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  • Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail

[Slideshare] fiqh-course #4a-(feb-2013-batch)-historyof madzahib(6-march-2013) [Slideshare] fiqh-course #4a-(feb-2013-batch)-historyof madzahib(6-march-2013) Presentation Transcript

  • IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL. “INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF FIQH ” Intermediate Level Islamic course in English for Adults conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail LESSON # 4a – PRESERVATION OF PRIMARY SOURCES AND BRIEF HISTORY OF MADZAAHIB And say: O Lord! Increase for me my knowledge Using text & curriculum he has developed especially for Muslim converts and young Adult English-speaking Muslims. “To seek knowledge is obligatory upon every Muslim (male & female)”All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  • PROPHET MUHAMMAD AS THE SOURCE FOR GUIDANCEAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  • PROPHET MUHAMMAD AS THE SOURCE FOR GUIDANCE “ Verily, in the Messenger of Allah you have a good example for everyone who looks forward (with hope and awe) to Allah and the Last day, and who engages in the remembrance of Allah unceasingly.” (Qur’an : Al-Ahzab : 33 : 21)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  • PROPHET MUHAMMAD AS THE SOURCE FOR GUIDANCEAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  • PROPHET MUHAMMAD AS THE SOURCE FOR GUIDANCE “……and neither does he speak out of his own desire : that (which he conveys to you) is but (a divine) inspiration with which he is being inspired - something that a very mighty one has imparted to him……” (Qur’an : An-Najm : 53 : 3-4)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  • PROPHET MUHAMMAD AS THE SOURCE FOR GUIDANCEAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  • PROPHET MUHAMMAD AS THE SOURCE FOR GUIDANCE “Hence, accept (willingly) whatever the Messenger gives you (thereof), and refrain from (demanding) anything that he withholds from you; and remain conscious of Allah : for verily, Allah is severe in retribution.” (Qur’an : Al-Hashr : 59 : 7)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  • PROPHET MUHAMMAD AS THE SOURCE FOR GUIDANCE “For We have never sent any Messenger except that he should be heeded (obeyed) by Allah’s leave”. (Qur’an : An-Nisa : 4 : 64)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  • PROPHET MUHAMMAD AS THE SOURCE FOR GUIDANCEAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  • PROPHET MUHAMMAD AS THE SOURCE FOR GUIDANCE “But nay. By thy Sustainer! They do not [really] believe unless they make thee [O Prophet] the judge of all on which they disagree among themselves, and then find in their hearts no resistance against thy decision, but accept it in full submission.” (Qur’an : An-Nisa : 4 : 65)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  • PROPHET MUHAMMAD AS THE SOURCE FOR GUIDANCEAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  • PROPHET MUHAMMAD AS THE SOURCE FOR GUIDANCE “The answer of the Believers when summoned to Allah and His Messenger in order that He may judge between them, is no other than this: they say "We hear and we obey": it is such as these that will attain felicity.” (Qur’an : An-Nur : 24 :51 )All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  • PROPHET MUHAMMAD AS THE SOURCE FOR GUIDANCEAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  • PROPHET MUHAMMAD AS THE SOURCE FOR GUIDANCE “ Now whenever Allah and His Messenger have decided a matter, it is not for a believing man or a believing woman to claim freedom of choice insofar as they themselves are concerned; for he who (thus) rebels against Allah and His Messenger has already, most obviously, gone astray.” (Qur’an : Al-Ahzab : 33 :36 )All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  • PROPHET MUHAMMAD AS THE SOURCE FOR GUIDANCEAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  • PROPHET MUHAMMAD AS THE SOURCE FOR GUIDANCE “He (Allah) it is who has sent unto the unlettered people a Messenger from among themselves, to convey unto them His messages, and to cause them to grow in purity, and to impart unto them the divine Writ as well as Wisdom - whereas before that they were indeed, most obviously, lost in error …. ” (Qur’an : Al-Jumu’ah : 62 :2)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  • PROPHET MUHAMMAD AS THE SOURCE FOR GUIDANCEAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  • PROPHET MUHAMMAD AS THE SOURCE FOR GUIDANCE “…. and (to cause the message to spread) from them unto other people as soon as they come into contact with them : for He (Allah) alone is almighty, truly wise ! ” (Qur’an : Al-Jumu’ah : 62 :3)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  • PROPHET MUHAMMAD AS THE SOURCE FOR GUIDANCEAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  • PROPHET MUHAMMAD AS THE SOURCE FOR GUIDANCE “O You who believe ! Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger, and those charged with authority from among you. If you differ in anything among yourselves, refer it back to Allah and to His Messenger, if you do believe in Allah and the Last day : That is best and most suitable for final determination.” (Qur’an : An-Nisa’ : 4 :59)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  • All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  • “And I leave behind me for you all, for clarifying in your affairs (of this religion), whosoever holdfast to them shall never be led astray – (these are) the Book of Allah and the Sunnah (Way or tradition) of His Messenger.” (From Sermon reported by Ibnu Hisham in his “Seerah” )All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • “Verily, I am leaving behind me for you all, whosoever clings to them shall never be astray after this till the hereafter :- the Book of Allah - the rope stretched from heaven to the earth; and my ‘itrah’ [progeny] from my Household – These two will never be separated from each other until they return upon the Pool (in Paradise). See that you do not differ from (the guidance of) these two after me.” (Hadith reported by Tirmidzi)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • “We (Allah) have, without doubt, send down the Message (Al-Qur’an) And We will assuredly guard it (from corruption)” (Qur’an: Surah al- Hijr: 15: 9)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • Prophetic Revelation to Prophet Era Muhammad * memorised * Dictated13 BH – 10 AH * Recorded * Collated * Counter- checkedAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • Battle of Yamamah 1st Mushaf * original materials which have been recorded by the Prophet’s scribe 12 AH were sorted out, checked and bound into a single Book.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • Expansion of Islam Mushaf • Uthman’s recension - Uthmani 7 official copies made from the 1st Mushaf – these sent to all Islamic centres 30 AH accompanied by a Reciter (muqri’) • (extant copies of these are available even to this day)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • Diacritical (Science) Ilmu- Qira’atil Qur’an marking * inclusion of markings to the script conforming 65 AH with Prophet’s recitation, and to facilitate non-Arab learning recitationAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • Compare with verses inthe present Mushaf TextAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • Compare with verses inthe present Mushaf TextAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • MUSHAF From Mushaf Uthmani, text FUAD compiled at AL- AZHAR with one of the original 1342 AH manner of Recitation which has been famously preserved - from HAFASH.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • SCHOOLS OF RECITATION (QIRA’AT) STILL BEING PRESERVED AND TAUGHT – THE QIRA’AT OF :  Imam Nafe’ Madani (teacher of Qaalun – Warash)  Imam Ibn Kathir Makki  Imam Abu ‘Umar Basri  Imam Ibn ‘Amir Shami  Imam ‘Asim Kufi (teacher of Hafs) THE MOST WIDESPREAD  Imam Hamza Ziyat Kufi  Imam Abul Hassan Kasa-i  Imam Abu Jafar Gazid Al-Madani  Imam Abu Gaqarb  Imam KhalafAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • Hafash ‘Asim ibn Abin Nujud Abi Abdur Rahman Abd ibn Habib as-Sulaimi ‘Ali Abi Talib Uthman ‘Affan Zaid Tsabit Ubay Ka’ab Holy Prophet Muhammad s.a.a.w.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • MUSHAF Commissioned by Saudi King, text MADINAH using the Rasm’ Uthmani - 1403 AH following strictly (1980) the spelling, letter for letter, identical to Mushaf Uthmani.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • “And upon thee (too) have We bestowed from on high this reminder, so that thou (Muhammad) might make clear unto mankind all that has ever been thus bestowed upon them, and that they might take thought. (Qur’an : An-Nahl : 16: 44)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • (Qur’an : al-Baqarah : 2 : 43) But the Qur’an does not provide the detail, thus the Prophet (pbuh) said :All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 43
  • “ .....and be constant in ‘as-Solah’ (that is the fixed obligatory daily prayer)…” (Qur’an : al-Baqarah : 2 : 43) But the Qur’an does not provide the detail, thus the Prophet (pbuh) said : “Establish ‘as-Solah’ as you see me do” (Hadith reported by Bukhary)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 44
  • …(it means) : “the way ... or ... the law “ It is usually used to indicate the practice or the teachings of our Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and are divided into : Qau-liyyah (sayings) Taqririyyah (consent) Fi’liyyah (actions) Hammiyyah (resolve)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 45
  • …(it means) : “the way ... or ... the law “ HADITH REGARDING ‘SUNNAH QAULIYYAH’ IS GENERALLY DIVIDED INTO TYPES HADITH QUDSI HADITH NABAWWIY The Prophet saying but he indicates the quote to be God’s Direct statement of the Prophet words which are other than those in Qur’anAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 46
  • All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • Prophet (pbuh) taught by : (1) Verbal teaching (2) Written medium (dictation to scribes) (3) Practical demonstrationAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 48
  • …(Plural is “AHADITH” - it means) : “the news , the report ..or .. narration“ It is usually used to refer to the report or sayings, transmitted through a chain of people, and originated from or up to the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). Thus a “Hadith” contains the “Sunnah”All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 49
  • “An Ansarite complained to the Prophet (pbuh) that he had weak memory and that he easily forgot the Prophet’s instructive discourses. The Prophet (pbuh) replied : “Take the aid of thy right hand (i.e. write it down).” (Hadith reported by at-Tirmidzi)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 50
  • Abdallah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-’As, a young Meccan had a habit of writings down all that the Prophet used to say. Abdallah went to the Prophet and asked him if one could note all that he said. He replied :”Yes”. Abdallah persisted :”Even when thou art happy and satisfied, even when thou art annoyed ?” The Prophet said : “Of course, by Allah ! Nothing that comes out of this mouth is ever a lie.” (Hadith reported by at-Tirmidzi)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 51
  • DID THE PROPHET S.A.A.W. EVER FORBADE ?  Yes, there is a report (Hadith) in which in contain words in which the Prophet s.a.w. “forbade” the writing of anything which he had uttered except the Qur’an.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 52
  • DID THE PROPHET S.A.A.W. EVER FORBADE ?  Islamic scholars all understood this Hadith to refer to a specific contexts – instructions to scribes to whom the Prophet was dictating the revelations to; as also when to new converts in their learning , he emphasized firstly the Qur’an, but they were eager to take notes of everything, which if not corrected, the possibility of them confusing the Qur’an with the Prophets’ words on their notations.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 53
  • DID THE PROPHET S.A.A.W. EVER FORBADE ?  Proof is that this Hadith was narrated from companions whom were known to have written down Hadith in their lifetime.  Thus, this instruction may have been given to them in a certain context – not an absolute instruction.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 54
  • DID THE PROPHET S.A.A.W. EVER FORBADE ?  Also, there exist evidence of many letters, dictations, orders, treaties, etc. from the Prophet s.a.w. – which indicate the permissibility of writing down Hadith.  Thus those who says the Hadith was never written during the time of the Prophet s.a.w. is not correct.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 55
  • (1) Sama’ - reading by teacher (2) ‘Ardl - reading to teacher (3) Ijazah - confer permission (4) Munawalah - conferring the materials to be copied (5) Mukatabah – writing , correspondence (6) I’lam - conferring authority (7) Wasiyah - bequeathing books (8) *Wijadah - writings which are found * Not authorized to use except after verificationAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 56 by the “Rawi” concerned
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  • It contains two parts : ISNAD (chain of narrators of the report) (the content of the teaching from MATN the Prophet [pbuh])All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 58
  • Example of Hadith Imam Bukhary -reported ISNAD from Musa from Abu ‘Awanah from Abu Hussain from Abu Hurayrah - who heard Prophet Muhammad [pbuh] said : MATNAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 59
  • Example of Hadith Imam Bukhary -reported ISNAD from Musa from Abu ‘Awanah from Abu Hussain from Abu Hurayrah - who heard Prophet Muhammad [pbuh] said : “Whosoever fabricates falsehood intentionally against me, let him seek his abode in hell-fire.” MATNAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 60
  • According to the number of “Isnad” MUTAWWATIR a “Sunnah” reported by 4 or more chains of narrators (ISNAD)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 61
  • THIS TYPE OF HADITH IS UNIVERSALY ACCEPTED AS MOST AUTHENTIC Al-Bukhary Muslim Ad-Darimi Abu Dawud Ibn Majah Musa Ali al-Hidir Muhammad b Esa ‘Amr b ‘Aun Muhamad b Ramh Abu ‘Awanah Ali b Mushir Haitsam Musaddad Al-Laits Abu Hussain Muhammad b Qais Abu Zubair Wabrah Abnu Shihab Abu Hurairah Ali b Rabi’ah Jabir ‘Amir Anas Al-Mughirah Abdullah b Zubair Az-Zubair At-Tirmidzi Ath-Thayalisi Abu Hanifah Ath-Thabrani Al-Hakim Abu Hisham Abdur Rahman ‘Athiyah Abu Ishaq Abul-Fadl b Al-Husain Abu Bakr b Ayyasy Abis-Zinad Abi Sa’ied al-Khudri Ibrahim Muhamad b A Wahab ‘Ashim Amr b Sa’ied Nubaith b Ja’afar b ‘Aun Zirr Uthman Syarieth Abu Hayyan Ibnu Mas’ud Jazid b Hayyan Zaid b ArqamAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • THIS TYPE OF HADITH IS UNIVERSALY ACCEPTED AS MOST AUTHENTIC Al-Bukhary Muslim Ad-Darimi Abu Dawud Ibn Majah Musa Ali al-Hidir Muhammad b Esa ‘Amr b ‘Aun Muhamad b Ramh Abu ‘Awanah Ali b Mushir Haitsam Musaddad Al-Laits Abu Hussain Muhammad b Qais Abu Zubair Wabrah Abnu Shihab Abu Hurairah Ali b Rabi’ah Jabir ‘Amir Anas Al-Mughirah Abdullah b Zubair Az-Zubair “Whosoever fabricates falsehood intentionally against me, let him seek his abode in hell-fire.” At-Tirmidzi Ath-Thayalisi Abu Hanifah Ath-Thabrani Al-Hakim Abu Hisham Abdur Rahman ‘Athiyah Abu Ishaq Abul-Fadl b Al-Husain Abu Bakr b Ayyasy Abis-Zinad Abi Sa’ied al-Khudri Ibrahim Muhamad b A Wahab ‘Ashim Amr b Sa’ied Nubaith b Ja’afar b ‘Aun Zirr Uthman Syarieth Abu Hayyan Ibnu Mas’ud Jazid b Hayyan Zaid b ArqamAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • According to the number of “Isnad” MUTAWWATIR a “Sunnah” reported by 4 or more chains of narrators (ISNAD) VERY RELIABLEAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 64
  • According to the number of “Isnad” MUTAWWATIR AHAD a “Sunnah” reported a “Sunnah” reported by 4 or more chains by 3 or less chains of narrators (ISNAD) of narrators (ISNAD) RELIABILITY DEPENDS ON VERY RELIABLE STRENGTH OF CHAINAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 65
  • THE RATIONALE: “THE STRENGTH OF A CHAIN IS AT THE WEAKEST LINK” “Therefore if only one link (narrator) in a report is weak, the whole report is to be regarded as weak.”All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • THE RATIONALE: “AN OBJECT MUST ALSO BE SUPPORTED BY AT LEAST ONE OTHER SEPARATE CHAIN TO BE REGARDED SAVE AND RELIABLE” “Therefore a report which cannot be independently corroborated is ground for it being regarded as weak or unreliable.”All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • THE RATIONALE: “A CHAIN MUST BE CONTINUOUSLY LINKED TO THE SOURCE OF WHICH IT IS SUPPOSED TO BE CONNECTED” “Therefore a report which has gaps in the links (of narrators) is a reason for its rejection.”All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • Further categorization of “AHAD” hadith on the basis of number of Chains. Mash-hur Aziz Gharib (well-known) (strong) (rare) Narrated by way Narrated by way Narrated by way of 3 chains of 2 chains of a single chains CAN BE CONSIDERED CAN BE CONSIDERED FOR FURTHER FOR FURTHER BASED ON ISNAD USUALLY CATERGORIZATION CATERGORIZATION THIS CATEGORY IS REJECTEDAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 69
  • Al-‘ilm al-Jarh wa al-Ta’dil (The knowledge of invalidating and declaring reliable of Hadith)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • Checking upon the “ISNAD” (chain of narrators) Checking upon the “MATN” (the text) Checking the integrity of the “RAWI” (the narrators)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 71
  • Detailed account of every narrators (SAHABI, TABI’IN, TABI’- TABI’IN), compiled and verified. Their strength and weakness subjected to scrutiny Grading them according grades of reliability (‘Adl, Tsiqa, Saduq, Saduq yahim, Maqbul, Layyin) Even those unreliable were identified (Majhul, Muttaham bil-kadzib, Kadzaab)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 72
  • Ahadith which are “MASH-HUR” or “AZIZ “ Maqbul Mardud (Accepted) ( Rejected ) Shahih Hassan Dho’if Maudhu’ Authentic Good Weak FabricationAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 73
  • Due to defects of the narrator. Due to discontinuity in the chain. Due to incidental reasons.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 74
  • Continuity of the chain Integrity of the transmitter (narrator) Soundness of narrator’s memory Conformity to stronger sources Absence of hidden defectsAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 75
  • All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • Not contrary to Qur’an & authentic Ahadith Not illogical, against common law Not out of proportion Not containing too much detail on prophecy Not contrary to the position of the Prophet (pbuh) Personal praise or condemnation of any Companions, tribes or places is suspect.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 77
  • THESE WERE COMPILED AFTER IMAM ASH-SHAFI’IE PERIOD As- S a h i h - Imam Bukhary Al-Musnad as- S a h i h - Imam Muslim Sunan - Imam Abu Dawud Sunan al-Mujtaba - Imam An-Nasa’i Sunan - Imam At-Tirmidzi Sunan - Imam Ibnu MajahAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 78
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  • AL-QUR’AN , THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD AND THOSE APPOINTED AS THE SOURCE FOR GUIDANCEAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • AL-QUR’AN , THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD AND THOSE APPOINTED AS THE SOURCE FOR GUIDANCE “O You who believe ! Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger, and those charged with authority from among you. If you differ in anything among yourselves, refer it back to Allah and to His Messenger, if you do believe in Allah and the Last day : That is best and most suitable for final determination.” (Qur’an : An-Nisa’ : 4 :59)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • “(‘Ali ibn Abi Talib r.a. said) “I asked: ‘O Messenger of Allah! (What are we to do when) matters come before us wherewith there is no (explicit) indication regarding them in the Qur’an nor in the Sunnah from you regarding them (regarding its ruling)?’ (The Prophet s.a.w.) he said: “You are to gather together the learned (‘ulama) amongst them” – or he may have said “The worshippers (‘abideen ) from amongst the Believers” – “Convene with them shura (mutual consultations to derive a collective decision) in regard to religious rulings. Do not decide based upon (idea or knowledge of) only one (singular) person’s thought.” (Hadith reported by Ibnu Abdil Barr)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • (When the Prophet s.a.w. was about to send Muadz ibn Jabal r.a. to Yemen) he said (to Muadz): “How would you judge (give religious decision for people)? “ He (Muadz) replied: “(I will judge) With what is in the Book of Allah”. Rasulullah then said: “What if you cannot find (any) in it?” Muadz replied: “(Then, I will judge) with the Sunnah of Rasulullah s.a.w.”. Rasulullah then said: “What if you cannot find in the Sunnah?” He replied :”( Then) I will make ‘ijtihad (exertion) with my reasoning.” (Then the Rasulullah s.a.w.) he said: “All praise be to Allah Who granted taufiq (success in this test) for the messenger of Allah’s messenger!”. (Hadith reported by Tirmidzi)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
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  • “(Honour) My successors, may Allah s.w.t. be Merciful towards them!.” He was asked: “Who are your successors O Messenger of Allah?” And he said: “They are those who revive my Sunnah and teaches them to the servants of Allah.” (Hadith of the Prophet s.a.w.)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
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  • “And whoever amongst you lives after me will see many conflicts (disagreements), let him then adhere to whatever they know o f my Sunnah and the Sunnah of my Rightly guided Khalifah.” (Hadith reported by Ahmad)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
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  • “The best of mankind – (believers) – are in my generation, then (a generation) after it, and then (another generation) after that.” (Hadith reported by Bukhary and Muslim)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • COMPANIONS WHO GAVE MANY FATWAS ‘UMAR IBN AL-KHATTAB R.A. ‘ALI IBN ABI TALIB R.A. IBN MAS-UD R.A. IBN ‘UMAR R.A. IBN ABBAS IBN ABDUL MUTALIB R.A. ZAYD IBN TSAABIT R.A.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • THOSE WHO GAVE FATWA A’ISHAH BNTE ABU BAKR R.A. IN MADINA AL-MUNAWWARAH ‘ABDULLAH IBN UMAR R.A. ABU HURAYRAH R.A. SA-’ID AL-MUSAYYAB AL-MAKHZUMI R.A. URWAH BIN ZUBAYR BIM AWWAM R.A. ‘ALI BIN HUSSAYN ZEIN AL-’AABIDEEN R.A. MUHAMMAD BIN ‘ALI BIN HUSSAYN AL-BAQIR R.A.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • THOSE WHO GAVE FATWA IN MAKKAH AL-MUKARRAMAH ‘ABDULLAH IBN ABBAS IBN ABDUL MUTTALIB R.A. IKRIMAH (MAULA OF IBNU ABBAS) R.A. MUJAHID IBN JABR (MAULA OF BANI MAKHZUM) R.A. ATHA’ IBN ABI RABAH (MAULA OF QURAYSH) R.A. ABU ZUBAYR MUHAMMAD IBN MUSLIM R.A.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • THOSE WHO GAVE FATWA IN KUFA (SECOND CAPITAL) ALQAMAH IBN QAIS AN-NAKHA-’IE R.A. AL-ASWAD IBN YAZID AN-NAKHA-’IE R.A. IBRAHIM IBN YAZID AN-NAKHA-’IE R.A. MASRUQ IBN AJDA’ AL-HAMDANI R.A. UBAYDAH IBN ‘AMIR AS-SILMANI AL-MURADI R.A. SHURAIH IBN HARITH AL-KINDI R.A. SA-’EED IBN JUBAYR (MAULA WALIBAH) R.A.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • THOSE WHO GAVE FATWA IN BASRA (IRAQ) ANAS IBN MALIK AL-ANSARIY R.A. ABU ‘ALIYA RAFI’ IBN MAHRAN AR-RAYANI R.A. HASSAN IBN HASSAN YASSAR (MAULA ZAID IBN TSABIT) R.A. ABU SHA’-TSA JABIR IBN ZAID (IBN ABBAS COMPANION) R.A. MUHAMMAD IBNU SIRRIN (MAULA OF ANAS IBN MALIK) R.A. QATADAH IBN DI-’AMAH AD-DAUSI R.A.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • THOSE WHO GAVE FATWA IN SHAM (SYRIA) ‘ABDUR RRAHMAN IBN GHUNMIN AL-ANSARIY R.A. ‘AIDZULLAH IBN ‘ABDULLAH AL-KHULANI R.A. QABISHAH IBN DZUAIB R.A. QABISHAH IBN DZUAIB R.A. ‘UMAR IBN ‘ABDUL AZIZ IBN MARWAN R.A. RAJA’ AL-HAYAH AL-KINDI R.A.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • THOSE WHO GAVE FATWA IN MISR’ (EGYPT) ‘ABDULLAH IBN ‘AMR AL-’ASH R.A. ABUL KHAYR MARTSAD IBN ‘ABDULLAH AL-YAZINI R.A. YAZIB IBN ABUL HABIB (MAULA AL-AZDI) R.A. THOSE WHO GAVE FATWA IN YEMEN THAWUS IBN KAISAN AL-JUNDI R.A. WAHAB IBN MUNABBIH AS-SAN’AANI R.A. YAHYA IBN ABU KATSIR R.A.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • PERIOD OF CONSOLIDATION AND FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF THE VARIOUS SCIENCES ‘ILM AL-QIRA’AT WA AL-TAFSIR ‘ILM AL-HADITH - SEERAH ‘ILM AL-FIQH WAL USUL-AL-FIQH ‘ILM AL-KALAM ‘ILM JARH WA TA’DIL – ‘ILM MUSTALAH AL-HADITH ‘ILM TASAWWUF –TAZKIYAH AN-NUFUS ETC..All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) )
  • “Those who listen to the Word, and follow the best (meaning) in it: those are the ones whom Allah has guided, and those are the ones endued with understanding.” (Qur’an: Az-Zumar:39:18)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • FOUNDERS OF MADZAAHIB IN FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE) IMAM JA’FAR IBN MUHAMMAD AS-SODIQ R.A. (83 AH - 198 AH)  Born in Madinah, he belongs to the illustrious family of the Prophet’ s household (AHLUL BAYT) through Imam Muhammad al- Baqir ibn ‘Imam Ali ibn Imam Hussain ibn Imam ‘Ali ibn Abi Tolib with Sayyidatina Fatimah Az-Zahra binte Rosulillah s.a.a.w.  Regarded as the sixth Imam of the Shiite, he was also the teachers of many scholars including Sunni Imams like Malik and even Abu Hanifah.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • FOUNDERS OF MADZAAHIB IN FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE) IMAM JA’FAR IBN MUHAMMAD AS-SODIQ R.A. (83 AH - 198 AH)  Because of persecution by the ruling powers of the ‘Ummayad and the Abbasid, the Shi’ite Madzhab later evolved separately from the mainstream Sunni schools through the subsequent Imams from his descendants.  The other branch of Shi’ite evolved earlier was the Zaydi which refer to the followers of Imam Zayd ibn ‘Ali (Zayn al-’Abidin) ibn Hussain ibn ‘Ali ibn ‘Abi Tolib.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • FOUNDERS OF MADZAAHIB IN FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE) IMAM ABU HANIFAH AL-NU’MAN BIN TSABIT R.A. (80 AH - 150 AH)  A Tabi’in born in Kufah and had studied under many surviving Ashaabi Rasul (Prophet’s companions) there such as Anas ibn Malik, Sahl ibn Sa’ad etc. and learnt many Ahadith from them.  After learning under many scholars in Kufah, he went on to Makkah and Madinah to take knowledge from many other scholars who were students of well-known companions and other Tabi’in scholars there.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • FOUNDERS OF MADZAAHIB IN FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE) IMAM ABU HANIFAH AL-NU’MAN BIN TSABIT R.A. (80 AH - 150 AH)  Although he too regarded the Qur’an, Sunnah and Ijma’ as the important primary sources, he had limited access to much of Ahadith in Kufah (unlike Imam Malik in Madinah). Thus he was best known for the use of juristic analogical deduction ( Qiyas) and Istihsan (Equitable Preference) – as methods of IJTIHAD, whence his school were called Ahlul-Ra’yu (People of Juristic Reasoning)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • FOUNDERS OF MADZAAHIB IN FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE) IMAM ABU HANIFAH AL-NU’MAN BIN TSABIT R.A. (80 AH - 150 AH) His famous disciples were:  Qadhi Abu Yusuf – appointed by Caliph Harun ar-Rashid as the chief judge (Qadhi al-Qudhat)  Imam Muhammad ibn al-Hassan As-Shaybani – one of the teacher of Imam As-Shafi’ie.  Imam Zufar well-known scholar of Hadith and especially of Qiyas (analogical deduction).All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • FOUNDERS OF MADZAAHIB IN FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE) IMAM MALIK BIN ANAS R.A. (93 AH – 117 AH)  Born and raised in Madinah ar-Rasul (City of the Prophet), he learnt from and met many of the students of Companions (Sahabah) of the Prophet s.a.w. And he compiled the famous book on Hadith of the prophet s.a.w. – “Al-Muwatta’ ”.  His notable teachers were Imam Ja’far as-Sodiq, Abu Radim Nafi’ ibn ‘Abdur Rahman, Nafi’, Muhammad ibn Yahya al-Ansari, Yahya ibn Sa’-id and Hishan ibn ‘Urwah.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • FOUNDERS OF MADZAAHIB IN FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE) IMAM MALIK BIN ANAS R.A. (93 AH – 117 AH)  The greatest contribution of Imam Malik was the codification of the Madinan Fiqh.  Imam Malik had recourse to many transmitters of Ahadith and thus his important compilation of “Al-Muwatta’ “ which he systematically arranged in accordance with the practice of the Deen. Imam Shafi’ie and Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal both studied and memorized this and regarded this book as second to the Qur’an.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • FOUNDERS OF MADZAAHIB IN FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE) IMAM MALIK BIN ANAS R.A. (93 AH – 117 AH)  He also regarded ‘Amal Ahll Madina -the “Practice of the People of Madina” and Masalih Mursalah - “Public interest or welfare ” to be also important basis for Fiqh unlike Imam As-Shafi’ie. Although as Muhaddith, Imam Malik placed importance upon Hadith, yet he was still regarded by Ibn Qutaybah as Ahlul-Ra’yy in matters of FIQH.  Later, tension grew between those who literally follow Ahadith, better known as Ahlul-Hadith, with those identified as Ahlul-Ra’yu.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • FOUNDERS OF MADZAAHIB IN FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE) IMAM MALIK BIN ANAS R.A. (93 AH – 117 AH) Some of his famous disciples were:  Imam Muhammad ‘Idris As-Shafi’ie  Imam Yahya ibn Yahya al-Masmudi  Imam Abu Muhammad ibn Wahb ibn Salmah al-Fahri al-Misri  Imam Muhammad ibn al-Mubarak  Imam Muhammad ibn Hassan al-ShaybaniAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • FOUNDERS OF MADZAAHIB IN FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE) IMAM MUHAMMAD BIN ‘IDRIS AS-SHAFI-’IE R.A. (150 AH – 204 AH)  Born in Gaza from a Qurayshi descent, raised amongst a Yemenite tribe and later travelled with his mother to Makkah when he was ten years old.  At an early aged he already memorised the whole Qur’an, the Ahadith compilation Al-Muwatta’ of Imam Malik, while studying jurisprudence and being mentored by well-known jurists in Makkah – the Mufti Muslim Khalid al-Zanji ,and Imam Sufyan ibn ‘Uyayna.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • FOUNDERS OF MADZAAHIB IN FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE) IMAM MUHAMMAD BIN ‘IDRIS AS-SHAFI-’IE R.A. (150 AH – 204 AH)  At 23, he travelled to Madinah and became a student of Imam Malik ibn Anas until his teacher’s death.  Later went to Yemen. His reputation attract the Caliph’s attention but Imam Shafi’ie’s frankness, brought him in conflict with the ruler. Jealous of his reputation his enemies made unfounded allegations against him and he was arrested amongst the conspirators against the Abbassid rulers, and brought to face the Caliph in Iraq.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • FOUNDERS OF MADZAAHIB IN FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE) IMAM MUHAMMAD BIN ‘IDRIS AS-SHAFI-’IE R.A. (150 AH – 204 AH)  He eloquently defended himself and enthralled the Caliph with his knowledge, not only the Deen but also regarding Greek philosophy and medicine.  His acquaintance with Imam Al-Hassan ibn Muhammad al- Shaybaniy and Qadhi Abu Yusuf (disciples of Abu Hanifah) benefitted him much on Imam Abu Hanifah’s juristic methodology,All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • FOUNDERS OF MADZAAHIB IN FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE) IMAM MUHAMMAD BIN ‘IDRIS AS-SHAFI-’IE R.A. (150 AH – 204 AH)  Thus, Imam Ash-Shafi-’ie can be said to be expert on both methodologies of Imam Malik and Abu Hanifah. Imam Ash-Shafi-’ie then wrote the important treatise and codified a systematic approach to the principles of Islamic jurisprudence in his important work: “Kitab ar-Risaalah fi-Usul al-Fiqh”. To correct the over-reliance upon rational legal deduction over textual evidence which became rampant, especially when the Caliph became influenced by the Mutazilites.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • FOUNDERS OF MADZAAHIB IN FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE) IMAM MUHAMMAD BIN ‘IDRIS AS-SHAFI-’IE R.A. (150 AH – 204 AH)  It was Imam Ash-Shafi-’ie who reasserted the pre-eminence of Ahadith over Qiyas, and revived the effort amongst his followers to ensure its proper collection and preservation.  He also wrote “Kitab al-Umm” in which he presented views of his teachers as well as his own regarding many issues which made it clear that Imam Ash-Shafi-’ie was an authority of his own.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • FOUNDERS OF MADZAAHIB IN FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE) IMAM MUHAMMAD BIN ‘IDRIS AS-SHAFI-’IE R.A. (150 AH – 204 AH)  He became well-known while in Makkah where his school of jurisprudence attracted many scholars from all over the Muslim world.  Finally left Makkah for Egypt and remained there till his death. His school was so well accepted the many renown Islamic scholars themselves prefer to be regarded as followers of this school of jurisprudence, even though many of them have attained the rank of Mujtahid.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • FOUNDERS OF MADZAAHIB IN FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE) IMAM MUHAMMAD BIN ‘IDRIS AS-SHAFI-’IE R.A. (150 AH – 204 AH) Some of these famous or notable scholars of this school:  Imam Al-Muzani  Imam Al-Mawardi  Imam An-Nawawiy  Imam Al-Haramain  Imam Al-Ghazaliy  Imam ‘Izzuddin ibn Abdul Salam  Imam Al-BaqilanyAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • FOUNDERS OF MADZAAHIB IN FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE) IMAM MUHAMMAD BIN ‘IDRIS AS-SHAFI-’IE R.A. (150 AH – 204 AH) Some of these famous or notable scholars of this school:  Most Muhaddithin: Imam Bukhary, Muslim, Tirmidzi, Ibn Majah, Baihaqy, Ibn Hajar, Abu Dawud, Ad-Darimi, An-Nasa-i, Daruqutni, etc.  Imam Abul Hassan al-Ash’ariy, Juneid al-Baghdadi, At-Tabari, Ar- Razi, As-Suyuti, As-Subki, etc.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • FOUNDERS OF MADZAAHIB IN FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE) IMAM AHMAD IBN HANBAL R.A. (164 AH – 241 AH)  Imam Abu ‘Abdillah Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Hanbal is mostly known as a Muhaddith although he is acknowledged to be a Mujtahid on Fiqh having studied under Imam Muhammad Idris As- Shafi-’ie, Bishr ibn al-Mufaddal, Waki’ ibn al-Jarrah etc.  As a Muhaddith, even his teachers and other muhaddithin take Ahadith from him. His famous work is “Musnad Ahmad”.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • FOUNDERS OF MADZAAHIB IN FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE) IMAM AHMAD IBN HANBAL R.A. (164 AH – 241 AH)  He is well-known for piety and detachment (Zuhud), and his school relies much upon Ahadith on Fiqh – much akin Maliki school – but not limiting it only from narrators in the Hijaz but elsewhere too.  But unlike his teacher Imam Ash-Shafi’ie, his followers and school of jurisprudence was limited and today mostly confine only to the peninsula of Arabia.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • FOUNDERS OF MADZAAHIB IN FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE) IMAM AHMAD IBN HANBAL R.A. (164 AH – 241 AH)  He was strict and very cautious in his adherence to the ways of the pious predecessors, that when the Caliph sought his service as a Qadhi he refused. He was even flogged for rejecting the Mu’tazilite’s assertion regarding the createdness of the Qur’an but remained steadfast upon his principle.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • FOUNDERS OF MADZAAHIB IN FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE) IMAM AHMAD IBN HANBAL R.A. (164 AH – 241 AH)  His jurisprudence later was somewhat revived by Imam Ibn Taymiyyah and his student Ibn Qayyim Al-Jauziy.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • OTHER LESS KNOWN OR EXTINCT MADZAAHIB IMAM ZAYD IBN ‘ALI IBN HUSSAYN (80 AH – 122 AH) IMAM LAYTH IBN SA’AD (97 AH – 174 AH) IMAM SUFYAN AL-TSAURIY (100 AH – 160 AH) IMAM DAWUD IBN ‘ALI AD-DHAZHIRI (199 AH – 269 AH)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • “WAFAYAT-AL A’YAN AN-BA ABNAZ-ZAMAN” – Ibn Khallikan “TABAQAT AL-SAFI’IYYAH AL-KUBRA” – As-Subki “TARIKH BAGHDAD” – Khatib Al-Baghdadi “TABAQAT” – Ibn Abi Ya’la “TADZKIRAH AL-HUFFAZ” – Adz-DzahabiyAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • AND ALLAH KNOWS BESTAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • TO BE CONTINUEDAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  • All welcome to visit my web-blog: http://an-naseehah.blogspot.com/ http://introductiontotauhid.blogspot.com/ http://oyoubelievers.blogspot.com/ http://al-amthaal.blogspot.com/ http://zhulkeflee-archive.blogspot.com/ http://criteriaforaholybook-quran.blogspot.com/ http://with-the-truthful.blogspot.com/ http ://muqaddam-nurul.blogspot.com/All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 127