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[Slideshare] fiqh-course-lesson-#8-(feb-2013-bath)-bid'ah-clarification-(3-april-2013)

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  • 1. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL. “INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF FIQH ” Intermediate Level Islamic course in English for Adults conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail LESSON # 8 – CONTROVERSIES BID’AH – A CLARIFICATION And say: O Lord! Increase for me my knowledge Using text & curriculum he has developed especially for Muslim converts and young Adult English-speaking Muslims. “To seek knowledge is obligatory upon every Muslim (male & female)”All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) UPDATED 3 APRIL 2013
  • 2. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE, 18 weekly class started: 6 FEBRUARY 2013 MOST MERCIFUL. Every Wednesday night @ 8pm – 10pm Wisma Indah, 450 Changi Road, #02-00 next to Masjid Kassim. TOPIC FOR : 3 APRIL 2013 REGISTER via http://goo.gl/UVuYf For further queries, contact E-mail: ad.fardhayn.sg@gmail.com LESSON # 8 – or +65 81234669 / +65 96838279 CONTROVERSIES BID’AH – A CLARIFICATION And say: O Lord! Increase for me my knowledge “INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF FIQH ” Intermediate Level Islamic course in English for Adults conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj IsmailAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  • 3. “O ye who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those charged with authority from among you (ulil-’amri min-kum).” (Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 59)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 4. “Be not like those who are (TAFAR-ROQU) divided amongst themselves and fall into disputations after receiving Clear signs; for them is a dreadful penalty (‘AZAA-BUN ‘AZEEM).―” (Qur’an: Aali ‘Imran: 3: 105)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 5. “... Ask from those who possess the Message (az-Zikr : the remembrance) in matters which you do not know.“ (Qur’an: al-Nahlu: 16: 43)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 6. ADDENDUM “Those who do not know that they do not know.” THE HEEDLESS “Those who know that they do not know.” THE IGNORANT “Those who do not know that they know.” THE NEGLIGENT “Those who know that they know.” THE WISE SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TRULY WISE And the wise (those who truly know), will always look at what they are still ignorant of, maintaining humility , striving to continue learning, rather than become conceited with whatever little they had already learnt.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 7. “Whosoever engages in any disputation (debate) without (basing his argument with) knowledge, Allah’s anger is upon him until he leaves it (the disputation).” (Hadith quoted by Imam Ibn Hajar in “Az-Zawajir”)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 8. “Three things will afflict (calamity upon) the religion: Learned scholars who are immoral; leaders who are unjust (oppressive); and those who give religious decree (Ijtihad) are ignorant.” (Hadith reported by Ad-Dailamy from Ibn ‘Abbas r.a.)”)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 9. “Amongst you, after receiving guidance, you will not go astray except for those who then enter into debates (merely for argument sake) .” Then he (Prophet s.a.w.) recited a verse (Qur’an: Zukhruf: 43: 58): “They raise not the objection save for argument. Nay! but they are a contentious folk.” (Hadith quoted by Imam Ibn Hajar in “Az-Zawajir”)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 10. “Whoever seeks knowledge (intending) to argue with the learned (scholars), or to brag with the foolish; or with it to attract peoples’ attention to himself; Allah will make him to enter the Hell-fire.” (Hadith also reported by Tirmidzi and Ibn Majah)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 11. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST GRACIOUS, MOST MERCIFUL ALWAYS REMEMBER OUR INTENTION As an example of the intention (and Du’a): as formulated by Imam Qutb al-Irshad al-Habib ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Alawi al-Haddad (rahimahullah) – may we benefit from his Wisdom and secrets.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 12. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST GRACIOUS, MOST MERCIFUL ALWAYS REMEMBER OUR INTENTION “I intend to learn and teach (knowledge), to gain and to share benefits, to receive and to give reminders, to seek (Allah’s) bestowals and to bestow (upon others), to holdfast to the teachings of the Book of Allah (Qur’an) and As-Sunnah of His Messenger s.a.a.w. , to invite towards the right guidance, to show to the path of goodness, beseeching and seeking to please Allah s.w.t., so as to gain nearness to Him and hoping for (His acceptance and) His reward. Amin” As an example of the intention (and Du’a): as formulated by Imam Qutb al-Irshad al-Habib ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Alawi al-Haddad (rahimahullah) – may we benefit from his Wisdom and secrets.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 13. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 14. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 15. “You are to hear and obey, even if your commander (authorized to lead you) is an Ethiopian (slave). Verily, those amongst you who lives long will see much dissensions. Thus, holdfast to my Sunnah (ways or teachings) and the Sunnah (ways) of my rightly-guided successors (Khulafa’ rashidun) after me, and bite upon them (hold tightly to this teaching). Avoid new (innovated) matters, for (KULL) every * innovation (BID’AH) is misguidance (DOLALAH).” (Hadith from Jabir r.a. reported by Abu Dawud and Tirmidzi) * - rather linguistically, “kull” here means “most”All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 16. The word - - ( al-BID’AH) in Arabic means “Introduction or creating something totally new without there being any precedence before it”. Thus Allah SWT said: “To Him is due the primal origin of the heavens and the earth” (Qur’an: Baqarah: 2: 117)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 17. Islamic scholars of FIQH differ as to what this term encompasses - vis- á-vis “SUNNAH ”. Thus, there are some who are strictly rigid in their definition who regard, everything not specifically done by the Prophet s.a.a.w. to be all “BID’AH ” – and therefore to them , every BID’AH are regarded as reprehensible and must be rejected.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 18.  However, the majority Islamic scholars do not reject everything new i.e. “BID’AH ” as reprehensible, but accept certain innovation which, although not specifically had ever been done by the Prophet s.a.a.w., yet it has valid SHAR’IAH basis – i.e. it is only ‘new’ in the specific, the type, detail or method, but still manifesting or conforming to some principles already established by Qur’an and As-Sunnah.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 19.  Thus due to this, difference of opinion occur when Muslims respond to these questions:  “Are all BID’AH detested and disallowed (forbidden)?”  “Can BID’AH be categorised as BID’AH HASSANAH (good innovation) and BID’AH SAY-YI’AH (bad or reprehensible innovation)?”  “Are there any other ways of categorization of BID’AH adopted by Islamic scholars of the SHARI’AH ? ”All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 20. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 21. “O ye who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those charged with authority among you. If ye differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger if ye do believe in Allah and the Last Day: that is best, and most suitable for final determination.” (Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 59)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 22. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 23. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 24. “To proceed, verily the most truthful of sayings is the Book of Allah, and the most favored of guidance is the guidance of Muhammad, and the most evil of affairs (SHAR-RAL-’UMUR) are matters newly begun (MUHDAATHUHA), and (KULL) every * new affairs (MUHDATHATUHA)) is innovation (BID’AH), and (KULL) every* innovation (BID’AH) is misguidance (DOLAALAH), and every misguidance will be in Hell-fire.” (Hadith from Jabir r.a. reported by Muslim) * - rather linguistically, “kull” here means “most”All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 25.  In this Hadith, since the phrase (MUHDAATHUHA) “newly begun matters” comes after the phrase asserting the pre-eminence of the Qur’an and as-Sunnah, it imply that the “ new ” here is regarding any matter which is completely detached from or opposed to these two.  Although the Arabic term for “ (all) ” literally means “every” yet it can also be used to mean “mostly “ as in this Hadith. And the general term “BID’AH ” meaning “innovation (which is reprehensible)” must be understood to be referring only to those new matters (innovation) that does not have any SHARI’AH basis at all, or without any religious sanctions regarding its validity and permissibility.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 26.  Unfortunately, there are some who still insist that the “all ” here must mean literally “every” new matter where the Prophet has never done or known to have specifically approved. Thus they often declare others as being astray because of their rigid definition of “BID’AH”. But, does the word ( KULL) used in Qur’an and Ahadith always means “every” without exception ?  Majority of Islamic scholars do not insist on this one rigid literal interpretation. This is because there are exception in the Qur’an where the term “KULL” used does not necessarily mean “every ”.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 27.  This view has consistently been understood by Islamic scholars, especially amongst Arabic linguists and Islamic scholars of Tafsir (Science of Qur’anic commentaries). Those who differ regarding this were rare, and usually such ‘odd’ interpretation has already been refuted by reputable Islamic scholars in the past and even present.  Unfortunately, this polemic has recently been revived – directed to the ordinary Muslims, mostly who are non-Arabic speaking or non- experts in the Arabic language. Thus, usually when translation from Arabic to English are made literally as, “all ” or “every ”, it would seem to mean “all without exception.” But is this understanding Qur’anic?All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 28.  In the Qur’an and “Ahadith (As-Sunnah) ”, there are verses which support this understanding - that the term (KULL) although literally mean “all” or “every”, or when the term - (MAA) literally meaning “whatever else“ – are used, they usually imply in the general sense, which does not necessarily mean “absolutely all ”, as though without exception.  To insist only to the rigid literal specific meaning, may in fact be opposed to and contradicting the correct Qur’anic usage.  To illustrate, please reflect on these evidence:All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 29. ONE TEXTUAL BASIS “But when they forget the warning they had received, We opened to them the gates of all (good) things (KULLI-SHAI’), until, in the midst of their enjoyment of Our gifts, on a sudden, We called them to account, when lo! they were plunged in despair!” ( Qur’an: An-’am: 6: 44)  Obviously here, one door of goodness (the exception), which was not opened for them was the door of Mercy.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 30. ANOTHER TEXTUAL BASIS “Have those who disbelieved not considered that the heavens and the earth were a joined entity, and We separated them and made from water every living thing (KULLA-SHAI’-IN HAYYI)? Then will they not believe?” (Qur’an: Anbiya’: 21: 30)  This “every living thing” obviously do not include the angels and spirits whom Allah had created them from light and fire.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 31. ANOTHER TEXTUAL BASIS “Indeed, you [disbelievers] and what (WA MAA) you worship other than Allah are the firewood of Hell. You will be coming to [enter] it.” (Qur’an: An-’am: 21: 98)  If there is no exception to this “what … you worship”, then what would happen to Prophet ‘Isa (Jesus) and his mother a.s. which many Christians worship ? WaAllaahu a’lamAll Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 32. ? ND ING R S TA U NDEWHOS EFROM PREVIOUS LESSONS
  • 33. It is for this reason that Sufyan ibn ‘Uyaynah rhm.a. an illustrious scholar of Hadith, used to say: “(Muslim’s) submitting to the Fuqaha (expert opinions), is safety in (his following) the Deen (religion of Islam)”. FROM PREVIOUS LESSONSAll Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 34. He, Sufyan ibn ‘Uyaynah rhm.a. also used to say: “The Hadith can lead (ignorant people) astray except (when explained by) the FUQAHA (jurists)”. FROM PREVIOUS LESSONSAll Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 35. Imam A’mash rhm. when meeting with Imam Abu Hanifah r.a. was astonished at his response and comment to one Hadith which he just conveyed to Imam Abu Hanifah till he exclaimed: “O Fuqaha (jurists)! You are the physicians (doctors )and we (Muhaddithin – scholars of Hadith) are (only) the dispensers (pharmacists).” FROM PREVIOUS LESSONSAll Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 36. In his Manaqib al-Imam al-Shafii, Imam Taqiuddin al-Subki mentions from al-Bayhaqi, a narration from al-Imam al-Shafii, that he said: "That which is innovated in the religion are of two types: The first, that which is innovated and contradicts the Book or the Sunnah, or a narration or consensus and this is the innovation of misguidance .All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 37. And the second, that which is innovated “ “ from that which is regarded as good, and does not differ from these, then this innovation “ “ is not reprehensible “ “. Umar ibn al-Khattab, radiyaAllahu anhu, said of the standing [in prayer] in the month of Ramadan [i.e. Tarawih] : "A good innovation, this is “ “ meaning, though it was innovated “ “ (without prior existence), yet there was nothing (about it that is) contradicting that which came before/the aforementioned “ "All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 38. So we see clearly that al-Imam al-Shafii mentions that the innovation of misguidance [al-bidatu al-Dalalah] as mentioned in the Hadith only refers to that which contradicts the Book and the Sunnah, or a narration, or Ijma. * In this instance the Prophet s.a.a.w. chose to call the innovations in general terms as “ “ and not “ .“ So should one dislike the term "good bidah" [bidah hasanah], arguing that all bidah is misguidance by definition, then it may simply be argued that this is not “ “ but “ “, and therefore does not fall under that umbrella of “ “. * Not due to absence of examples, but because of it opposing the accepted teachings.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 39. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 40. CONSIDER ANOTHER HADITHAll Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 41. CONSIDER ANOTHER HADITH “Whosoever introduces a way in Islam a good practice (SUNNAH HASANAH), for him will be the reward for (introducing) it, as well as (given the same) reward as others who follow and practice that good act, till the day of judgment. And whosoever introduces a bad practice (SUNNAH SAI-YI-AH), for him will be the sin for (introducing) it, as well as (given the same) sins as others who follow and commit that bad practice, till the day of judgment ” (Hadith reported by Muslim)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 42.  In this Hadith, the usage of the terminology “SUNNAH” should not be mistakenly assumed to mean the “AS-SUNNAH” of our Prophet Muhammad s.a.a.w.  Rather, it simply mean “a way; a practice ” – whether it be a totally “new” way or practice without any precedence or “new” in a customary sense as re-introducing something not commonly done of practiced. Whichever meaning, it cannot be referring to “AS-SUNNAH” which we normally attribute to him (the Prophet s.a.a.w.).  The reason for this is because here he s.a.a.w. mentioned two types of “SUNNAH” - the good and the bad ( “HASSANAH ” and “SAI-YI-AH ”) .All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 43.  Now we already understand “BID’AH” to mean “innovation” : “Introduction or creating something totally new without there being any precedence before it”.  Thus, it would seem that the term “SUNNAH” in this Hadith clearly imply the meaning that the Prophet s.a.a.w. now is stipulating to the doing of any “BID’AH ” (whether it be encouraging or discouraging ).  To those who rigidly advocate the understanding that every form of ”BID’AH ” is misguidance and therefore reprehensible, this Hadith is indeed problematic. In fact this rather support the view that “BID’AH” can be categorized into good “BID’AH HASANAH” or bad “SAY-YI’AH” which (only the later) leads to “DOLAALAH” misguidance.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 44.  Some say that this encouragement to introduce new practice (SUNNAH) is in ‘worldly’ (DUNYAWI) matters and does not involve the ‘religion’ (DEENIYAT). This still would already imply that there can be exception to introducing innovation, i.e. simply by perhaps avoiding the term “BID’AH” and giving it another type of categorization.  Also, can a Muslim’s worldly life (DUNYAWI) be dichotomised from his religion (DEENIYAT) ? The Hadith itself is a general statement and does DEENIYAT not yet make this type of distinction.  General statement in the Qur’an and Ahadith should be accepted as such, thus we are as yet not to constrict our understanding to conform to a specific and narrow interpretation.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 45.  The term “BID’AH” here is general and can (should) be further categorized (according to SHARI’AH) and its ruling regarding it, ascertained by other explicit principle in FIQH rulings – viz. wajib, mustahab (sunnat), harus (ja-iz), makruh and Haram.  Yet there are those who still differ and veemently insist that when something is known to be “BID’AH”, then it must be regarded as reprehensible and Haram. And they further understand rather rigidly that “BID’AH ” to refer to anything (practices or belief) which was never explicitly done by the Prophet s.a.a.w. or by his Companions.  Such rigidity is opposed to our understanding of the MAQASID SHARI’AH, and this would lead to stagnation and must be corrected.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 46.  If such rigidity are not corrected, than the second Hadith would be a contradiction because in it when the Prophet s.a.a.w. states that “Whosoever introduces a new way in Islam a good practice ” it cannot mean something already known to have been previously done by Prophet s.a.w. nor his Companions but rather it implies, some specific practices which was unknown (thus an innovation) but yet consistent with principles in Al-Qur’an and As-Sunnah . Thus by referring to it as SUNNAH (which mean “way”) it does not change the fact that it is still an innovation (new – BID’AH) – albeit when approved or consistent with principles in Qur’an and As-Sunnah, therefore can be rightly term also as “BID’AH HASANAH”.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 47.  And in the Nusantara (S.E. Asia), this has been well understood and was never an issue. Unfortunately there are groups who are now stirring up old “KHILAAFIYAH” issues by redefining the meaning of “BID’AH” and denying validity of “BID’AH HASANAH” or reject applying FIQH rulings - wajib, mustahab (sunnat), harus (ja-iz), makruh and Haram. Arabic Lexicon: there is a Bid’ah : which is not disapproved, termed “Bid’ah mubahah” : [an allowed, or allowable innovation]; which is that whereof the goodness is attested by some principle in the law (SHARI’AH), or which Is required to prevent some cause of evil;All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 48.  With globalization, modern communication and mobility of Islamic propagators into the region, divergent approaches and viewpoints have once again been revived leading to senseless disputes and debates.  It usually is done either because of ignorance of this region’s - Nusantara (S. E. Asia) history and context, or perhaps motivated by bigotry in trying to gain followers to their particular MADZHAB being introduced (or rather asserted) here.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 49.  Yet they still insist that the “all ” here must only mean “every new matter” where the Prophet has never done or known to have specifically approved. Thus they often declare others as being ‘astray’ (misguided) because of their rigid definition of “ BID’AH”. But, as previously explained, the Arabic word ( KULL) used in Qur’an and Ahadith does not always mean “every” without exception, but “mostly”.  Whereas the majority of Islamic scholars here have already rejected, with basis, this rigid literal interpretation. Even in the Qur’an where the term “KULL” ( ) is used, it does not necessarily always mean “all or every ”. Thus this then is “KHILAFIYYAH” issue.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 50.  However, we still need to respect whichever views, whether those who regard the word “KULL” to mean “every ” or “mostly ” – as this is regarded as “KHILAFIYYAH” as long as we avoid engaging in futile argumentation or indulge in accusation of MUBTADI’ (innovators) towards one another that can lead to enmity and disunity.  As regard the “BID’AH ” that is deemed misguidance (DOLAALAH) which is agreed to by all – these are those that pertains to innovated matters of AQEEDAH and ‘IBAADAH which cannot be substantiated at all with revelation (Qur’an and as-Sunnah) or its principles as agreed by the FUQAHA’ guided by the following:All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 51. “The first principle ruling regarding formal worship (rites) is by TAUQIF (reliance upon revelations) and in following (the command).” “The first principle ruling regarding formal worship (rites) is that it be deemed BAATIL (invalid - cannot be followed) until there is a clear proof (basis) of its command.”All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 52. “The first principle ruling regarding matters of ‘ADAT (ways, practices , methods and customs) is that they are deemed permissible,” “The first principle ruling regarding contracts and social transactions is that they are deemed valid, until there is clear proof (basis) that it is BAATIL (invalid) or HARAM (illegal – forbidden)”All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 53. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 54. REFLECT ON THISAll Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 55. REFLECT ON THIS “Know that verily I forbid you from reciting any portions of the Qur’an while you are in RUKU’ (bowing position in SWOLAH) and in SUJUD (prostration).Hence when you are in RUKU’ (bowing) extol glorification (magnify) of Allah and when you are in SUJUD (prostration), strive (exert) in making much DU’A (supplication), surely it (what you ask for therein) will be granted.” (Hadith reported by Muslim, Ahmad, Abu Dawud and Nasa-’ie )All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 56. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 57. HADITH # ١ REFLECT ON THISAll Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 58. HADITH # ١ REFLECT ON THIS “From Abu Hurairah, ‘Verily the Prophet s.a.a.w. said to Bilal : ‘O Bilal! Tell me what is the deeds, after embracing Islam, have you been doing with much hope, because I’ve even heard the thumping of your sandals In Paradise (during Isra’ Mi’raj)? … (Hadith reported by Bukhary, Muslim and Ahmad)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 59. HADITH # ١ REFLECT ON THIS “Then Bilal said: ‘There is no other deeds which I do with much hope than – that each time after I purify myself (with wudhu’), irrespective of whether it be at night or in the daytime, except that I will always perform Swolah with that wudhu’ - (for wudhu’ is that) which has been decreed for the performance of Swolah.” (Hadith reported by Bukhary, Muslim and Ahmad)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 60. HADITH # ۲ REFLECT ON THISAll Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 61. HADITH # ۲ REFLECT ON THISAll Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 62. HADITH # ۲ REFLECT ON THIS “Rifa’ah ibn Rafi-’ie narrated: ‘Once I prayed (Swolah) behind the Prophet s.a.a.w. and I sneezed, and said : AL-HAM-DU-LIL- LAAHI, HAM-DAN KA-TSII-RAN TOY-YIBAN MU-BAA-RA-KAN FEE-HI, KA-MAA -TU-HIB-BU - ROB-BUNAA WA YARD- DWAA – [MEANING]“All the praise is for Allah, with much abundant praise, (the praise which contain every) goodness and blessings which my Lord (Sustainer) loves and is Most pleased with.” ….. (Hadith reported by Tirmidzi and Nasa-’ie)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 63. HADITH # ۲ REFLECT ON THIS “… After the Prophet s.a.a.w. finished the prayer (Swolah) he asked: ‘Who had spoken while praying (just now)? But no one responded. Then he asked the second time. Again no one responded. And the he asked for the third time and Rifa-’ah responded saying: “(Its) Me! O Messenger of Allah!”. Then he (the Prophet s.a.a.w.) said: ‘ (I swear) By the One in Whose hand is my soul ! I saw (thence) )more than thirty angels competing to bring this (praise) up to the heavens.” (Hadith reported by Tirmidzi and Nasa-’ie)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 64. “O ye who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those charged with authority among you. If ye differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger if ye do believe in Allah and the Last Day: that is best, and most suitable for final determination.” (Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 59)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 65. “What! have they partners (in godhead), who have established (rules, laws) for them some religion without the permission of Allah?” (Qur’an: Shura: 46: 21)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 66. “Whoever practices (in this religion) a practice which is not based upon what we have commanded (AMRUNA), that practice is rejected.” (Hadith reported by Bukhary and Ahmad)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 67. “Whoever innovates (bring about a new ways) in our affairs (of religion) which has no basis (from its teachings), it is rejected.” (Hadith reported by Bukhary and Ahmad) AND ALLAH KNOWS ALLAll Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 68. THESE ARE ONLY A FEW AS EXAMPLES …All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 69. “What I have made forbidden to you, avoid; what I have ordered you [to do], do as much of it as you can. It was only their excessive questioning and their disagreeing with their Prophets that destroyed those who came before you.” (Hadith reported by Bukhary & Muslim)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 70.  To those who likes to label (judge) others whom they regard as doing a “ BID’AH “ (doing what the Prophet s.a.a.w. have never done) as wrong because they also regard every type of “ BID’AH” is misguidance and reprehensible – should reflect upon this Hadith.  It can reply to a pertinent question: “If those who does an act (practices) in religion which the Prophet s.a.a.w Sunnah did not specifically shown, is regarded as reprehensible and forbidden, what about those who did not do acts (practices) in religion that the Prophet s.a.a.w. has specifically done ?” “Should it not be that, by not doing (a practice) which the Prophet has indeed done in religion, is also guilty of being contrary to his Sunnah? “All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 71.  If the response is: “It depends .. Since what the Prophet s.a.a.w. ordered for us to do, we are to do only as much as we can” It then beg another question: “How are we to do it? What priority do we follow? … just as we please?” – “NO! of course definitely not.” Since we already know that in accordance with SHARI’AH, as agreed by all MADZAAHIB (by IJMA’ ) it must be in accordance to what Allah and His Prophet s.a.a.w. generally ordered in matters of our religious practices, having different legal emphasis – from it being WAJIB (obligatory), MANDUB (recommended), JAIS (optional), MAKRUH (dislike) and HARAM (forbidden) - we have to comply with this SHARI’AH categorization. Not the simplistic “SUNNAH vs BID’AH” dichotomy. * In FIQH, Bid’ah is not a category of ruling (HUKM)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 72.  Therefore to be consistent, just as in matters of following SUNNAH, likewise in matters of regarding “BID’AH”, this HUKM TAKLIFI of it being either: WAJIB (obligatory), MANDUB (recommended), JAIS (optional), MAKRUH (dislike) and HARAM (forbidden) - are to be applied too.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 73.  Therefore to be consistent, just as in matters of following SUNNAH, likewise in matters of regarding “BID’AH”, this HUKM TAKLIFI of it being either: WAJIB (obligatory), MANDUB (recommended), JAIS (optional), MAKRUH (dislike) and HARAM (forbidden) - are to be applied too. “If anyone contends with (i.e. opposes) the Messenger even after guidance has been plainly conveyed to him, and follows a path other than that becoming to men of Faith, We shall leave him in the path he has chosen, and land him in Hell, what an evil refuge.” (Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 115) WALLAAHU A’LAMAll Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 74. EXAMPLE # 1All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 75. “Verily, action is by intention; and verily the worth (merit) of that action is (to be measured) in accordance with what is intended ... ” (Hadith reported by Bukhary & Muslim)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 76.  “NIYYAT” (intention) is one of the essential for the validity of SWOLAH and all forms of IBAADAH - condition for it being accepted .  Yet, intention can be defined as : “Formulation in a person’s mind- heart, of his conscious action which he is doing, with clarity of its ruling (HUKM) and differentiating it from other actions which may generally be similar, reaffirming the sincerity of purpose to do it for the sake of Allah seeking nearness to Him. As such, it is formulated in the mind-heart In the language which the person understands .”  Verbalizing it upon the tongue is regarded as “ BID’AH ”, since this was not practiced by the Prophet s.a.a.w.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 77.  Yet, to ensure that NIYYAT is formulated, our Islamic scholars compose the required intention that fulfill the SHAR’IE requirement, and this has become a standard instruction in the curriculum which requires the teacher-student to verbalize it. Some, although having learnt that the intention is in the heart-mind and not the tongue, still finds it nececssary to verbalizing it as a means to always remind themselves to consider this important essential of SWOLAH, especially since in the SHAFI-’IE Madzhab , intention must be present at the beginning of the act.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 78.  So, the SHAR-’IE ruling (HUKM) on verbalizing NIYYAT (which although technically is a BID’AH), depends of many factors: [1] If by not verbalizing it, the required intention is not present in the person’s mind at the start of SWOLAH, which therefore rendering it invalid, then to do so - verbalize - is WAJIB (obligatory). [2] For those who do not verbalize it but are able to formulate it in their heart-mind is conforming to the Sunnah, this is highly recommended.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 79.  So, the SHAR-’IE ruling on verbalizing NIYYAT depends of many factors: [3] Some, like the Imam (prayer leader), choose to verbalize it as a continuous instruction to the congregation – many of whom may still require reminders. The ruling for this can be optional ( HARUS), or recommended (MUSTAHAB) or even obligatory (WAJIB). [4] For those who knows how to formulate in the heart-mind, it is dislike (MAKRUH) for them to verbalize aloud without apparent reason-necessity for doing so.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 80.  So, the SHAR-’IE ruling on verbalizing NIYYAT depends of many factors: [5] To regard or assert the view that verbalizing NIYYAT specifically for Swolah (upon the tongue) has been practiced by the Prophet s.a.a.w, is sheer ignorance. WALLAAHU A’LAM MORE EXAMPLES … to be continuedAll Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 81. REMEMBER THIS IMPORTANT COMMAND “O ye who believe! if you are conscious of and fear Allah (TAQWA), He will grant you a criterion (FURQAN-to judge between right and wrong), remove from you (all) evil (that may afflict) you, and forgive you: for Allah is the Lord of grace unbounded.” (Qur’an: Anfaal: 8: 29)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 82. AND ALLAH KNOWS ALLAll Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 83. IMPORTANT DU’A ALLAA-HUM-MA – ARI-NAL-HAQ-QA - HAQ-QAN WAR- ZUQ-NAT - TI-BAA- ’A WA-ARI-NAL – BAA-TWILA – BAA-TWI-LAAN WAR-ZUQ-NAJ – TI –NAA - BAH “O Allah! Make us to see the Truth to be true and grant us ability to follow it. And make us see Falsehood to be false and grant us the ability to reject it.”All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 84. All welcome to visit my web-blog: http://an-naseehah.blogspot.com/ http://introductiontotauhid.blogspot.com/ http://oyoubelievers.blogspot.com/ http://al-amthaal.blogspot.com/ http://zhulkeflee-archive.blogspot.com/ http://criteriaforaholybook-quran.blogspot.com/ http://with-the-truthful.blogspot.com/ http ://muqaddam-nurul.blogspot.com/ 84All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)