IN THE NAME OF ALLAH,
MOST COMPASSIONATE,
MOST MERCIFUL.

FARDHU’AIN: CONDUCTED BY
USTAZ ZHULKEFLEE HJ ISMAIL
LESSONS FROM...
IN THE NAME OF ALLAH,
MOST COMPASSIONATE,
MOST MERCIFUL

A
IBR

J
OF
ITH O N
AD
H
SS

#

-’IL

15

LE

LAST TOPIC
LESSON F...
 The message of Islam is established upon TAUHEED – a
profound concept of attesting to the Absolute Oneness of
Allah thro...
 The message of Islam is established upon TAUHEED – a
profound concept of attesting to the Absolute Oneness of
Allah thro...
 How does one “Attest” to this? How to manifest this
message in one’s life?

 From Hadith Jibra-il a.s. , our Prophet en...
[1] ISLAM – inculcating act of submission to the Will of Allah,
essentially through establishing its pillars (Arkaan) invo...
 Yet, being convinced of the truth (Reality) and able to
manifest this conviction correctly through acts of
submission – ...
 We are only saved by Allah’s Grace and His Merciful
Acceptance of our faith, servitude and worship. This
must be the cor...
“I have only created jinns and men, that they may
serve (worship) Me.”
(Qur’an: Dzaariyat: 51: 56)

All Rights Reserved © ...
 And validity of ‘IBAADAT in the Islamic perspective,
requires that doer adhere to:
Correct belief (with IIMAN)
Correct a...
“And whether ye hide your word or manifest it, He (Allah)
certainly has (full) knowledge, of the secrets of (all) hearts.”...
“Should He (Allah) not know― He that created? And He (Allah)
is the One that understands the finest mysteries (and He) is
...
 This concern must eventually lead us to a “spiritual state
of righteousness” i.e. being conscious of Allah at all
times,...
 This state is termed TAQWA – (consciousness with
reverential fear of Allah) the ultimate criteria of
Nobility:

“Verily ...
 Thus, to attain to TAQWA it must be with this IHSAN,
inculcating mindfulness of Allah’s presence and of His
Awareness ov...
 In Islam, we must not attribute to Allah s.w.t. attributes
(SIFAAT) which are inconsistent with His Transcendence
and Ex...
”To Allah belongs the East and the West; wherever ye turn, there is
Allah's countenance (face). Behold! Allah is All-Embra...
“O my dear son,” [continued Luqman,] “verily, if there be but the
weight of a mustard-seed, and though it be [hidden] in a...
 Therefore after we have learnt aspects of:
ARKAA-NUL-IIMAN
ARKAA-NUL-ISLAM

We now come to the aspect which perfects it,...
 In fact, this aspect is that which qualitatively
determines our acts of devotion, the worth of our
worship or servitude ...
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013

21
“(Say our life takes its) colour from Allah; and who could give a
better colour (to life) than Allah? and it is He (Alone)...
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
– ( IHSAN ) in Arabic means “best conduct;



performance of good deeds; righteousness; excellence
etc.”

 Basically it ...
 If ‘IIMAN’ serves to strengthen our conviction;

 ‘ISLAM’ guides our practices in life;

 Then ‘IHSAN’ completes or pe...
PROPHET MUHAMMAD S.A.A.W. :

 His reply to the question “what is AL-IHSAN ?”, he said :

All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee...
PROPHET MUHAMMAD S.A.A.W. :

 His reply to the question “what is AL-IHSAN ?”, he said :
“Al- Ihsan (righteousness or best...
 It is indeed amazing that IHSAN- “righteousness of best
conduct” has been linked by the Prophet Muhammad
s.a.a.w. to our...
 This therefore distinguishes a good deed performed by
a believer whose motivation is in ‘obedience to Allah’
from deeds ...
 And regarding deeds or any act of devotion, he said:

“Verily, action is by intention; and verily the worth (merit) of
t...
 And regarding deeds or any act of devotion, he said:

All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
 And regarding deeds or any act of devotion, he said:

“ ... Thus he who migrates for the sake of Allah and His Messenger...
 Standard of righteousness or of one doing good deeds in Islam
is absolute in that, it “must be done as an act of worship...
 Standard of righteousness or one doing good deeds in Islam is
absolute in that, it “must be done as an act of worship, i...
“Say: "Verily, I am commanded to serve (worship) Allah
with sincere devotion; And I am commanded to be the
first of those ...
PROPHET MUHAMMAD S.A.A.W. SAID:

“Verily, Allah does not look at your outward form
(appearance) nor at your wealth, but He...
 From this, we must understand that we Muslims should
never fall prey to conceit nor forget the actual reason for
our str...
 It is interesting that without truly striving to attest with
TAUHEED – to attest that only Allah is god, the One unto
wh...
 It is interesting that without truly striving to attest with
TAUHEED – to attest that only Allah is god, the One we
were...
REFLECT DEEPLY WHAT THE PROPHET S.A.W. SAID
IN HIS FAREWELL SERMON:

All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
REFLECT DEEPLY WHAT THE PROPHET S.A.W. SAID
IN HIS FAREWELL SERMON:

“O Mankind! Verily Satan has lost all hope that he wi...
REFLECT DEEPLY WHAT THE PROPHET S.A.W. SAID:

All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
REFLECT DEEPLY WHAT THE PROPHET S.A.W. SAID:

“Verily, what I fear the most for my community
(ummah) is SHIRK (ascribing p...
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013

44
“HAST THOU ever considered [the kind of man] who makes
his own desires (HAWA) his deity, and whom Allah has
[thereupon] le...
PROPHET MUHAMMAD S.A.A.W. SAID:

“The SHIRK within my ummah is more hidden (subtle)
than a black ant crawling on a black r...
EGO-CENTRICITY LEADS TO VARIOUS
MORTAL SINS IN OUR RELATIONSHIPS:

All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
EGO-CENTRICITY LEADS TO VARIOUS
MORTAL SINS IN OUR RELATIONSHIPS:

“By the NAFS (Soul, or self) , and the proportion and
o...
EGO-CENTRICITY LEADS TO VARIOUS
MORTAL SINS IN OUR RELATIONSHIPS:
RELATIONSHIP TO HIMSELF

SELF

All Rights Reserved © Zhu...
EGO-CENTRICITY LEADS TO VARIOUS
MORTAL SINS IN OUR RELATIONSHIPS:
RELATIONSHIP TO HIMSELF

THE SIN OF SELF-CONCEIT

SELF

...
EGO-CENTRICITY LEADS TO VARIOUS
MORTAL SINS IN OUR RELATIONSHIPS:
RELATIONSHIP TOWARDS ALLAH

ALLAH

SELF

All Rights Rese...
EGO-CENTRICITY LEADS TO VARIOUS
MORTAL SINS IN OUR RELATIONSHIPS:
RELATIONSHIP TOWARDS ALLAH

ALLAH

THE SIN OF INGRATITUD...
EGO-CENTRICITY LEADS TO VARIOUS
MORTAL SINS IN OUR RELATIONSHIPS:
RELATIONSHIP TOWARDS OTHERS

SELF

OTHERS

All Rights Re...
EGO-CENTRICITY LEADS TO VARIOUS
MORTAL SINS IN OUR RELATIONSHIPS:
RELATIONSHIP TOWARDS OTHERS

SELF

THE SIN OF ARROGANCE
...
FOR THERE IS NONE DESERVING OF OUR
WORSHIP AND SERVITUDE EXCEPT ALLAH.

All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013

56
(Say:) ”Behold, my prayer, and [all] my acts of worship, my
living and my dying are for God [Allah alone, Who is], the
Sus...
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013

58
”So set thou thy face steadily and truly to the faith:
(establish) Allah's handiwork according to the pattern on
which He ...
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013

60
“Say: ‘Work righteousness! And Allah will behold your deeds,
and (so will) His Messenger, and the believers, and in the
en...
“Whoever expects to meet his Lord, let him work
righteousness, and in the worship of his Lord, admit
no one as partner to ...
IKHLASW

 Thus it is that this Arabic word “ikhlasw” meaning
“sincerity”, can also mean “purity” and be related to the
Me...
 Similarly the kalimah (statement) of TAUHEED :

(There is no god except Allah)
is also called “KALIMAH-AL-IKHLASW” (pure...
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013

65
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013

66
”Seest thou not how Allah sets forth a parable?― a goodly Word
like a goodly tree, whose root is firmly fixed, and its bra...
REFLECT : COMPONENTS OF A TREE

seed

Sprout

Layers of Bark

All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013

Roots

Trun...
Shar’iah

Wajib

Fardhu ‘Ain

Sunnat (mandub)

Fardhu Kifaa-yah

Harus (mustahab)
Makruh
Haram

All Rights Reserved © Zhul...
Shirk

Taqwa

Ridda (irtidad)

Ikhlasw

Kufr

Tawakkal

Nifaaq

‘ilm Tauheed (Aqaa-id)

Mu’min

‘ilm Fiqh

MuHsin

‘ilm Ta...
Where to go (i.e. what else) … after this ?

All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013

72
Tauheedic paradigm

‘ILM TAUHEED - ‘AQIDAH
(Creed or Theology)
 

All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
Tauheedic paradigm

‘ILM TAUHEED - ‘AQIDAH

(Creed or Theology)
 
Purpose / Objective
Development of Certainty (Belief)
Aw...
Tauheedic paradigm

‘ILM TAUHIID - ‘AQIDAH

(Creed or Theology)
 
RELEVANT COMPLEMENTARY
Purpose / Objective
KNOWLEDGE:
De...
Tauheedic paradigm

‘ILM TAUHEED - ‘AQIDAH
(Creed or Theology)
 

T
TAR
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CIN URSE )
U
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INT A N
Y
Y
UAR NE...
NG
NCI EW
OU
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ANN OF A 14]
RT
20
STA RSE [
COU

Batch # 4

“INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF
TAUHEED – (AQA’ID)”
Intermediate Lev...
Tauheedic paradigm

‘ILM FIQH

(Practical Laws for life;
Learning of the Shari’ah)

 

All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj...
Tauheedic paradigm

‘ILM FIQH

(Practical Laws for life;
Learning of the Shari’ah)
 
Purpose / Objective
Development of Co...
Tauheedic paradigm

‘ILM FIQH

(Practical Laws for life;
Learning of the Shari’ah)
 
Purpose / Objective
Development of Co...
Tauheedic paradigm

‘ILM FIQH

(Practical Laws for life;
Learning of the Shari’ah)
RELEVANT COMPLEMENTARY
 
KNOWLEDGE:
Pur...
Tauheedic paradigm

‘ILM FIQH

(Practical Laws for life;
Learning of the Shari’ah)

 

ST
E JU D
UL
E
MOD PLET NEW
COM WHE...
Tauheedic paradigm

‘ILM AKHLAQ / TASAWWUF /
IRFAN
(Science of human Disposition/ Sufism)
 

All Rights Reserved © Zhulkef...
Tauheedic paradigm

‘ILM AKHLAQ / TASAWWUF / IRFAN
(Science of human Disposition/ Sufism)
 
Purpose / Objective
Developmen...
Tauheedic paradigm

‘ILM AKHLAQ / TASAWWUF / IRFAN

(Science of human Disposition/ Sufism)
 
RELEVANT COMPLEMENTARY
Purpos...
Tauheedic paradigm

‘ILM AKHLAQ / TASAWWUF /
IRFAN
(Science of human Disposition/ Sufism)
 

TED
PLE W
OM
NE
E C
L
EN ART
...
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
 ”All praise is due to Allah, who has guided us unto this;
for we would certainly not have found the right path
unless All...
 And salutations of Allah and Peace be upon the
Messenger of Allah and upon His household
and Companions .

All Rights Res...
 "Our Lord! Make of us Muslims bowing to Thy (Will) and of our
progeny a people Muslim bowing to Thy (Will) and show us ou...
“Our Lord ! Grant that our spouses and our offspring be a joy to
our eyes, and cause us to be foremost amongst those who a...
"Our Lord! pour out constancy on us and make our steps firm;
Help us against those that reject faith."
(Qur’an: Baqarah: 2...
“Our Lord ! Let not our hearts swerve from the truth after You
have guided us; and bestow upon us the gift of Thy Grace
(M...
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013

94
“Our Lord ! Condemn us not if we forget or fall into error; Our
Lord! Lay not on us a burden like that which You did lay o...
"Our Lord! Give us good in this world and good in the Hereafter
and save us from the torment of the fire!"
(Qur’an : al-Ba...
“(May) Allah grant His Reward upon Muhammad, salutations
of Allah and Peace be upon him and his family, in accordance
with...
And salutations of Allah and Peace be
upon our Leader Muhammad, and upon
His household and Companions .

All Rights Reserv...
”Glory to thy Lord the Lord, of Honour and Power! (He is free) from what
they ascribe (to Him)! And Peace on the Messenger...
“Grant us (these our supplication),
by Your Mercy, (O Allah, You are) the
Most Merciful of those who show Mercy!”

All Rig...
     All welcome to visit my web-blog:
http://an-naseehah.blogspot.com/
http://introductiontotauhid.blogspot.com/
http://o...
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[Slideshare] fardh'ain(august-2013-batch)# 15-ihsan-excellence-or-righteous-best-conduct)-3-january-2014.

  1. 1. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL. FARDHU’AIN: CONDUCTED BY USTAZ ZHULKEFLEE HJ ISMAIL LESSONS FROM TEXTBOOK “Beginners’ Manual on Islam” Presentation by: Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail SINGAPURA UPDATED 3 JANUARY 2013 All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  2. 2. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL A IBR J OF ITH O N AD H SS # -’IL 15 LE LAST TOPIC LESSON FOR 3 JANUARY 2014 “A BEGINNERS’ COURSE ON ISLAM” Lessons on Fardhu ‘Ain in English for Adults conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) Every Friday night @ 8pm – 10pm Wisma Indah, 450 Changi Road, #02-00 next to Masjid Kassim
  3. 3.  The message of Islam is established upon TAUHEED – a profound concept of attesting to the Absolute Oneness of Allah through active submission and obedience to Allah by adhering to the teaching of Allah’s final Messenger Muhammad s.a.w.  Thus the two statements contain this message: All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  4. 4.  The message of Islam is established upon TAUHEED – a profound concept of attesting to the Absolute Oneness of Allah through active submission and obedience to Allah by adhering to the teaching of Allah’s final Messenger Muhammad s.a.w.  Thus the two statements contain this message: “There is no god except Allah, Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  5. 5.  How does one “Attest” to this? How to manifest this message in one’s life?  From Hadith Jibra-il a.s. , our Prophet enumerated the important aspects of : All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  6. 6. [1] ISLAM – inculcating act of submission to the Will of Allah, essentially through establishing its pillars (Arkaan) involving aspects of deeds , such that it will build this identity in us; [2] IIMAN – instilling faith or conviction upon aspects of Reality (Truth) that give meaning and purpose to our Life; it involves affirming truth with knowledge and conviction; replacing doubts with certainty and making it as our ‘driver & motivation’ in life – in this world leading to the Hereafter. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  7. 7.  Yet, being convinced of the truth (Reality) and able to manifest this conviction correctly through acts of submission – it is still not sufficient, unless the consciousness of the presence of Allah s.w.t. as the only Divine Being unto Whom we direct our servitude to, becomes the primary reason or raison d'être.  It is not merely by Faith (Belief) that man is saved, nor by his good works (Deeds). Even with both IIMAN and ‘AMAL, it is insufficient without a third aspect. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  8. 8.  We are only saved by Allah’s Grace and His Merciful Acceptance of our faith, servitude and worship. This must be the core attitude of every Muslim’s life striving – which reside in the secret of our inner being; in our motive and intention accompanying our every worship and striving in life.  And a Muslim regard his whole life as “worship” or what is in Arabic “ ’IBAADAT” (servitude) - which would be assessed by Allah, Who knows: All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  9. 9. “I have only created jinns and men, that they may serve (worship) Me.” (Qur’an: Dzaariyat: 51: 56) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  10. 10.  And validity of ‘IBAADAT in the Islamic perspective, requires that doer adhere to: Correct belief (with IIMAN) Correct action (with ‘AMAL) And the most crucial which must accompany the 2 previous aspects, is: Correct intention (with IHSAN)  And this (intention) is unseen to every one except Allah. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  11. 11. “And whether ye hide your word or manifest it, He (Allah) certainly has (full) knowledge, of the secrets of (all) hearts.” (Qur’an: Mulk: 67: 13)
  12. 12. “Should He (Allah) not know― He that created? And He (Allah) is the One that understands the finest mysteries (and He) is well-acquainted (with them).” Qur’an: Mulk: 67: 14) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  13. 13.  This concern must eventually lead us to a “spiritual state of righteousness” i.e. being conscious of Allah at all times, such that we become mindful in striving not to transgress Allah’s law and fulfilling His every command.  This state of consciousness of Allah’s ever-Presence, Who is all-Aware of our inner motive for doing what we do – making us to direct our ‘amal (deeds) primarily to be made accountable to Him, rather than seeking recognition from others or for personal vanity (conceit). All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  14. 14.  This state is termed TAQWA – (consciousness with reverential fear of Allah) the ultimate criteria of Nobility: “Verily the most honoured of you in the sight of Allah is (he who is) the most TAQWA (a righteous state) of you. And Allah has full knowledge and is well acquainted (with all things).” (Qur’an: Hujurat: 49: 13) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  15. 15.  Thus, to attain to TAQWA it must be with this IHSAN, inculcating mindfulness of Allah’s presence and of His Awareness over us.  Without which, we may become “ego-centric” because we are already strongly aware of our own existence, not so of Allah’s Presence – Whom: “no vision can comprehend, whereas He alone comprehends all vision .” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  16. 16.  In Islam, we must not attribute to Allah s.w.t. attributes (SIFAAT) which are inconsistent with His Transcendence and Exaltedness e.g. limiting Him to time and place as others in creation.  Thus we have to follow Divine guidance by contemplating His Signs in creation, His Attributes and Names such that we become fully conscious His Divine Presence, His Omniscience (ever-aware and knowing) of us even in secrecy of our hearts.
  17. 17. ”To Allah belongs the East and the West; wherever ye turn, there is Allah's countenance (face). Behold! Allah is All-Embracing (Infinite), All-Knowing. “ (Qur’an: Baqarah: 2: 115) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 17
  18. 18. “O my dear son,” [continued Luqman,] “verily, if there be but the weight of a mustard-seed, and though it be [hidden] in a rock, or in the skies, or in the earth, Allah will bring it to light: for, behold, Allah is unfathomable [in His wisdom], all-aware.” (Qur’an: Luqman: 31: 16) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 18
  19. 19.  Therefore after we have learnt aspects of: ARKAA-NUL-IIMAN ARKAA-NUL-ISLAM We now come to the aspect which perfects it, which is: AL-IHSAN All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  20. 20.  In fact, this aspect is that which qualitatively determines our acts of devotion, the worth of our worship or servitude to Allah. It lies within our innermost core of our consciousness, unknown to other people save Allah s.w.t. and our own self.  Thus outwardly people may be seen to be doing a righteous deed, and yet their inward motives differ. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  21. 21. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 21
  22. 22. “(Say our life takes its) colour from Allah; and who could give a better colour (to life) than Allah? and it is He (Alone) Whom we worship (and serve).” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 (Qur’an: Surah Baqarah: 2: 138) 22
  23. 23. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  24. 24. – ( IHSAN ) in Arabic means “best conduct;  performance of good deeds; righteousness; excellence etc.”  Basically it pertains to the quality of our attesting to the Oneness of Allah. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  25. 25.  If ‘IIMAN’ serves to strengthen our conviction;  ‘ISLAM’ guides our practices in life;  Then ‘IHSAN’ completes or perfects our “attestation to the Oneness of Allah.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  26. 26. PROPHET MUHAMMAD S.A.A.W. :  His reply to the question “what is AL-IHSAN ?”, he said : All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  27. 27. PROPHET MUHAMMAD S.A.A.W. :  His reply to the question “what is AL-IHSAN ?”, he said : “Al- Ihsan (righteousness or best conduct) is that you worship (serve) Allah (TA’-BUDALLAAH) as though you are seeing Him; while you see Him not, yet truly He sees you” (Hadith reported by Muslim) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  28. 28.  It is indeed amazing that IHSAN- “righteousness of best conduct” has been linked by the Prophet Muhammad s.a.a.w. to our consciousness or awareness of Allah SWT. , in our servitude (‘UBUDIYYAH) – which is not only in certain devotional forms of worship, but must be extended to encompass the doing of any good deed in life. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  29. 29.  This therefore distinguishes a good deed performed by a believer whose motivation is in ‘obedience to Allah’ from deeds performed for other reasons (even if they are similar and generally judged as a good deeds). All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  30. 30.  And regarding deeds or any act of devotion, he said: “Verily, action is by intention; and verily the worth (merit) of that action is (to be measured) in accordance with what is intended ... ” (Hadith reported by Bukhary & Muslim) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  31. 31.  And regarding deeds or any act of devotion, he said: All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  32. 32.  And regarding deeds or any act of devotion, he said: “ ... Thus he who migrates for the sake of Allah and His Messenger, then his migration is for Allah and His Messenger. And he who migrates seeking to gain worldly benefits or for the sake of marrying a woman, then his migration is for that which he has intended.” (Hadith reported by Bukhary & Muslim) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  33. 33.  Standard of righteousness or of one doing good deeds in Islam is absolute in that, it “must be done as an act of worship, i.e. of serving Allah s.w.t.”  Thus, apart from ensuring the act to be correct according to the teaching of His prophet, Allah requires that it must be done with sincerity: All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 33
  34. 34.  Standard of righteousness or one doing good deeds in Islam is absolute in that, it “must be done as an act of worship, i.e. of serving Allah s.w.t.”  Thus, apart from ensuring the act to be correct according to the teaching of His prophet, Allah requires that it must be done with sincerity: “And they have been commanded no more than this: to worship Allah, offering Him sincere devotion, being True (in faith);” (Qur’an: Bayyinah: 98: 5) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 34
  35. 35. “Say: "Verily, I am commanded to serve (worship) Allah with sincere devotion; And I am commanded to be the first of those who bow to Allah in Islam." (Qur’an: Zumar: 39: 11-12) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 35
  36. 36. PROPHET MUHAMMAD S.A.A.W. SAID: “Verily, Allah does not look at your outward form (appearance) nor at your wealth, but He, verily will look into (what is in) our hearts and deeds.” (Hadith reported by Bukhary and Muslim) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 36
  37. 37.  From this, we must understand that we Muslims should never fall prey to conceit nor forget the actual reason for our striving to do good is, as an act of attesting to the Oneness of Allah; serving and worshipping only Him.  To be sincere means: “to negate all other considerations as the essential or primary motive, except for the sake of Allah – seeking His nearness (QURB) to please Him (REDHA) ” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 37
  38. 38.  It is interesting that without truly striving to attest with TAUHEED – to attest that only Allah is god, the One unto whom we were created to serve and worship exclusively , then a person may take his / her Nafs (self) or Hawa’ (desires) as ‘god’ – which may lead to the spiritual disease of ‘ujub (self-conceit) and riya’ (ostentations). All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 38
  39. 39.  It is interesting that without truly striving to attest with TAUHEED – to attest that only Allah is god, the One we were created to serve and worship exclusively , then a person may take his / her Nafs (self) or Hawa’ (desires) as ‘god’ – which may lead to the spiritual disease of ‘ujub (self-conceit) and riya’ (ostentations). “Have you ever considered (the kind of man) who makes his own desires as his deities? Then would you be responsible for him? “ All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 39
  40. 40. REFLECT DEEPLY WHAT THE PROPHET S.A.W. SAID IN HIS FAREWELL SERMON: All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  41. 41. REFLECT DEEPLY WHAT THE PROPHET S.A.W. SAID IN HIS FAREWELL SERMON: “O Mankind! Verily Satan has lost all hope that he will ever be worshipped on this earth forever, but if you obey him in other deeds (acts which may seem to you to be) petty (or small), it will please him. So be very careful of (following) him (regarding these) in your religion.” (Excerpt from the “Seerah” by Ibnu Hisham, “al-Iqd-ul Farid” by Ibnu Abdi Rabbih and Bukhary’ s “Saheeh”) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  42. 42. REFLECT DEEPLY WHAT THE PROPHET S.A.W. SAID: All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  43. 43. REFLECT DEEPLY WHAT THE PROPHET S.A.W. SAID: “Verily, what I fear the most for my community (ummah) is SHIRK (ascribing partners) to Allah. I am not saying that they will worship the sun or the moon or idols, but it is in their being insincere in doing good deeds, not intending it for Allah’s sake but only to please their hidden desires.” (Hadith reported by Ibnu Majah in “Kitab Az-Zuhdu”) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  44. 44. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 44
  45. 45. “HAST THOU ever considered [the kind of man] who makes his own desires (HAWA) his deity, and whom Allah has [thereupon] let go astray, knowing [that his mind is closed to all guidance], and whose hearing and heart He has sealed, and upon whose sight He has placed a veil? Who, then, could guide him after Allah [has abandoned him]? Will you not, then, (TADZAK-KARUN) bethink your-selves? “ (Qur’an: Jatsiyah: 45: 23) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 45
  46. 46. PROPHET MUHAMMAD S.A.A.W. SAID: “The SHIRK within my ummah is more hidden (subtle) than a black ant crawling on a black rock, in the darkness of the night” (Hadith reported by Ahmad, Tabarani & Abu Ya’la) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 46
  47. 47. EGO-CENTRICITY LEADS TO VARIOUS MORTAL SINS IN OUR RELATIONSHIPS: All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  48. 48. EGO-CENTRICITY LEADS TO VARIOUS MORTAL SINS IN OUR RELATIONSHIPS: “By the NAFS (Soul, or self) , and the proportion and order given to it; And its enlightenment as to its wrong and its right;― Truly he succeeds that purifies it, And he fails that corrupts it!” (Qur’an: as-Shams: 91: 7-10) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  49. 49. EGO-CENTRICITY LEADS TO VARIOUS MORTAL SINS IN OUR RELATIONSHIPS: RELATIONSHIP TO HIMSELF SELF All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  50. 50. EGO-CENTRICITY LEADS TO VARIOUS MORTAL SINS IN OUR RELATIONSHIPS: RELATIONSHIP TO HIMSELF THE SIN OF SELF-CONCEIT SELF All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  51. 51. EGO-CENTRICITY LEADS TO VARIOUS MORTAL SINS IN OUR RELATIONSHIPS: RELATIONSHIP TOWARDS ALLAH ALLAH SELF All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  52. 52. EGO-CENTRICITY LEADS TO VARIOUS MORTAL SINS IN OUR RELATIONSHIPS: RELATIONSHIP TOWARDS ALLAH ALLAH THE SIN OF INGRATITUDE SELF All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  53. 53. EGO-CENTRICITY LEADS TO VARIOUS MORTAL SINS IN OUR RELATIONSHIPS: RELATIONSHIP TOWARDS OTHERS SELF OTHERS All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  54. 54. EGO-CENTRICITY LEADS TO VARIOUS MORTAL SINS IN OUR RELATIONSHIPS: RELATIONSHIP TOWARDS OTHERS SELF THE SIN OF ARROGANCE All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 OTHERS
  55. 55. FOR THERE IS NONE DESERVING OF OUR WORSHIP AND SERVITUDE EXCEPT ALLAH. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  56. 56. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 56
  57. 57. (Say:) ”Behold, my prayer, and [all] my acts of worship, my living and my dying are for God [Allah alone, Who is], the Sustainer of all the worlds, in whose divinity none has a share: for thus have I been bidden – and I shall [always] be foremost among those who surrender themselves to Him (Muslimeen).” (Qur’an: Surah al-An’am:6:162) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 57
  58. 58. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 58
  59. 59. ”So set thou thy face steadily and truly to the faith: (establish) Allah's handiwork according to the pattern on which He has made mankind: no change (let there be) in the work (wrought) by Allah: that is the standard Religion: but most among mankind understand not.” (Surah Rum: 30: 30) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 59
  60. 60. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 60
  61. 61. “Say: ‘Work righteousness! And Allah will behold your deeds, and (so will) His Messenger, and the believers, and in the end you will be brought before Him Who knows all (the unseen as well as the apparent) then will He show you the truth of all that ye did.” (Qur’an: Taubah : 9: 105) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 61
  62. 62. “Whoever expects to meet his Lord, let him work righteousness, and in the worship of his Lord, admit no one as partner to Him (i.e. do not commit SHIRK)." (Qur’an: Kahfi: 18: 110) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 62
  63. 63. IKHLASW  Thus it is that this Arabic word “ikhlasw” meaning “sincerity”, can also mean “purity” and be related to the Message of TAUHEED - as when the Surah (Chapter) which profoundly explains the Oneness of Allah is also called “Surah Al-Ikhlasw” (Q:112). All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 63
  64. 64.  Similarly the kalimah (statement) of TAUHEED : (There is no god except Allah) is also called “KALIMAH-AL-IKHLASW” (pure or sincere Word); and “KALIMAH-AL-TOY-YIBAH” (the good Word). All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 64
  65. 65. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 65
  66. 66. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 66
  67. 67. ”Seest thou not how Allah sets forth a parable?― a goodly Word like a goodly tree, whose root is firmly fixed, and its branches (reach) to the heavens― It brings forth its fruit at all times, by the leave of its Lord. So Allah sets forth parables for men, in order that they may receive admonition; (Qur’an: Ibrahim: 14: 24-25) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 67
  68. 68. REFLECT : COMPONENTS OF A TREE seed Sprout Layers of Bark All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 Roots Trunk Leaves Grow towards sunlight & Power to break rocks Fruits 68
  69. 69. Shar’iah Wajib Fardhu ‘Ain Sunnat (mandub) Fardhu Kifaa-yah Harus (mustahab) Makruh Haram All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  70. 70. Shirk Taqwa Ridda (irtidad) Ikhlasw Kufr Tawakkal Nifaaq ‘ilm Tauheed (Aqaa-id) Mu’min ‘ilm Fiqh MuHsin ‘ilm Tasawwuf All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 70
  71. 71. Where to go (i.e. what else) … after this ? All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  72. 72. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 72
  73. 73. Tauheedic paradigm ‘ILM TAUHEED - ‘AQIDAH (Creed or Theology)   All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  74. 74. Tauheedic paradigm ‘ILM TAUHEED - ‘AQIDAH (Creed or Theology)   Purpose / Objective Development of Certainty (Belief) Awareness of Reality / Truth Develop discernment between Truth & Falsehood, What is involved? ‘Aql - (proper use of Reason / Intellect) Fitrah - Instincts & innate feeling (perception) Tauqifiy – Revelations & reliable traditions What is the Effect? To develop firm conviction, strong principle, Commitment to concept of Unity & Justice of Allah (Tauheed); knowing the true purpose, role and Destiny of Man. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 74
  75. 75. Tauheedic paradigm ‘ILM TAUHIID - ‘AQIDAH (Creed or Theology)   RELEVANT COMPLEMENTARY Purpose / Objective KNOWLEDGE: Development Logic & philosophy, Languages, of Certainty (Belief) Awareness of Biology, Botany, Epistemology, Reality / Truth Develop discernment between Truth & Falsehood, Chemistry, Physical sciences, Astronomy, Geology, History, Anthropology, Marine & Space, What is involved? Etc. ‘Aql - (proper use of Reason / Intellect) Fitrah - Instincts & innate feeling (perception) Tauqifiy – Revelations & reliable traditions What is the Effect? To develop firm conviction, strong principle, Commitment to concept of Unity & Justice of Allah (Tauheed); knowing the true purpose, role and Destiny of Man. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 75
  76. 76. Tauheedic paradigm ‘ILM TAUHEED - ‘AQIDAH (Creed or Theology)   T TAR G S CIN URSE ) U ROD EW CO 2O14 INT A N Y Y UAR NESDA OF N JA D ( 15 RY WE HT EVE NIG IF INTERESTED – REGISTER  http://goo.gl/qFFrhT “INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF TAUHEED” Intermediate Level Islamic course in English for Adults conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  77. 77. NG NCI EW OU N ANN OF A 14] RT 20 STA RSE [ COU Batch # 4 “INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF TAUHEED – (AQA’ID)” Intermediate Level Islamic course in English for Adults conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 18 weekly class starting: 15th JANUARY 2014 Every Wednesday night @ 8pm – 10pm Wisma Indah, 450 Changi Road, #02-00 next to Masjid Kassim IT CAN ALSO BE A REFRESHER COURSE FOR MUSLIM PARENTS, EDUCATORS, IN CONTEMPORARY SINGAPORE. OPEN TO ALL For further information and registration http://goo.gl/qFFrhT link E-mail : ad.fardhayn.sg@gmail.com or +65 81234669 / +65 96838279 Using text & curriculum he has developed especially for Muslim converts and young Adult English-speaking Muslims. “To seek knowledge is obligatory upon every Muslim (male & female)” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014 )
  78. 78. Tauheedic paradigm ‘ILM FIQH (Practical Laws for life; Learning of the Shari’ah)   All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  79. 79. Tauheedic paradigm ‘ILM FIQH (Practical Laws for life; Learning of the Shari’ah)   Purpose / Objective Development of Correct Practices; Submission & Obedience to Will of Allah (Islam) What is involved? Knowing the law, rules as Guidance to every aspect of life Capability to implementing them in life What is the Effect? To develop a community of people, Inviting to what is good Enjoining what is right, and forbidding evil, Advocating the fulfilment of AMANAH (Trust) As Allah’s Khalifah (vicegerent), Establishing the Brotherhood of Man in The servitude of One God. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 79
  80. 80. Tauheedic paradigm ‘ILM FIQH (Practical Laws for life; Learning of the Shari’ah)   Purpose / Objective Development of Correct Practices; Submission & Obedience to Will of Allah (Islam) BROAD EXTENT OF TOPICS COVERED IN FIQH What is involved? ‘ibadah (personal devotion / worship) to every aspect of life Knowing the law, rules as Guidance Muamalah (social transaction) Capability to implementing them in life Munakahah (Marriage & family) What is the Effect? Irth / fara’id (Distribution of wealth) To develop a community of people, Jinayah (crimesis&good punishment) Inviting to what Qodha’iyah (judiciary) Enjoining what is right, and forbidding evil, Advocating thejihad / Da’wah (struggle in war & peace) fulfilment of AMANAH (Trust) As Allah’s Khalifah (vicegerent), imarah (Leadership/government) Establishing the Brotherhood of Man in The servitude of One God. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 80
  81. 81. Tauheedic paradigm ‘ILM FIQH (Practical Laws for life; Learning of the Shari’ah) RELEVANT COMPLEMENTARY   KNOWLEDGE: Purpose / Objective All applied sciences, Practices; technology Development of Correct and skills, knowledge of Will of Allah (Islam) Submission & Obedience to economics, politics, social & administrative sciences etc. that can assist in the What is involved? Knowing the law, rules as Guidance to every aspect peace, fulfilment of establishing justice, order, of life Capability to implementing them in life harmony, prosperity, physical with moral progress, and the well-being of What is the Effect? etc. Man & society, To develop a community of people, Inviting to what is good Enjoining what is right, and forbidding evil, Advocating the fulfilment of AMANAH (Trust) As Allah’s Khalifah (vicegerent), Establishing the Brotherhood of Man in The servitude of One God. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 81
  82. 82. Tauheedic paradigm ‘ILM FIQH (Practical Laws for life; Learning of the Shari’ah)   ST E JU D UL E MOD PLET NEW COM WHEN RT IT TA ND S A WI LL S UNCED A O E TAK BE ANN IN L WIL IF INTERESTED – ENQUIRE FROM ORGANIZER “INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF FIQH ” Intermediate Level Islamic course in English for Adults conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismai 2012
  83. 83. Tauheedic paradigm ‘ILM AKHLAQ / TASAWWUF / IRFAN (Science of human Disposition/ Sufism)   All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  84. 84. Tauheedic paradigm ‘ILM AKHLAQ / TASAWWUF / IRFAN (Science of human Disposition/ Sufism)   Purpose / Objective Development of Righteous Personality Purification/perfection of the Self What is involved? Reforming or purification of the Self (Nafs) Best behaviour in relationship with Allah, within oneself, and with others. Knowledge of Self and of Allah (Gnosis) What is the Effect? Development of Most noble personality traits Founded on Love of Allah, of all His prophets [Nabiyyin] especially the Seal of Prophethood Muhammad s.a.w., his Household [itrah or Ahlul-bayti wa Aali -Rasul] and loyal Companions [Ashaab], In fellowship with the Truthful [siddiqqin], the Witnesses & martyrs [shuhada] and the Righteous servants of Allah [Solihin]; Striving to purify the Self (Nafs) and adorning it with the Exalted Moral traits of Our Beloved Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. (The Perfected Man – “Insan Kaamil”) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 84
  85. 85. Tauheedic paradigm ‘ILM AKHLAQ / TASAWWUF / IRFAN (Science of human Disposition/ Sufism)   RELEVANT COMPLEMENTARY Purpose / Objective KNOWLEDGE: Development of Righteous Personality This aspect of development requires Purification/perfection of the Self practical behaviour, the aspect of being and becoming. Its area of development What is involved? is the inner Self, the ‘human psyche’ or Reforming or purification of the Self (Nafs) the behaviour in Soul reflected Allah, Best state of the relationship within his Disposition (Akhlaq). Therefore, the close within oneself, and with others. equivalent may perhaps beof Allah (Gnosis) Knowledge of Self and ‘human’ psychology, behavioural sciences, manners & discipline, etc. What is the Effect? Development of Most noble personality traits Founded on Love of Allah, of all His prophets [Nabiyyin] especially the Seal of Prophethood Muhammad s.a.w., his Household [itrah or Ahlul-bayti wa Aali -Rasul] and loyal Companions [Ashaab], In fellowship with the Truthful [siddiqqin], the Witnesses & martyrs [shuhada] and the Righteous servants of Allah [Solihin]; Striving to purify the Self (Nafs) and adorning it with the Exalted Moral traits of Our Beloved Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. (The Perfected Man – “Insan Kaamil”) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 85
  86. 86. Tauheedic paradigm ‘ILM AKHLAQ / TASAWWUF / IRFAN (Science of human Disposition/ Sufism)   TED PLE W OM NE E C L EN ART U H MOD AND W L ST WIL AS KE ILL BE A INT IT W ED UNC O ANN IF INTERESTED – ENQUIRE FROM ORGANIZER “INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF ‘ILM AL-AKHLAQ ” Intermediate Level Islamic course in English for Adults All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
  87. 87. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013
  88. 88.  ”All praise is due to Allah, who has guided us unto this; for we would certainly not have found the right path unless Allah had guided us!” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 88
  89. 89.  And salutations of Allah and Peace be upon the Messenger of Allah and upon His household and Companions . All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 89
  90. 90.  "Our Lord! Make of us Muslims bowing to Thy (Will) and of our progeny a people Muslim bowing to Thy (Will) and show us our places for the celebration of (due) rites; and turn unto us (in Mercy); for Thou art the Oft-Returning Most-Merciful. (Qur’an: Baqarah: 2: 128) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 90
  91. 91. “Our Lord ! Grant that our spouses and our offspring be a joy to our eyes, and cause us to be foremost amongst those who are conscious of Thee! (as ‘mut-taqqin’).” (Qur’an : al-Furqan: 25: 74) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 91
  92. 92. "Our Lord! pour out constancy on us and make our steps firm; Help us against those that reject faith." (Qur’an: Baqarah: 2:250) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 92
  93. 93. “Our Lord ! Let not our hearts swerve from the truth after You have guided us; and bestow upon us the gift of Thy Grace (Mercy): verily, You are the (true) giver of Gifts (bestowals).” (Qur’an : Aali ‘Imran : 3 : 8) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 93
  94. 94. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 94
  95. 95. “Our Lord ! Condemn us not if we forget or fall into error; Our Lord! Lay not on us a burden like that which You did lay on those before us : Our Lord ! Lay not on us a burden greater than we have strength to bear. Blot out our sins, And grant us forgiveness, Have Mercy on us. You are our protector : Help us against the unbelievers.” (Qur’an : al-Baqarah : 286) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 95
  96. 96. "Our Lord! Give us good in this world and good in the Hereafter and save us from the torment of the fire!" (Qur’an : al-Baqarah: 2 : 201) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 96
  97. 97. “(May) Allah grant His Reward upon Muhammad, salutations of Allah and Peace be upon him and his family, in accordance with what he deserves (in Allah’s knowledge & estimation).” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 97
  98. 98. And salutations of Allah and Peace be upon our Leader Muhammad, and upon His household and Companions . All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 98
  99. 99. ”Glory to thy Lord the Lord, of Honour and Power! (He is free) from what they ascribe (to Him)! And Peace on the Messengers! And praise to Allah, the Lord and Cherisher of the Worlds.” (Qur’an : Saffat: 37 : 180-182) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 99
  100. 100. “Grant us (these our supplication), by Your Mercy, (O Allah, You are) the Most Merciful of those who show Mercy!” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 100
  101. 101.      All welcome to visit my web-blog: http://an-naseehah.blogspot.com/ http://introductiontotauhid.blogspot.com/ http://oyoubelievers.blogspot.com/  http://al-amthaal.blogspot.com/ http://zhulkeflee-archive.blogspot.com/ http://criteriaforaholybook-quran.blogspot.com/ http://with-the-truthful.blogspot.com/ http ://muqaddam-nurul.blogspot.com/ All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2013 101

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