Especially required since most participants in this class are Muslims who may require this important reminder.* * Hope those non- Muslim or participants new to Islam in this class can understand A REMINDER TO MUSLIMS FROM and appreciate the reason for this prelude LESSONS ON ISLAMIC “ADAB” LESSONS FROM BEGINNERS’ COURSEAll Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) 82
  • 83. ADDENDUM “Those who do not know that they do not know.” THE HEEDLESS “Those who know that they do not know.” THE IGNORANT “Those who do not know that they know.” THE NEGLIGENT “Those who know that they know.” THE WISE SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TRULY WISE And the wise (those who truly know), will always look at what they are ignorant of, maintaining humility , striving to continue learning, rather than become conceited with whatever little they had already learnt. LESSONS FROM BEGINNERS’ COURSEAll Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  • 84. ADDENDUM BLACK space represents Infinite Knowledge “We don’t even know that we don’t know them” RED line (circumference) indicates our encounter with knowledge which we now realize we do not know; which motivates us to acquire them. The GREEN area represents whatever Knowledge that we have. The beginning of Wisdom is when you realize you do not know! *Extracted and elaborated from “Beginners’ Manual on Islam” by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj ismail (PERGAS) LESSONS FROM BEGINNERS’ COURSEAll Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  • 85. ADDENDUM BLACK space represents Infinite Knowledge “We don’t even know that we don’t know them” The GREEN area represents whatever Knowledge that we have. When we acquire these, our knowledge grows (DARK GREEN area ) *Extracted and elaborated from “Beginners’ Manual on Islam” by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj ismail (PERGAS) LESSONS FROM BEGINNERS’ COURSEAll Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  • 86. ADDENDUM BLACK space represents Infinite Knowledge When knowledge grows, the circle will “We don’t even know expand. But with this expansion the that we don’t know them” circumference (RED line) also increases. Remember: RED line (circumference) indicates our encounter with knowledge which we now realize we do not know. The GREEN area represents whatever Knowledge that we have. When we acquire these, our knowledge grows (DARK GREEN area ) “The more we know, the more will we encounter aspects of knowledge which we do not know. And only realization of this which motivates us to grow in learning” *Extracted and elaborated from “Beginners’ Manual on Islam” by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj ismail (PERGAS) LESSONS FROM BEGINNERS’ COURSEAll Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  • 87. SINCERE ADVICE TO MUSLIM ‘ INTELLECTUALS ’All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 88.  Beginning of wisdom in a person is when he CONSIDER: realizes that he does not know. Behold! Abraham said: "My Lord! show me how You give life to the dead. He said: "Do you not then believe?" He said: "Yea! but to satisfy my own understanding.“ * (Qur’an: Baqarah: 2: 260) * literally: “to make my heart tranquil”All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 89. Western scientific approach to knowledge, uses “ scepticism” as method of enquiry. Whether it is “philosophical scepticism” (which even denies possibility of knowledge) or “methodological scepticism”, we Muslims must be very careful of those who are using this when ‘ learning’ and ‘teaching’ knowledge of al-Islam. This is because it (scepticism) posited ‘denial’ to any thesis which cannot be empirically substantiated. Whereas, in matters of belief, Islam does not limit proof only in the use of the five senses ( EMPIRICAL), but also include the proper use of the intellect ( REASONING), innate pure instinct (FITRAH SALIMAH), as well as reliance upon true and reliable report (TAUQIFIY) especially authenticated revelations.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 90. Our analysis of any new information (potential knowledge) is not made, as though from a void (tabula rasa), removing every known truth which we already hold, as a basis or criteria. Especially when learning in Islam, a Muslim cannot be expected to learn something objectively (like the secularist), but must always subject himself/herself to every truth regarding the REALITY thus far acquired, and to build upon it. Just like Prophet Ibrahim a.s. , his ‘intellectual curiosity’ is not necessarily scepticism, and does not require him to negate whatever faith he already holds.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 91. Also remember, “one cannot ‘deny’ a thing to exist merely on the premise that it is not as yet known (proven) by him to exist . “ For even to ‘deny’ something, Islam requires a “proof” for its falsity. Without which one is simply to hold to a neutral position (neither reject nor accept), remaining open and not to blatantly deny it. In FARDHU ‘AIN, Muslims will be taught (in this module, insha-Allah) how to think; especially the three intellectual postulates: ( HUKM ‘AQAL) – i.e. WAJIB (inevitability), HARUS (possibility), and MUSTAHIL (rational impossibility). Have we learnt this? Perhaps many “may not know, that they know!”All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 92. Muslims, who may have missed their subsequent acquisition regarding this in their FARDHU’AIN lessons on their development of AQEEDAH, but went on to be trained in ‘scepticism’ may be spiritually (intellectually) harmed. They should be told that “scepticism” is not knowledge, but only an admission of one’s “ignorance.”All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 93. A doubt, or rather intellectual curiosity, only if managed with humility, leads to wisdom. So do not use scepticism as though it is a badge to highlight one’s ‘intellectual superiority ’ in learning – (whereas it is but a conceited ‘cynicism ’ , pretentiously disguised as “wisdom”!) So please, be humble. Adhere to the ADAB in learning.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 94. Muslims make a clear distinction between : YAQEEN – ”belief (in a certainty)”; and SHAKK – “sceptical (with doubts)”. We are guided by one of the principles (QAWAA-ID) : “Certainty cannot be removed (overruled) by Doubt”All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 95. LEVELS OF CERTAINTY LEVELS OF UNCERTAINTY ‘ILMUL YAQEEN RAIBA – suspicious misgivings; Certainty with knowledge and wavering doubt; uncertainty; Intellection. ‘AINUL YAQEEN SHAKK – doubt,; uncertainty, Certainty by sight and sensory distrust; sceptical; perception. DZONN – conjecture; assumption; HAQQUL YAQEEN yet still not certain; guess; inclining True certainty – ‘tasting’; towards holding opinion even though direct experience of Reality; still without valid proof of certainty.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 96. A SCHOLAR WROTE (POEM) “Knowledge is hostile to the haughty youth, just as flood water is hostile to the highlands.”All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 97. A SCHOLAR WROTE (POEM)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 98. A SCHOLAR WROTE (POEM) “Neither the teacher nor the physician advise you unless they are honoured. So bear your disease patiently if you have wronged its healer ; and be satisfied with your ignorance if you have wronged a teacher.”All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 99. TO BE CONTINUED ..... INSHA-ALLAH .. IN Lesson # 2 A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE COURSE & METHOD OF APPROACH USING OF REASON (AQLIYYAH) AS ONE OF THE MEANS OF DEVELOPING IIMAN (FAITH)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  • 100. All welcome to visit my web-blog: http://an-naseehah.blogspot.com/ http://introductiontotauhid.blogspot.com/ http://oyoubelievers.blogspot.com/ http://al-amthaal.blogspot.com/ http://zhulkeflee-archive.blogspot.com/ http://criteriaforaholybook-quran.blogspot.com/ http://with-the-truthful.blogspot.com/ http ://muqaddam-nurul.blogspot.com/ 100All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)

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