[Slideshare] fiqh-course(sept-2012-batch)-#8-bid'ah-clarification-(17-nov-2012)
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  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
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  • Subhanallah. Syukran Ustaz Zhulkeflee. Jazakallah Khair..
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  • As-salaa-mu 'alaykum-waraH-matullaah.

    It has been brought to my attention, something relevant to our lesson (regarding intention, NIYYAT as clarified among the example) which someone commented, which need a response, to remove confusion. It seem, we can also learn about a very common 'fallacy' adopted by those who argues for the sake of trying to win, not so much as seeking clarification and the truth. May Allah SWT protect us all from becoming such contentious people.

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    Responding to fallacious argument ( “Straw-man argument” ) – regarding NIYYAT.
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    What is “straw-man argument”

    An argument when – someone presenting the other person’s view dishonestly (in an argument) through distortion by adding untruth and lie, suggesting it to be so in a subtle way that it resembles the view, and then go on to demolished that implied ‘weakness’ in the other person’s view (which he in fact had added). - What he is attacking is in fact a “straw-man” which he himself had created, not the other person’s view.

    SOME OF THESE ARGUMENTS
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    # “The Prophet never teaches us to verbalize the ‘NIYYAT’ for SWOLAH. These people who verbalize it (or teaches or permits others), they imagine or are implying that what our Prophet had practiced and taught is not perfect, and therefore they had to try to make it perfect ….”

    Response: This is a grave mischief, a dishonest argument and defamation upon our teachers and scholars. They and those who allow the verbalizing of NIYYAT before the start of SWOLAH (with reasons of Maslahat), have NEVER imply nor suggest that the Prophet’s teaching is imperfect. Rather the imperfection they fear is in their (the Muslims) own practice of the Deen, afraid that they may missed one essential (RUKN) in SWOLAH.

    # “The Prophet s.a.a.w. never verbalize the NIYYAT for SWOLAH. The beginning of SWOLAH, according to the Sunnah, is to verbalize the TAKBIR and not the NIYYAT, as what these people are now teaching. “

    Response: Another grave mischief, dishonest argument and a defamation towards our teachers and scholars. The accuser should check the accuracy of his facts first before coming out with another of his “straw-man” argument

    The facts: All our teachers and scholars do not include NIYYAT as an essential (RUKUN) of the tongue (QAWLIYYAH) but essential (RUKUN) of the heart-mind (QALBIYYAH).

    All of them agree that the first demonstrable act to signify the beginning of SWOLAH is the TAKBIRATUL-IHRAM - reciting upon the tongue - 'ALLAAHU AKBAR'.

    As regard the issue of NIYYAT, this is to be formulated (present) in the heart-mind just before the first TAKBIR, and not during or accompanying the TAKBIR.

    Therefore, those who may have a need to verbalize it – because of their need to remember or to ensure presence of the intention, is doing it outside of SWOLAH prior to TAKBIR.

    The person who wrongly accuse them as having change the start for SWOLAH to now begin with verbalizing NIYYAT, exposes his malicious motive. May Allah guide and forgive him and all of us. To extend his fallacious argument, can we also likewise say that standing (QIYYAM) itself before we make the first TAKBIR, therefore should be regarded as having started the SWOLAH? - of course not !

    Although there may be difference of opinion amongst the MDZAAHIB, our ‘ulama hold to the view that whatever intention made for SWOLAH before coming to mosque or while taking the WUDHU’ etc. are regarded only as ‘AZAM (resolve, not intention), and one’s intention should be specific, because there are many types of SWOLAH that one can be performing, this is necessary so as to avoid ambiguity.

    WaAllaahu a’lam
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    [Slideshare] fiqh-course(sept-2012-batch)-#8-bid'ah-clarification-(17-nov-2012) [Slideshare] fiqh-course(sept-2012-batch)-#8-bid'ah-clarification-(17-nov-2012) Presentation Transcript

    • IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL. “INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF FIQH ” Intermediate Level Islamic course in English for Adults conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail LESSON # 8 – CONTROVERSIES BID’AH – A CLARIFICATION And say: O Lord! Increase for me my knowledge Using text & curriculum he has developed especially for Muslim converts and young Adult English-speaking Muslims. “To seek knowledge is obligatory upon every Muslim (male & female)”All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) UPDATED 17 NOVEMBER 2012
    • “O ye who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those charged with authority from among you (ulil-’amri min-kum).” (Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 59)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • “Be not like those who are divided amongst themselves and fall into disputations after receiving Clear signs; for them is a dreadful penalty.―” (Qur’an: Aali ‘Imran: 3: 105)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • “... Ask from those who possess the Message (az-Zikr : the remembrance) in matters which you do not know.“ (Qur’an: al-Nahlu: 16: 43)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • “Whosoever engages in any disputation (debate) without (basing his argument with) knowledge, Allah’s anger is upon him until he leaves it (the disputation).” (Hadith quoted by Imam Ibn Hajar in “Az-Zawajir”)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • “Three things will afflict (calamity upon) the religion: Learned scholars who are immoral; leaders who are unjust (oppressive); and those who give religious decree (Ijtihad) are ignorant.” (Hadith reported by Ad-Dailamy from Ibn ‘Abbas r.a.)”)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • “Amongst you, after receiving guidance, you will not go astray except for those who then enter into debates (merely for argument sake) .” Then he (Prophet s.a.w.) recited a verse (Qur’an: Zukhruf: 43: 58): “They raise not the objection save for argument. Nay! but they are a contentious folk.” (Hadith quoted by Imam Ibn Hajar in “Az-Zawajir”)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • “Whoever seeks knowledge (intending) to argue with the learned (scholars), or to brag with the foolish; or with it to attract peoples’ attention to himself; Allah will make him to enter the Hell-fire.” (Hadith also reported by Tirmidzi and Ibn Majah)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST GRACIOUS, MOST MERCIFUL As an example of the intention (and Du’a): as formulated by Imam Qutb al-Irshad al-Habib ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Alawi al-Haddad (rahimahullah) – may we benefit from his Wisdom and secrets.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST GRACIOUS, MOST MERCIFUL “I intend to learn and teach (knowledge), to gain and to share benefits, to receive and to give reminders, to seek (Allah’s) bestowals and to bestow (upon others), to holdfast to the teachings of the Book of Allah (Qur’an) and As-Sunnah of His Messenger s.a.a.w. , to invite towards the right guidance, to show to the path of goodness, beseeching and seeking to please Allah s.w.t., so as to gain nearness to Him and hoping for (His acceptance and) His reward. Amin” As an example of the intention (and Du’a): as formulated by Imam Qutb al-Irshad al-Habib ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Alawi al-Haddad (rahimahullah) – may we benefit from his Wisdom and secrets.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • “You are to hear and obey, even if your commander (authorized to lead you) is an Ethiopian (slave). Verily, those amongst you who lives long will see much dissensions. Thus, holdfast to my Sunnah (ways or teachings) and the Sunnah (ways) of my rightly-guided successors (Khulafa’ rashidun) after me, and bite upon them (hold tightly to this teaching). Avoid new (innovated) matters, for (KULL) every * innovation (BID’AH) is misguidance (DOLALAH).” (Hadith from Jabir r.a. reported by Abu Dawud and Tirmidzi) * - rather linguistically it means “most”All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • The word - - ( al-BID’AH) in Arabic means “Introduction or creating something totally new without there being any precedence before it”. Thus Allah SWT said: “To Him is due the primal origin of the heavens and the earth” (Qur’an: Baqarah: 2: 117)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
    •  Islamic scholars of FIQH differ as to what this term encompasses - vis-á-vis “SUNNAH ”. Thus, there are some who are strictly rigid in their definition and regard, everything not specifically done by the Prophet s.a.a.w. to be all “BID’AH ” – therefore to them , every BID’AH are regarded as reprehensible and must be rejected.  However, the majority Islamic scholars do not reject everything new i.e. “BID’AH ” as reprehensible, but accept certain innovation which, although not specifically had ever been done by the Prophet s.a.a.w., yet it has valid SHAR’IAH basis – i.e. it is only ‘new’ in the specific, the type, detail or method, but still manifesting the principles already established by Qur’an and As-Sunnah.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    •  Thus difference of opinion occur when Muslims respond to these questions: “Are all BID’AH detested and disallowed (forbidden)?” “Can BID’AH be categorised as BID’AH HASSANAH (good innovation) and BID’AH SAY-YI’AH (bad or reprehensible innovation)?” “Are there any other ways of categorization of BID’AH adopted by Islamic scholars of the SHARI’AH ? ”All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • “O ye who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those charged with authority among you. If ye differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger if ye do believe in Allah and the Last Day: that is best, and most suitable for final determination.” (Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 59)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • “To proceed, verily the most truthful of sayings is the Book of Allah, and the most favored of guidance is the guidance of Muhammad, and the most evil of affairs (SHAR-RAL-’UMUR) are matters newly begun (MUHDAATHUHA), and (KULL) every * new affairs (MUHDATHATUHA)) is innovation (BID’AH), and (KULL) every* innovation (BID’AH) is misguidance (DOLAALAH), and every misguidance will be in Hell-fire.” (Hadith from Jabir r.a. reported by Muslim) * - rather linguistically it means “most”All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    •  In this Hadith, since the phrase (MUHDAATHUHA) “newly begun matters” comes after the phrase asserting the pre-eminence of the Qur’an and as-Sunnah, it imply that the “ new ” here is regarding any matter which is completely detached from or opposed to these two.  Although the Arabic term for “ (all) ” literally means “every” yet it can also be used to mean “mostly “ as in this Hadith. And the general term “BID’AH ” meaning “innovation (which is reprehensible)” must be understood to be referring only to those new matters (innovation) that does not have any SHARI’AH basis at all, or without any religious sanctions regarding its validity and permissibility.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    •  Unfortunately, there are some who still insist that the “all ” here must mean “every” new matter where the Prophet has never done or known to have specifically approved. Thus they often declare others as being astray because of their rigid definition of “BID’AH”. But, does the word ( KULL) used in Qur’an and Ahadith always means “every” without exception ?  Majority of Islamic scholars do not insist on this one rigid literal interpretation. This is because there are exception in the Qur’an where the term “KULL” used does not necessarily mean “every ”.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    •  This view has consistently been understood by Islamic scholars, especially amongst Arabic linguists and slamic scholars of Tafsir (Science of Qur’anic commentaries). Those who differ regarding this were rare, and usually such ‘odd’ interpretation has already been refuted by reputable Islamic scholars in the past and even present.  Unfortunately, this polemic has recently been revived – directed to the ordinary Muslims, mostly who are non-Arabic speaking or non- experts in the Arabic language. Thus, usually when translation from Arabic to English are made literally as, “all ” or “every ”, it would seem to mean “all without exception.” But is this understanding Qur’anic?All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    •  In the Qur’an and “Ahadith (As-Sunnah) ”, there are verses which support this understanding - that the term (KULL) although literally mean “all” or “every”, or when the term - (MAA) literally meaning “whatever else“ – are used, they usually imply in the general sense, which does not necessarily mean “absolutely all ”, as though without exception.  To insist only to the rigid literal specific meaning, may in fact be opposed to and contradicting the correct Qur’anic usage.  To illustrate, please reflect on these evidence:All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • ONE TEXTUAL BASIS “But when they forget the warning they had received, We opened to them the gates of all (good) things (KULLI-SHAI’), until, in the midst of their enjoyment of Our gifts, on a sudden, We called them to account, when lo! they were plunged in despair!” ( Qur’an: An-’am: 6: 44)  Obviously here, one door of goodness (the exception), which was not opened for them was the door of Mercy .All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • ANOTHER TEXTUAL BASIS “Indeed, you [disbelievers] and what (WA MAA) you worship other than Allah are the firewood of Hell. You will be coming to [enter] it.” (Qur’an: An-’am: 21: 98)  If there is no exception to this “what … you worship”, then what would happen to Prophet ‘Isa (Jesus) and his mother a.s. which many Christians worship ? WaAllaahu a’lamAll Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • REFLECT ON THISAll Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • REFLECT ON THIS “Know that verily I forbid you from reciting any portions of the Qur’an while you are in RUKU’ (bowing position in SWOLAH) and in SUJUD (prostration).Hence when you are in RUKU’ (bowing) extol glorification (magnify) of Allah and when you are in SUJUD (prostration), strive (exert) in making much DU’A (supplication), surely it (what you ask for therein) will be granted.” (Hadith reported by Muslim, Ahmad, Abu Dawud and Nasa-’ie )All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • CONSIDER ANOTHER HADITHAll Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • CONSIDER ANOTHER HADITH “Whosoever introduces a way in Islam a good practice (SUNNAH HASANAH), for him will be the reward for (introducing) it, as well as (given the same) reward as others who follow and practice that good act, till the day of judgment. And whosoever introduces a bad practice (SUNNAH SAI-YI-AH), for him will be the sin for (introducing) it, as well as (given the same) sins as others who follow and commit that bad practice, till the day of judgment ” (Hadith reported by Muslim)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    •  In this Hadith, the usage of the terminology “SUNNAH” should not be mistakenly assumed to mean the “AS-SUNNAH” of our Prophet Muhammad s.a.a.w.  Rather, it simply mean “a way; a practice ” – whether it be a totally “new” way or practice without any precedence or “new” in a customary sense as re-introducing something not commonly done of practiced. Whichever meaning, it cannot be referring to “AS-SUNNAH” which we normally attribute to him (the Prophet s.a.a.w.).  The reason for this is because here he s.a.a.w. mentioned two types of “SUNNAH” - the good and the bad ( “HASSANAH ” and “SAI-YI-AH ”) .All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    •  Now we already understand “BID’AH” to mean “innovation” : “Introduction or creating something totally new without there being any precedence before it”.  Thus, it would seem that the term “SUNNAH” in this Hadith clearly imply the meaning that the Prophet s.a.a.w. now is stipulating (whether it be encouraging or discouraging ) the doing of “BID’AH ”.  To those who rigidly advocate the understanding that every form of ”BID’AH ” is misguidance and therefore reprehensible, this Hadith is indeed problematic. In fact this rather support the view that “BID’AH” can be categorized into good “BID’AH HASANAH” or bad “SAY-YI’AH” which leads to “DOLAALAH” misguidance.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    •  Some say that this encouragement to introduce new practice (SUNNAH) is in ‘worldly’ (DUNYAWI) matters and does not involve the ‘religion’ (DEENIYAT). This still would already imply that there can be exception to introducing innovation, i.e. simply by perhaps avoiding the term “BID’AH” and giving it another type of categorization. Also, can a Muslim’s worldly life (DUNYAWI) be dichotomised from his religion (DEENIYAT) ? The Hadith itself is a general statement and does DEENIYAT not yet make this type of distinction.  General statement in the Qur’an and Ahadith should be accepted as such, thus we are as yet not to constrict our understanding to conform to a specific and narrow interpretation.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    •  The term “BID’AH” here is general and can (should) be further categorized and its ruling regarding it, ascertained by other explicit principle in FIQH rulings – viz. wajib, mustahab (sunnat), harus (ja-iz), makruh and Haram.  Yet there are those who still differ and insist that when something is known to be “BID’AH”, then it must be regarded as reprehensible and Haram. And they further understand rather rigidly that “ BID’AH ” to refer to anything (practices or belief) which was never explicitly done by the Prophet s.a.a.w. or by his Companions.  Such rigidity is opposed to our understanding of the MAQASID SHARI’AH, and this would lead to stagnation and must be corrected.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    •  If such rigidity are not corrected, than the second Hadith would be a contradiction because in it when the Prophet s.a.a.w. states that “Whosoever introduces a new way in Islam a good practice ” it cannot mean something already known to have been previously done by Prophet s.a.w. nor his Companions but rather it implies, some specific practices which was unknown (thus an innovation) but yet consistent with principles in Al-Qur’an and As-Sunnah . Thus by referring to it as SUNNAH (which mean “way”) it does not change the fact that it is still an innovation (new – BID’AH) – albeit approved or consistent with principles in Qur’an and As-Sunnah, therefore can be rightly term also as “BID’AH HASANAH”.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    •  And in the Nusantara (S.E. Asia), this has been well understood and was never an issue. Unfortunately there are groups who are now stirring up old “KHILAAFIYAH” issues by redefining the meaning of “BID’AH” and denying validity of “BID’AH HASANAH” or reject applying FIQH rulings - wajib, mustahab (sunnat), harus (ja-iz), makruh and Haram.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    •  With globalization, modern communication and mobility of Islamic propagators into the region, divergent approaches and viewpoints have once again been revived leading to senseless disputes and debates. It usually is done either because of ignorance of this region’s - Nusantara (S. E. Asia) history and context, or perhaps motivated by bigotry in trying to gain followers to their particular MADZHAB.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    •  Yet they still insist that the “all ” here must only mean “every new matter” where the Prophet has never done or known to have specifically approved. Thus they often declare others as being ‘astray’ (misguided) because of their rigid definition of “ BID’AH”. But, as previously explained, the Arabic word ( KULL) used in Qur’an and Ahadith does not always mean “every” without exception, but “mostly”.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    •  Whereas the majority of Islamic scholars here have already rejected, with basis, this rigid literal interpretation. Even in the Qur’an where the term “KULL” ( ) is used, it does not necessarily always mean “all or every ”. Thus this then is “KHILAFIYYAH” issue.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    •  However, we still need to respect whichever views, whether those who regard the word “KULL” to mean “every ” or “mostly ” – as this is regarded as “KHILAFIYYAH” as long as we avoid engaging in futile argumentation or indulge in accusation of MUBTADI’ (innovators) towards one another that can lead to enmity and disunity.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • As regard the “BID’AH ” that is deemed misguidance (DOLAALAH) which is agreed to by all – these are those that pertains to innovated matters of AQEEDAH and ‘IBAADAH which cannot be substantiated at all with revelation (Qur’an and as-Sunnah) or its principles as agreed by the FUQAHA’ guided by the following:All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • “The first principle ruling regarding formal worship (rites) is by TAUQIF (reliance upon revelations) and in following (the command).” “The first principle ruling regarding formal worship (rites) is that it be deemed BAATIL (invalid - cannot be followed) until there is a clear proof (basis) of its command.”All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • “The first principle ruling regarding matters of ‘ADAT (ways, practices , methods and customs) is that they are deemed permissible,” “The first principle ruling regarding contracts and social transactions is that they are deemed valid, until there is clear proof (basis) that it is BAATIL (invalid) or HARAM (illegal – forbidden)”All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • “O ye who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those charged with authority among you. If ye differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger if ye do believe in Allah and the Last Day: that is best, and most suitable for final determination.” (Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 59)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • “What! have they partners (in godhead), who have established (rules, laws) for them some religion without the permission of Allah?” (Qur’an: Shura: 46: 21)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • “Whoever practices (in this religion) a practice which is not based upon what we have commanded, that practice is rejected.” (Hadith reported by Bukhary and Ahmad)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • “Whoever innovates (bring about a new ways) in our affairs (of religion) which has no basis (from its teachings), it is rejected.” (Hadith reported by Bukhary and Ahmad) AND ALLAH KNOWS ALLAll Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • THESE ARE ONLY A FEW AS EXAMPLES …All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • “What I have made forbidden to you, avoid; what I have ordered you [to do], do as much of it as you can. It was only their excessive questioning and their disagreeing with their Prophets that destroyed those who came before you.” (Hadith reported by Bukhary & Muslim)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    •  To those who likes to label (judge) others whom they regard as doing a “ BID’AH “ (doing what the Prophet s.a.a.w. have never done) as wrong because they also regard every type of “ BID’AH” is misguidance and reprehensible – should reflect upon this Hadith.  It can reply to a pertinent question: “If those who does an act (practices) in religion which the Prophet s.a.a.w Sunnah did not specifically shown, is regarded as reprehensible and forbidden, what about those who did not do acts (practices) in religion that the Prophet s.a.a.w. has specifically done ?” “Should it not be that, by not doing (a practice) which the Prophet has indeed done in religion, is also guilty of being contrary to his Sunnah? “All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    •  If the response is: “It depends .. Since what the Prophet s.a.a.w. ordered for us to do, we are to do only as much as we can” It then beg another question: “How are we to do it? What priority do we follow? … just as we please?” – “NO! of course definitely not.” Since we already know that in accordance with SHARI’AH, as agreed by all MADZAAHIB (by IJMA’ ) it must be in accordance to what Allah and His Prophet s.a.a.w. generally ordered in matters of our religious practices, having different legal emphasis – from it being WAJIB (obligatory), MANDUB (recommended), JAIS (optional), MAKRUH (dislike) and HARAM (forbidden) - we have to comply with this SHARI’AH categorization. Not the simplistic “SUNNAH vs BID’AH” dichotomy.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    •  Therefore to be consistent, just as in matters of following SUNNAH, likewise in matters of regarding “BID’AH”, this HUKM TAKLIFI of it being either: WAJIB (obligatory), MANDUB (recommended), JAIS (optional), MAKRUH (dislike) and HARAM (forbidden) - are to be applied too.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    •  Therefore to be consistent, just as in matters of following SUNNAH, likewise in matters of regarding “BID’AH”, this HUKM TAKLIFI of it being either: WAJIB (obligatory), MANDUB (recommended), JAIS (optional), MAKRUH (dislike) and HARAM (forbidden) - are to be applied too. “If anyone contends with (i.e. opposes) the Messenger even after guidance has been plainly conveyed to him, and follows a path other than that becoming to men to Faith, We shall leave him in the path he has chosen, and land him in Hell, what an evil refuge.” (Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 115) WALLAAHU A’LAMAll Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • EXAMPLE # 1All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • “Verily, action is by intention; and verily the worth (merit) of that action is (to be measured) in accordance with what is intended ... ” (Hadith reported by Bukhary & Muslim)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    •  “NIYYAT” (intention) is one of the essential for the validity of SWOLAH and all forms of IBAADAH - condition for it being accepted .  Yet, intention can be defined as : “Formulation in a person’s mind- heart, of his conscious action which he is doing, with clarity of its ruling (HUKM) and differentiating it from other actions which may generally be similar, reaffirming the sincerity of purpose to do it for the sake of Allah seeking nearness to Him. As such, it is formulated in the mind-heart In the language which the person understands .”  Verbalizing it upon the tongue is regarded as “ BID’AH ”, since this was not practiced by the Prophet s.a.a.w.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    •  Yet, to ensure that NIYYAT is formulated, our Islamic scholars compose the required intention that fulfill the SHAR’IE requirement, and this has become a standard instruction in the curriculum which requires the teacher-student to verbalize it. Some, although having learnt that the intention is in the heart-mind and not the tongue, still finds it nececssary to verbalizing it as a means to always remind themselves to consider this important essential of SWOLAH, especially since in the SHAFI-’IE Madzhab , intention must be present at the beginning of the act.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    •  So, the SHAR-’IE ruling on verbalizing NIYYAT depends of many factors: [1] If by not verbalizing it, the required intention is not present in the person’s mind at the start of SWOLAH, which therefore rendering it invalid, then to do so - verbalize - is WAJIB (obligatory). [2] For those who do not verbalize it but are able to formulate it in their heart-mind is conforming to the Sunnah, this is highly recommended.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    •  So, the SHAR-’IE ruling on verbalizing NIYYAT depends of many factors: [3] Some, like the Imam (prayer leader), choose to verbalize it as a continuous instruction to the congregation – many of whom may still require reminders. The ruling for this can be optional ( HARUS), or recommended (MUSTAHAB) or even obligatory (WAJIB). [4] For those who knows how to formulate in the heart-mind, it is dislike (MAKRUH) for them to verbalize aloud without apparent reason-necessity for doing so. WALLAAHU A’LAMAll Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • EXAMPLE # 2All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • “But your Sustainer says: “Call unto Me, [and] I shall respond to you! Verily, they who are too proud to worship Me will enter hell, abased!” (Qur’an: Ghafir: 40: 60)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • “AD-DU’A (Supplication) is the weapon of the Believer, the pillar of his Religion and light of the heaven and earth.” (Hadith reported by Tirmidzi)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    •  Firstly, we have to emphasise that reciting litanies ( WIRID) and supplication (DU’A) daily especially after the obligatory SWOLAH, is an established SUNNAH.  There is consensus (unanimous, no objection) when these are recited silently and individually, but Islamic scholars differ regarding whether the common practice of WIRID and DU’A recited aloud, led by the Imam, is it “BID’AH” or “SUNNAH ”.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    •  To rule outright that it is “BID’AH” is problematic because we do have AHADITH which narrated the specific WIRID and DU’A of our Prophet s.a.a.w. after SWOLAH, which therefore must have been recited aloud by him at some time – albeit not regularly but occassionally as means of instructing the Companions so that they know and practice this SUNNAH.  Therefore, to appreciate what is being commonly practiced in our mosque in the NUSANTARA (S.E. Asia), we have to consider the context of the Muslims, the role of the Imam, and the consequence of being hasty in judging others.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    •  Muslims here are non-Arabic speaking. Many are still struggling and continuously learning to practice Islam and therefore the Imam has to use the opportunity to teach them each time they perform SWOLAH in the mosque. Also, the congregation need to be exposed to, so as to appreciate and hopefully learn specific DU’A which are Ma’thur (from the Qur’an and Ahadith) in Arabic - although they may make their own DU’A and in their own language.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    •  As had happen today, many Muslims in their ignorance or out of sheer laziness, simply get up and leave immediately after the SWOLAH. This in fact violates a SUNNAH. Due to the need to teach the community that this practice is done, not to differ to the SUNNAH.  In fact, this is part of continuous effort to revive the SUNNAH as there are much to be improved in our Muslims’ practice. Therefore, one should not be hasty to condemn this practice because the consequence would be that many Muslims may even discard the SUNNAH of reciting WIRD and DU’A after their SWOLAH (albeit individually as was done during the Prophet’s era).All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • “The best ones amongst you is the person who makes your remember Allah when you look upon him; and whenever he speaks it increases you your knowledge (of the Deen), and with his deeds it inspires (motivates) you to strive for your Hereafter.” (Hadith reported by Hakim from Ibnu ‘Umar r.a .)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) WALLAAHU A’LAM
    • EXAMPLE # 3All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • “AND [on that Day] the Messenger will say: “O my Sustainer! Behold, [some of] my people have come to regard this Qur’an as something [that ought to be] discarded ( MAH-JUURA)! “ (Qur’an: Furqan: 25: 30-31)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • “They are not [all] the same; among the People of the Scripture is a community standing [in obedience], reciting the verses of Allah during periods of the night and prostrating [in prayer].” (Qur’an: Aali ’Imran: 3: 113)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • “Indeed, those who recite the Book of Allah and establish prayer and spend [in His cause] out of what We have provided them, secretly and publicly, [can] expect a profit that will never perish -.” (Qur’an: Faatir: 35: 29)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • “Verily, by this Book (al-Qur’an) Allah elevates (the ranks of) a people (honouring them) and (by it too He) lowers (the ranks of) others” (Hadith reported by Muslim)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • “Whenever any one of you wish to speak (converse) with His Robb (Lord Sustainer), let him read the Qur’an” (Hadith reported by Dailamy and Baihaqy)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • “The best amongst you is one who learns the Qur’an and who teaches it” (Hadith reported by Bukhary)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    •  We acknowledge that the SUNNAH of our Prophet s.a.a.w. and his Companion r.a. they recite the Qur’an daily and nightly. In fact every day and every night, their companionship with the Qur’an is to be emulated.  And there are many AHADITH which informs us of many Surah’s (not just Yaa Seen), and the virtues and benefit of reciting them – which serve to motivate us.  Yet, how do you begin to educate and encourage the general Muslim masses to adopt this SUNNAH – except gradually but consistently, especially many still are struggling to learn Arabic.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    •  We have to encourage not discourage; show appreciation to whatever little achievement they have managed to attain rather than be negative and impatient towards what they have yet to do; motivate (inspire) not deprecate (criticize) …. Remember: “Invite to the way of your Lord with wisdom and good instruction,” (Qur’an: Nahlu : 16: 125)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • “Those who are proficient in reciting the Qur’an will be amongst the ranks noble of angels in servitude; And as for those still struggling (to learn) with difficulty reciting will receive double (the reward).” (Hadith reported by Bukhary and Muslim)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • “Whoever recites one letter from the Book of Allah (al-Qur’an) will be rewarded with one Hasanah (merit), the merit then would be multiplied by ten (Hasanah)” (Hadith reported by Dailamy and Baihaqy)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • “The heart of Al-Qur’an is (Surah) Yaa Seen. No one who recites it wanting to seek from Allah (His acceptance and salvation for) the Hereafter, except that Allah will grant him Forgiveness. ” (Hadith reported by Ibnu Sunniy – ‘Al-Adzkar’)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    •  Thus, through the passage of time, many Muslims have been consistent in their practice of reciting from the Qur’an and other acts of devotions connected with the greatest day of the week (JUMU’AH).  Although not as yet perfect according to the SUNNAH, we must acknowledge that this tradition itself is indeed a good achievement if maintained and improved. It has actually complied with what the Prophet s.a.a.w. said: “what I have ordered you [to do], do as much of it as you can.”All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • “Whoever recites every day and night, fifty verses (of the Qur’an), he will not be Regarded as those who are heedless (GHOFILEEN).” (Hadith reported by Ibnu Sunniy – ‘Al-Adzkar’)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    •  Unfortunately, certain group are criticising the practice, calling it a reprehensible innovation “BID’AH DHOLALAH”.?  This has in some instance, led to people abandoning the practice of reciting the Qur’an, collectively or individually even. There are those who “terrorize” practicing Muslims and are quick to label them as MUBTADI’ (innovator), but yet do nothing to those who don’t practice at all.  How is reciting the Qur’an to best of one’s ability, a BID’AH? If before at least in one night the Muslim recites some Surah consistently, now not at all. Is this good?All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) WALLAAHU A’LAM
    • EXAMPLE # 4All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    •  Is it wrong to commemorate the birth of Allah’s Most Beloved, the person whom one’s SHAHADAH (declaration of faith) in Islam is invalid without mentioning our acceptance of him as Allah’s last prophet and messenger, together with our attestation to Allah’s Absolute Divinity (TAUHEED)?  Some of the response, is “yes it is wrong because it is a BID’AH ! And it was never observed by all the people in the best three generations of the SALAFUS-SOLEH, and every innovation is misguidance (DHOLALAH)”.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    •  However, the overwhelming majority of Islamic scholars, especially here in the NUSANTARA (S. E. Asia) approve of it, with their clarification that not all “BID’AH” is to be reprehensible and forbidden. They have linked it to the need for, and means in the continuous Da’awah and Islah (education) for the present Muslims.  The onus is on those who object to provide convincing basis as to how commemorating our Prophets’ life event – as a means to instill to the Muslim community, remembrance and inculcate gratitude towards the greatest favour to us from Allah – How is this wrong in SHARI’AH ?All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    •  Granted that the best three generations, the SALAFUS-SOLEH, did not observe this because their memory, faith and love for our Prophet s.a.a.w. was indeed strong and admirable. But can we say the same for the KHALAF (subsequent) generation, which we all now belong to?  Historically, commemoration of the “Mawlidun-Nabiyy” and the trend of composing and reciting poetry, eulogies, biography etc. begun because the Muslim then had realized that the fragility of their Faith was due to the lack of love and attachment to the Prophet s.a.a.w. – primarily because we do not have the same ‘passionate’ knowledge of him s.a.a.w.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    •  Also it has been the accepted practice amongst Muslims, to use certain significant events in Islamic history and in our lives, to manifest and inculcate gratitude (SHAKUR) for every favours (NI’MAH) that Allah has granted. This is even true to those who are against commemorating “Mawlidun-Nabiyy” – when they do celebrate the birth of their king, nation, their love ones, and many such anniversaries in their life etc.  Therefore, though we respect whichever view, yet we are to remember Allah’s reminder that the greatest favour for us Muslims is indeed when Allah SWT sent our Prophet Muhammad s.a.a.w.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • “Certainly did Allah confer [great] favour upon the believers when He sent among them a Messenger from themselves, reciting to them His verses and purifying them and teaching them the Book and wisdom, although they had been before in manifest error.” (Qur’an: Aali ‘Imran: 3: 164)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • “VERILY, in the Messenger of Allah you have a good example for everyone who looks forward [with hope and awe] to Allah and the Last Day, and remembers Allah unceasingly.” (Qur’an: Ahzab: 33: 6)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • Say: "If your fathers and your sons and your brothers and your spouses and your clan, and the worldly goods which you have acquired, and the commerce whereof you fear a decline, and the dwellings in which you take pleasure - [ if all these] are dearer to you than Allah and His Messenger and the struggle in His cause, then wait until Allah makes manifest His will; and [know that] Allah does not grace iniquitous folk with His guidance.“ (Qur’an: Taubah: 9: 24)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • “Educate (nurture) your children upon three things: [1] To Love your Prophet (s.a.w.), [2] And to love the Family members of his household (Aali Muhammad), [3] and (learn) to recite Al-Qur’an.” (Hadith narrated by Tabrani)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • “(Strive to) Love Allah, Who has bestowed much provision and favours upon you. And (strive to) love me because of your love for Allah. And (strive to) love my Household (family) because of your love for me.” (Hadith reported by al-Hakim from Ibnu ‘Abbas r.a .)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • “None of you is a (true) believer until he loves me more than he love his own self, or his parent, or his son, or every other human being.” (Hadith reported by Bukhary and Muslim)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • “I am the Most Beloved of Allah, and this is not to boast. And I will be the bearer of the banner of “The Praise” on the Day of Judgement under which will follow Prophet Adam and all who came after him, and this is not to boast.” (Hadith reported by Tirmidzi)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • That “Love” is a feeling we have unto whom we hold with special esteem. But there are many feelings which people may regard as “love” or called it as such isn’t it? What is it actually? How do we know their differences? What is to “love” someone? People who claim to be in love, may be deluded, when they impose their personal likes and dislikes; their priorities; their choices and preferences etc. rather than that of their “beloved’s” likes/dislikes, choices, preferences, concerns, priorities, etc.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • Some feel as though we ‘love’ the Prophet s.a.w. but the more pertinent concern should be to consider, “how would the Prophet s.a.w. feel towards us, who have so much shortcomings ?”All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • Some feel as though we ‘love’ the Prophet s.a.w. but the more pertinent concern should be to consider, “how would the Prophet s.a.w. feel towards us, who have so much shortcomings ?” “I asked from Allah that He would make the accounting (judgement) upon my nation (Ummah) known to me and not be witnessed by other nations (communities of other prophets). Then Allah Most Exalted, said : ‘O Muhammad! I will be judging them, and whenever there are shortcomings amongst them, I will cover them for your sake, so that they would not shame you.’ ” (Hadith reported by Dailamiy)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • Al-Ham-dulil-laah ! Shouldn’t we be glad and grateful to this! Our affection and love for the Prophet Muhammad s.a.a.w. commensurate with how well we know him, his virtues, his concerns, his excellences etc. which Allah has accorded him. During his time, people had the privilege to meet him face-to-face, encounter, interact, and gaze upon his Noble and blessed countenance. For us now, we can be expected to love the Prophet only after fulfilling several approaches.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • Generally we should first confirm his Prophethood, obey his commands and prohibitions; support, help and protect him, reviving, practicing, teaching and spreading his Sunnah; invite all to Allah, to the Book of Allah and ways of Allah’s messenger; inculcate in ourselves his noble characteristics and Adab. Maintain esteem respect and love for the Prophet s.a.w.; preserve his Sunnah from neglect or attack (in practice and by teaching them); sharing his likes/dislikes; understanding his Shari’ah; loving for People of his House (Ahlul-Baytihi) and his loyal companions, and the true Ulama’ ; showing compassion to his entire Ummah; extend his message of the Mercy of Allah for the worlds.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • True love must be ‘sincere’ and ‘selfless’ – something related to our Islamic concept of Tauheed. We love the Prophet s.a.w. because of Allah s.w.t. How do you inculcate this? It must begin with a true sense of “gratefulness”. Only from this can the feeling of true “love ” grow. What we seek is that “love” (hubb) which Allah and His Messenger s.a.w. meant by “love”, not our self-deluded ‘understanding’ of love. Allaahu musta’anAll Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) WALLAAHU A’LAM
    • REMEMBER THIS IMPORTANT COMMAND “O ye who believe! if you are conscious of and fear Allah (TAQWA), He will grant you a criterion (FURQAN-to judge between right and wrong), remove from you (all) evil (that may afflict) you, and forgive you: for Allah is the Lord of grace unbounded.” (Qur’an: Anfaal: 8: 29)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • AND ALLAH KNOWS ALLAll Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • IMPORTANT DU’A ALLAA-HUM-MA – ARI-NAL-HAQ-QA - HAQ-QAN WAR- ZUQ-NAT - TI-BAA- ’A WA-ARI-NAL – BAA-TWILA – BAA-TWI-LAAN WAR-ZUQ-NAJ – TI –NAA - BAH “O Allah! Make us to see the Truth to be true and grant us ability to follow it. And make us see Falsehood to be false and grant us the ability to reject it.”All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
    • All welcome to visit my web-blog: http://an-naseehah.blogspot.com/ http://introductiontotauhid.blogspot.com/ http://oyoubelievers.blogspot.com/ http://al-amthaal.blogspot.com/ http://zhulkeflee-archive.blogspot.com/ http://criteriaforaholybook-quran.blogspot.com/ http://with-the-truthful.blogspot.com/ http ://muqaddam-nurul.blogspot.com/ 107All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)