[Slideshare] fiqh-course-lesson #2- (sept-2012-batch) -(22-sept-2012)
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[Slideshare] fiqh-course-lesson #2- (sept-2012-batch) -(22-sept-2012) Presentation Transcript

  • 1. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL. “INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF FIQH ” Intermediate Level Islamic course in English for Adults conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (Singapore) LESSON # 2 – THE APPROACHES IN LEARNING FIQH SPECIFIC TO THE CONTEXT OF SINGAPORE And say: O Lord! Increase for me my knowledge Using text & curriculum he has developed especially for Muslim converts and young Adult English-speaking Muslims. “To seek knowledge is obligatory upon every Muslim (male & female)”All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) UPDATED 22 SEPT 2012
  • 2. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 3. “It is He (Allah) Who has sent amongst the Unlettered a messenger (Muhammad) from among themselves, to rehearse to them His Signs, to sanctify them, and to instruct them in Scripture and Wisdom― although they had been, before, in manifest error― .“ (Qur’an: Jumu’ah: 62: 2)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 4.  Allah SWT clearly informs us here the primary function Prophet Muhammad s.a.a.w. was sent for, and he ought to be remembered especially by Muslims - as the educator par excellence for us all.  In this verse, even the methodology in his education follows an ADAB and emphasises the learning from KITAAB (Al-Qur’an) and HIKMAH (Wisdom).All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 5. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 6. “Nor should the Believers all go forth together: if a contingent from every expedition remained behind, they could devote themselves to studies in religion (YU-FAQQIH FID-DEEN) and admonish the people when they return to them― that thus they (may learn) to guard themselves (against evil). "? (Qur’an: Taubah: 9: 122)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 7. “Who is better in speech than one who calls (men) to Allah (DA-’AA- ILALLAH), works righteousness (‘AMALAN SWOLIHA), and says "I am of those who bow in Islam"? (Qur’an: Fussilat: 41: 33)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 8. “O ye who believe! (Be conscious of Allah and) Fear Allah (TAQWA) and be with those who are true (in words and deeds)- AS-SWODIQEEN” (Qur’an: Taubah:9: 119)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 8
  • 9. PROPHET MUHAMMAD S.A.A.W. SAID: We the prophets are commanded to place people according to their station and to speak unto them in accordance with their intellectual capacity. (Hadith reported by Abu Dawud from A’isyah r.a.)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 10. WISE SAYING OF IMAM ‘ALI BIN ABI TOLIB R.A. “A learned FAQIH (scholar & teacher) is truly FAQIH, one who does not cause others to feel despair from receiving the mercy of Allah (i.e. not overly strict and too ‘harsh’); and neither does he (give the impression by his behaviour, a guarantees as if ) anyone can avert or withhold the wrath (punishment) of Allah, nor allows opportunity (by giving dispensation) for anyone to disobey Allah (i.e. being inappropriately lax and too ‘nice’). (Hilyatul-Auliya: 1-73 – as quoted by M.Natsir in Fiqhud-Da’wah)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 11. Imam Muhammad ibnu Sirrin (rhm.a) advices and warns us Muslims: ”Verily this is knowledge (contains the rules) of the DEEN (Religion), so look thoroughly into the person from whom you acquire (the knowledge of) your DEEN (Religion).”All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 12. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 13. ”The similitude of those who were charged with the (obligations of the) Mosaic Law, but who subsequently failed in those (obligations), is that of a donkey which carries huge tomes (but understands them not). Evil is the similitude of people who falsify the Signs of Allah: and Allah guides not people who do wrong.” (Qur’an: Jumu’at: 62: 5)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 14. CONTEXT OF SINGAPOREAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 15. Ever since the colonial days, the education of Muslims has been dualistic :- [1] In learning their religion & religious duty, traditionally it was carried out by the community, as before the coming of the British. [2] Then came the state schooling system – for Malay/Muslims it began with vernacular schools with Islamic knowledge. [3] Later even this were conflated into ‘Integrated schools’ and then Malay/Tamil schools disappeared to become fully English medium schools, and for Muslims, option of learning IRK (Islamic religious knowledge) – but later even the teaching of IRK, was scrapped.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 16. So, in ensuring that the learning and teaching of Islam is sustained, the matter rests entirely with the Muslim community and its infrastructure - Madrasah. The most crucial factor has all along been the Muslim scholars, teachers and philanthropists – they constitute pillars of the traditional Madrasah institution. (Full-time) Students of these Madrasah, although important, their numbers (cohorts) usually were relatively few as most Muslim children opted for the state or national schooling.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 17. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 18. “Nor should the Believers all go forth together: if a contingent from every expedition remained behind, they could devote themselves to studies in religion (YU-FAQQIH FID-DEEN) and admonish the people when they return to them― that thus they (may learn) to guard themselves (against evil). "? (Qur’an: Taubah: 9: 122)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 19. Even so, every Muslim must be made to realise the importance of our community’s dependence upon these traditional Madrasah to generate the crucial life-blood of ‘Ulama (Islamic scholars) and Asaatizah for the present and future generation. Their primary objective has all along been in ensuring, the general Muslims religious education in Fardhu ‘Ain would continue through their graduates. Even without adequate support, compounded with their staff grossly underpaid and relatively deprived of proper training, we Muslims still continue to benefit from them.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 20. Every Muslims here begins with the basic - PRIMER. Traditionally in NUSANTARA, it begins with a concise text like the genre – (kitab): SAFINATUN-NAJAA - FEE-USUUL-AD-DEEN -WA-AL-FIQH Meaning of “FIQH” later became conflated to the understanding merely of the jurisprudence. The original meaning generally encompasses the adequate understanding of the entire DEEN : ( AQEEDAH – FIQH – AKHLAQ ).All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 21. By current convention, the learning of “FIQH” we mean the knowledge of jurisprudence; the knowing of the legal rulings of acts of commission or omission in a Muslim’s life, guided and in compliance with the SHARI’AH (Divine law). And the predominant school of jurisprudence (here for us) has been the SHAFI-’IE MADZHAB. Also, the medium of instruction (lingua franca) regarding Islam in this region NUSANTARA is the Malay or Indonesian language.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 22. CONTEXT OF SINGAPOREAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 23. The traditional Madrasah (religious schools) are geared towards producing Islamic scholars and teachers – who specialises in the sciences of the DEEN. (‘Ulum ad-deen) It was from these that our traditional Islamic religious teachers and scholars attained their education and training. Yet when they teach the general ‘lay’ Muslims, they had to depend upon, or to develop, a modified curriculum for their learning FIQH – more towards guiding them in their practices.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 24. Thus we were fortunate for such capable Islamic scholars / teachers (although only very few) in the past who were able to present, what was needed by general Muslims for their education on Islam, rather than a wholesale regurgitation of the traditional Madrasah curriculum which they themselves had learnt.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 25. Although this approach may have proven to be the most effective and prevalent for the general masses in the past, yet we must ensure that it be constantly revised and further developed in accordance with the context of evolving societal conditions of Muslims. As for those in the full-time Madrasah, due to the specialised nature of their education, it should be separately assessed regarding their contextual needs.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 26. Our suggestion here (in this course module) is for Muslims in general learning Islam outside the Madrasah – which do not need to have similar curriculum. Notwithstanding these general Muslims’ need, there has been a few exceptions amongst them, those more committed who wished for a specialised traditional Curriculum – usually comprising working adults engaged in a life-long continual learning path similar to the full-time Madrasah students.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 27. They were usually enrolled in a private ‘HALAQAH’ (study circle) outside the Madrasah, mostly conducted by very senior Sheikh , for only small selected group of very dedicated ‘lay’ Muslims with passion for such knowledge, and with aspirations to follow in the footsteps of their teachers. Many of these students (of Madrasah or even non-Madrasah) received personal attention of certain Islamic scholars, and later were granted permission to become Islamic teachers and scholars themselves, after undergoing tutelage and mentoring over some years. Much depend on the students’ ADAB and ‘preparedness’.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 28. CONTEXT OF SINGAPOREAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 29. TEACHER : AN IMPORTANT QUALIFICATION When we speak of learning and education in Islam, the role of the learned scholar – MU’ALLIM, the USTAZ (teacher) whose capacity is also as a MU-ADDIB (Educator) who provides IRSHADAH (spiritual guidance) etc., cannot be overlooked. Remember, the ‘ULAMA is an ‘institution’ within the persons or the personalities - and cannot be ‘hijacked’ by the corporate people as though to refer to organizations, bodies, schools etc.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 30. TEACHER : AN IMPORTANT QUALIFICATION The proper development of Islamic teachers : with the correct belief, worldview, passion and committed to DA’WAH, who understand the AMANAH (Trust) which they are supposed to be shouldering, constantly vigilant regarding the challenges to the UMMAH etc. - is the most vital consideration. Without this factor – the teachers, their training and their development - it is rather useless to speak mere of any curriculum or school model or even of university.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 31. TEACHER : AN IMPORTANT QUALIFICATION Unfortunately today, certain people’s obsession with only producing texts, experimenting with educational aids and latest in information technology , overawed by other system of learning, that they inadvertently ignored the difference in the Islamic educational philosophy, the aims, approach and objective etc. until Muslims are learning ‘Islam’ merely as subjects, rather than subjecting themselves to ‘Islam’.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 32. TEACHER : AN IMPORTANT QUALIFICATION Thus, the tendency towards teaching FIQH as subjects to be taught according to whatever text / books popularly chosen may be a predominant approach. And given that most of these books were written as reference manual on FIQH, the class should rather focus on students needs to fulfil their obligation, their understanding of the SHARI’AH, inculcating the appreciation of how relevant these rulings are to Muslims in life, their conviction and commitment towards upholding them. Therefore this depends much upon who is teaching FIQH.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 33. CHALLENGES AND DEVELOPMENT It must be noted that today, with the availability of easy access to books and information on the internet; with greater reliance to self- study rather than undergoing right tutelage under the guidance of competent teachers; with the proliferations of ideologies of groups promoting unknown agendas in the name of Islam; - Muslims being deprived of a competent teacher’s guidance in FIQH should be a very grave concern - indeed.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 34. CHALLENGES AND DEVELOPMENT Indeed it is alarming, with people entering discourses and meddling in Islam beyond their competency (by Muslims and even non- Muslims), and compounded by the relative ignorance of the general Muslims themselves regarding their own basic knowledge of their DEEN. Especially worrying is when this involves specialized fields and subjects regarding our DEEN, for which they do not have any authority to be giving their opinion to the public.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 35. CHALLENGES AND DEVELOPMENT Can any one claim the right to be involved in giving or engaging in serious discourse in other specialised fields like medicine or engineering without adequate knowledge? Or even if one knows something about draughtsmanship or have read medical journals, without the proper training and approval of the true practitioners in their respective fields, messing in these would be deemed a crime – wouldn’t it?All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 36. CHANGE IN LINGUA FRANCA “We sent not a messenger except (to teach) in the language of his (own) people, in order to make (things) clear to them.” (Qur’an: Ibrahim: 14: 4)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 37. CHANGE IN LINGUA FRANCA When the lingua franca for Islamic discourse is predominantly in Malay language, and the continual presence of so many of our traditionally trained ASAATIZAH in our midst (Bahasa Melayu/ Bahasa Indonesia speakers), it has ensured adequate supervision towards overseeing, and if need be, of correcting whatever misconceptions that may arise amongst the general Muslims. But the trend now is that discourses in English has become more predominant and may replace the Malay, as lingua franca especially in the Singapore context.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 38. CHANGE IN LINGUA FRANCA Teaching Islam in English now is increasingly in demand and many classes or courses are eagerly started, but who are teaching these course or classes .. ? Yet, from my experience in this field, the approach in teaching and the curriculum to use, cannot merely be by translating or converting whatever has been done in Malay into English (as some may have simplistically presumed). Or even by transplanting these from other (Western) country, there are issues or concerns – especially with regard to ADAB and respect for what has already been nurtured by our past ‘ULAMA.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 39. CHANGE IN LINGUA FRANCA Also the MAD’U (the audience for DA’WAH and students) their exposure and background, may require special responses – viz. be they converts from other religion, youth, adults, an agnostics, secularist, sceptics, atheists, etc. Do we have these? A concern too, is the proficiency (or rather the lack of it) of many ASAATIZAH in use of English, since the teaching of Faith requires convincing and very engaging , communication skills .All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 40. CHANGE IN LINGUA FRANCA Qualified graduates from Islamic learning centres, even those proficient in English, are advised to refer to or (if they have any humility) to spend some time to learn from those with much experience, especially those who have already been involved for years in this field locally - rather than trying to ‘re-invent the wheel ’. Especially useful is to know the kind of ‘questions, arguments and concerns ’ which contemporary audience frequently posed, and how to effectively address them.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 41. CHANGE IN LINGUA FRANCA Importing and indiscriminate use of foreign ‘talents’ without seeking advice from local Islamic scholars and teachers is sign of our lacking in ADAB. ‘Education’ should be regarded like nurturing of seeds and plants, and the teachers or educators like the “gardeners” : whose knowledge, experience and their love, affection, commitment to their growing plant cannot be easily replaced. “Apprenticeship” (or mentoring) of those intending to take-over their role must be done – especially teaching Islam in English. Have this been seriously and adequately done? And by whom?All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 42. CONTEXT OF SINGAPOREAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 43. DEPENDING UPON NEEDS – AIM OF LEARNING FIQH The traditional approach for teaching and learning FIQH is towards becoming a religious scholars or teachers. For these, their curriculum on FIQH is similar or equivalent to that in full-time Madrasah and may prepare such students with one of the qualification for pursuing further studies in higher centres of learning – specializing in Islamic studies. This may not be suitable for most of the Muslims (generally).All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 44. DEPENDING UPON NEEDS – AIM OF LEARNING FIQH NOTE: Those aiming to be scholars must not regard that with this component/subject FIQH alone, as being adequate for it must include also other related field of specialised studies viz. Arabic, Qur’an, ‘Ulum-al-Qur’an, Tafsir, Ahadith, ‘Ulum al-Hadith, Seerah, Tarikh, Usul-Fiqh, Aqeedah, Akhlaq, Da’wah etc. because Islamic scholars cannot go into specialization without adequate learning in (eclectic) sciences of the DEEN.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 45. THE CURRICULUM – (GENERAL) Here, I am sharing what I’ve envisaged (and which I am continuously implementing) as the curriculum in learning FIQH for new Muslims (in English) – or for those who may only be able to attend classes for a short duration (perhaps once a week). Their needs in FIQH are somewhat different from those intending to be specialist in the knowledge of the DEEN.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 46. THE CURRICULUM – (GENERAL) Also of late, many confusion did arose when matters of “KHILAAFIYAH” (Difference of opinion amongst the MADZAAHIB) were callously introduced by certain groups. Perhaps in seeking followers, some may resort with utter inconsiderateness (even stooping to instigation) their ‘critique’ or by belittling certain opinions of predominant school MADZHAB which most Muslims here have already been earlier taught.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 47. THE CURRICULUM – (GENERAL) Also, many may have gone on to study FIQH without being adequately introduced to this field of study - how it is placed within the overall educational need of a Muslim – the bigger schema; aim and purpose of the study; relevant history of its development; how to learn; etc. This knowledge is crucial. In accordance with ADAB, all these should be provided in what we termed “Introductory Module” - MUQADDIMAH .All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 48. THE CURRICULUM – (GENERAL) We fear for the possible loss of ADAB amongst these students and the danger of ‘anarchy’ as some in their ignorance, even are advocating the doing away of the need to follow MADZHAB itself. We are not against their learning comparative schools of Islamic jurisprudence : MADZAAHIB (as an advanced study module) but this is reserved only for those who are already competent in the initial MADZHAB they were on, and who knows and have the ADAB in matters of KHILAAFIYAH.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 49. REVISITING THE “TAUHEEDIC PARADIGM” CHART - IN A MUSLIM’S EDUCATION * From Fardhu ‘Ain class slides & “Beginners Manual on Islam” - AddendumAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 50. Tauheedic paradigm ‘ILM FIQH (Practical Laws for life; Learning of the Shari’ah)   Purpose / Objective Development of Correct Practices; Submission & Obedience to Will of Allah (Islam) What is involved? Knowing the law, rules as Guidance to every aspect of life Capability to implementing them in life What is the Effect? To develop a community of people, Inviting to what is good Enjoining what is right, and forbidding evil, Advocating the fulfilment of AMANAH (Trust) As Allah’s Khalifah (vicegerent), Establishing the Brotherhood of Man in The servitude of One God.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 51. Tauheedic paradigm ‘ILM FIQH (Practical Laws for life; Learning of the Shari’ah)   Purpose / Objective Development of Correct Practices; BROAD EXTENT&OF TOPICSof Allah (Islam) Submission Obedience to Will COVERED IN FIQH ‘ibadah (personal devotion / worship) Muamalah (social transaction) What is involved? Munakahah (Marriage & family) aspect of life Knowing the law, rules as Guidance to every Irth / fara’idimplementing them in life Capability to (Distribution of wealth) Jinayah (crimes & punishment) What is the Effect? Qodha’iyah (judiciary) To develop a community of people, Inviting to what is good (struggle in war & peace) jihad / Da’wah Enjoining what is right, and forbidding evil, imarah (Leadership/government) Advocating the fulfilment of AMANAH (Trust) As Allah’s Khalifah (vicegerent), Establishing the Brotherhood of Man in The servitude of One God.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 52. Tauheedic paradigm ‘ILM FIQH RELEVANT COMPLEMENTARY (Practical Laws for life; KNOWLEDGE: Learning of the Shari’ah) All applied sciences, technology   and skills, knowledge of economics, politics, Purpose / Objective Development of Correct Practices; social & administrative Submission & Obedience to Willassist in the sciences etc. that can of Allah (Islam) fulfilment of establishing justice, order, peace, What is involved? harmony, prosperity, physical Knowing the law, rules as Guidance to every aspect of life with moral progress, and them well-being Capability to implementing the in life of Man & society, etc. What is the Effect? To develop a community of people, Inviting to what is good Enjoining what is right, and forbidding evil, Advocating the fulfilment of AMANAH (Trust) As Allah’s Khalifah (vicegerent), Establishing the Brotherhood of Man in The servitude of One God.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 53.  However in Singapore, where Muslims generally attend part-time classes on Islam (usually only once a week), it would not be possible to follow this curriculum / quantum (unless for the exceptional few who can give more of their time and be fully committed to engage in regular Halaqah, as stipulated by mentor / Sheikh).  Therefore, the following (is our suggestion) here is meant for the general Muslims or new Muslims (convert or novice), as introduction to learning FIQH (part-time). MUQADDIMAH: THE SEQUENCE OF TOPIC – SPECIFIC OBJECTIVEAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 54. MUQADDIMAH: THE SEQUENCE OF TOPIC – SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE Below are the major suggested topics, I have incorporated: ADAB IN LEARNING WHAT IS SHAR’IAH? OVERVIEW AND INTRODUCTION TO MADZHAB KNOWING RELEVANT HISTORY AND CONTEXT (WAQI’IY) PRIORITY OF THE SUBJECT TO LEARN (AWLAAWIYYA) LEARNING KNOWLEDGE (FIQH) FOR APPLICATION IN LIFE.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 55. TO BE CONTINUEDAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 56. “O Allah! Make us see the Truth to be true and grant us the ability to follow it. And make us see Falsehood to be false and grant us the ability to reject it.”All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 57. And salutations of Allah and Peace be upon our Leader Muhammad, and upon His household and Companions .All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 58. And all the Praises belongs to Allah, Lord Sustainer of all the worldAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • 59. All welcome to visit my web-blog: http://an-naseehah.blogspot.com/ http://introductiontotauhid.blogspot.com/ http://oyoubelievers.blogspot.com/ http://al-amthaal.blogspot.com/ http://zhulkeflee-archive.blogspot.com/ http://criteriaforaholybook-quran.blogspot.com/ http://with-the-truthful.blogspot.com/ http ://muqaddam-nurul.blogspot.com/All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )