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[Slideshare] apex-islamic-education-madrasah-history-(11-january-2014)
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[Slideshare] apex-islamic-education-madrasah-history-(11-january-2014)

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  1. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL. Presentation by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail for APEX Toolkit 2014 Saturday 11 January 2014 @ 10.30 am – 12.30 pm Held @ Madrasah Al-Irsyad Al-Islamiah Islamic Hub, Braddel Road Singapore All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) )
  2. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL. MUQADDIMAH (AN INTRODUCTION) When I was first approached for this talk, I was informed that this gathering seek to acquaint all of you (participants), the younger Muslims, only regarding the aim and objective of our ‘Madrasah’, its history, legacy, evolution, development and challenges etc. In my opinion, it is imperative that firstly we seek to understand what the Islamic perspective on ‘EDUCATION’ is – which is but a singular, holistic development of what a Muslim should be, in accordance with the Islamic doctrine regarding the Reality (HAQIQAH) of us destined to become a good person, in accordance with his/her role as the servant of Allah. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) )
  3. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL. MUQADDIMAH (AN INTRODUCTION) Our worldly (DUNYA) success and career in this life, though important, is not the primary objective. The true success aimed for, which we must never lose sight of is the success of the Hereafter (AL-AKHIRAH). Also, the truly Islamic education is TAUHEEDIC (one singleholistic paradigm) endeavor without any dichotomy between concern for worldly DUNYA and the DEEN. Yet, many may have misunderstood or have vague idea of what this education entails, and adopted a ‘cut-and-paste’ approach in learning, which they claim of ‘integrating both kinds of knowledge’. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) )
  4. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL. MUQADDIMAH (AN INTRODUCTION) Due to this thus, I was quite hesitant to simply speak only about ‘Madrasah’ alone and requested that I be allowed to speak also about the general ‘Education of Muslims in Singapore’ - which has become dualistic. How did this happened? Why have we evolved to this? Only by having a proper understanding of our history; appreciating the legacy of our ancestors especially that of our ‘ULAMA; knowing their concern in the general Islamic education towards Muslims; the challenges and sacrifices etc. - those who, even with good intention to assist this UMMAH, may risk bringing harm unknowingly. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) )
  5. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL. MUQADDIMAH I hope to share the little that I know as a perpetual Muslim student involved in educating the Ummah, especially from the experience which Allah s.w.t. has favoured me thus far, in my learning journey as a servant, a seeker and a traveller upon the path of knowledge and wisdom. Hope that Allah SWT grant us all the TAUFIQ and HIDAAYA, with ‘ILM-waHIKMAH, seeking His REDHA and MAGHFIRAH, to serve this UMMAH, with TAQWA. (AN INTRODUCTION) “Allah suffices me and the best to Protect! Glory be to You (O Allah), of knowledge we have none except what You have taught us, verily, You All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) are perfect in Knowledge, the Most Wise.”
  6. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) (2013) )
  7. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) )
  8. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL. “Which then is best?― he that layeth his foundation on piety (TAQWA) to Allah and His Good pleasure (REDHA)?― or he that layeth his foundation on an undermined sandcliff ready to crumble to pieces? And it doth crumble to pieces with him, into the fire of Hell. And Allah guideth not people that do wrong.” (Qur’an: Taubah: 9:109) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) )
  9. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  10. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  11. “O YOU who have attained to faith! Ward off from yourselves (i.e. save yourself) and those who are close to you (AHLI-KUM) that fire [of the hereafter] whose fuel is human beings and stones: [lording] over it are angelic powers awesome [and] severe, who do not disobey Allah in whatever He has commanded them, but [always] do what they are bidden to do.” (Qur’an: Tahrim: 66: 6) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  12. Every tree begun from a seed, and would grow in stages – from seedling into a plant which from its onset develops several important crucial components viz. Its roots, its stems which then grow into trunk and branches, its barks and leaves etc. All of these has to be nurtured and let to grow in tandem – as and when conditions permits. If any of these is neglected, or process for their growth stymied to only allow one component to be fully developed without these others – then the tree may be harmed. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  13.  Due to this circumstances, our parents have sent us to ‘Islamic religious classes’ for our basic (FARDHU’AIN) , as well as to then attend conventional school.  Yet, both types of education have different aims, objectives and concerns.  Unfortunately many later emphasized too much upon conventional schooling and neglected continuing with their crucial Islamic Fardhu’ain learning and education . “Allah has not made for any man two hearts in his (one) body “ (Qur’an: Ahzab: 33: 4) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) 13
  14. LE ARAB AP “Once a man was watching, with much amazement, how a caterpillar he once saw has now wrapped itself and transformed into pupa. Through its opaque cocoon, the man could see a colourful butterfly forming within it. It was now about to break forth, yet nature requires it to undergo the stage which is rather slow requiring it to struggle out of its cocoon.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  15. LE ARAB AP “What the man saw was a helpless creature, in agony being trapped and had to endure what seems to be a long, painful struggle to freedom. So he decided to lessen the agony and assisted it by cutting, to enlarge the opening so that it can easily emerge from the constraining shell.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  16. LE ARAB AP “Thenceforth, a butterfly emerged. Yet it remained attached, clinging on to the remnant of its previous shelter. And he watched how it stood there for a considerably long time. The man had expected it to flutter away, readily displaying its beautiful wings elegantly.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  17. LE ARAB AP “On closer inspection, the man discovered to his horror, that the part of the butterfly wings was deformed – The man regretfully realized that this was due to his ‘intervention’ which unknowingly had deprived the butterfly from undergoing a crucial process needed for its transformation - in accordance with nature (FITRAH), as every butterfly should.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  18. LE ARAB AP REFLECT : HAVE WE MISSED ANY CRUCIAL STAGE IN OUR DEVELOPMENT ? All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  19. LE ARAB AP REFLECT : HAVE WE MISSED ANY CRUCIAL STAGE IN OUR DEVELOPMENT ? “So direct your face toward the religion, inclining to truth. [Adhere to] the fitrah of Allah upon which He has created [all] people. No change should there be in the creation of Allah. That is the correct religion, but most of the people do not know.” Qur’an: Rum: 30: 30) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  20. “Every child is born in a state of pure innocence ( FITWRAH), It is the parents then who would make him to become a Jew or a Christian or a Pagan.” (Hadith reported by Bukhary) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  21. AR W G IN N “When people TATRUKU - leave (set aside) the affairs of their DEEN – religion, because of their concern in improving their worldly matters, then Allah will open upon them much danger (harm).” (Hadith reported by Ahmad) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) )
  22. In 1998, while in PERGAS, I responded to criticisms upon the Madrasah by writing a paper from my research (copy available on my web link “http://An-naseehah.blogspot.com” ). In that paper, I’ve argued that the current “Madrasah education” (although it has the potential to be Islamic), yet it is not necessarily equal to what a truly “Islamic education” really is. In fact, the Muslims have, since colonial times, moved from a single holistic system of education (TAUHIDIC) into adopting a dualistic system - dichotomising the religious from the secular. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) )
  23. In fact with this, the Muslims have somewhat moved away from an “eclectic to specialist approach” (the Islamic approach of prioritizing Fardhu ‘ain knowledge before knowledge of Fardhu kifaaya) into accepting an education system that is less and less eclectic but emphasise more on specialization – driven by socioeconomic needs rather than developing the Fitrah in people to their fullest potential. Today, we have a system that educates or ‘develops’ people for the work-force - as though people are to be exploited as future market resources – i.e. driven by politico-economic policy. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) )
  24. I was asked: “Is it still possible for Muslims to strive to become Islamic scholars in the likes of the such illustrious, eclectic, profound Ulama’ – (scholar / thinker / philosopher) like e.g. AlGhazali, Ibn Rushd, Al-Biruni, Ibn Khaldun, Ibn Sinna etc. ? ” Actually this concern was already raised by many, especially since the dismantling of the last Ottoman Caliphate. The waning influence of the Muslims and their being colonized and exposed to imperialists’ rule had indeed drastically changed our approach to education. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) )
  25. Whatever remaining Islamic institutions of learning became more concerned towards essentially preserving only the “knowledge of the Deen”, because with limited resources and antagonistic colonial rulers, to be safeguarding this was of the highest priority. The ummah was under siege. Thus it is the traditional ”Madrasah” in our community evolving to be what it is today, the urgent need was indeed to fulfil a very important command in the Qur’an:   All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) )
  26. “Nor should the Believers all go forth together: if a contingent from every expedition remained behind, they could devote themselves to studies in religion and admonish the people when they return to them― that thus they (may learn) to guard themselves (against evil).” (Qur’an: Taubah: 9: 122) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) )
  27. Apart from the lack of resources, those scholars and philanthropists within the Ummah barely managed to preserve this traditional full-time Madrasah, whereas the majority Muslims opted into sending their children to the conventional schools established by the colonial masters. Interestingly a general but relevant question was raised from an ‘aleem from the Nusantara, to Syed Rashid Redha (of “alManar”) which was then given over to be responded by Amir Shakib Arslan as a book entitled: “Limaa-dza ta-akharal Muslimuuna...” – which analysed the reasons for Muslims decline. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) )
  28. A RECOMMENDED READING Author: Amir Shakib Arslan; Rashid Rida (foreword) Publisher: Islamic Book Trust (2004) Pages: 148 Binding: Paperback Description from the publisher: New Revised Edition, Paperback, 172 pages First published in the 1930s, this was a response to a letter from Shaykh Muhammad Bisyooni Umran of Indonesia requesting the author to explain the causes of Muslim weakness at the present and the causes of the strength of the Europeans and the Japanese, the factors behind their glorious empires and sovereignty, their power and wealth. His response, written in a state of great agitation became one of the masterpieces of eloquence and a proof of his wisdom. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) )
  29. But the most significant happened in 1977 with the First World Conference on Muslim Education held in Makkah. Concerned Muslims must read the deliberations of these prominent Muslim scholars in the “Islamic Education Series” published by King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah. (ISBN 0-340-23607-8) TOPICS IN THIS SERIES: Crisis in Muslim Education  Aims & Objective of Islamic Education  Muslim Education in the Modern World  Curriculum and Teacher Education  Philosophy Literature and Fine Arts ...... Etc. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) )
  30. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) )
  31. Syed M. Naquib Al-Attas asserts, it is: “... to produce a good man. What is meant by ‘good’ in our concept of ‘good man’? The fundamental element inherent in the concept of education in Islam is the inculcation of ‘ adab’ (ta’dib), for it is ‘adab’ in the all-inclusive sense I mean, as encompassing the spiritual and material life of a man that instils the quality of goodness that is sought after. Education is what the Prophet Muhammad s.a.a.w. meant by Adab : All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) )
  32. Syed M. Naquib Al-Attas asserts, it is: “... to produce a good man. What is meant by ‘good’ in our concept of ‘good man’? The fundamental element inherent in the concept of education in Islam is the inculcation of ‘ adab’ (ta’dib), for it is ‘adab’ in the all-inclusive sense I mean, as encompassing the spiritual and material life of a man that instils the quality of goodness that is sought after. Education is what the Prophet Muhammad s.a.a.w. meant by Adab : “My Lord educated me (ADABANI) , and made my education (TA’DIB) most excellent.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) )
  33. TH AD I H ER A OTH “Educate (nurture – ‘addibu’) your children with the best education (ADAB).” (Hadith of the Prophet s.a.w. narrated by Ibnu Majah ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) )
  34. TH AD I H ER A OTH “From amongst the rights of a child upon their parents are, that they be instilled (to be educated by them) with Adab and to be given a good name.” (Hadith of the Prophet s.a.w. reported by Baihaqy from Ibnu ‘Abbas r.a.) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) )
  35. TH AD I H ER A OTH “Educate (nurture with Adab – ‘addibu ’) your children upon three things: To Love your Prophet (s.a.w.), and to love the Family members of his household (Aali Muhammad), and (learn) to recite Al-Qur’an.” (Hadith of the Prophet s.a.w. narrated by Tabarani) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) )
  36. TH AD I H ER A OTH “ Teach your children and your family members with the best, and educate them (instil in them Adab).” (Hadith of the Prophet s.a.w. reported by ‘Abdur Razaq and Sa’id ibn Manshur as quoted by Dr. ‘Abdullah Nashih ‘Ulwan) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) )
  37. TH AD I H ER A OTH “There is no gift (that you can give) to your children better than (instilling in them) the good Adab.” (Hadith of the Prophet reported by Tirmidzi ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) )
  38. TH AD I H ER A OTH “Honour your children by (educating) instilling in them the best Adab.” (Hadith of the Prophet s.a.w. reported by Ibnu Majah from Ibnu ‘Abbas r.a.) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) )
  39. “Ta’-dib” ( ) – preferred term for ‘education’, from the term ‘Adab’ (             )              meaning: – “good breeding, nurture, manners, refinement, cultured, decorum, propriety, social grace, educated, etc.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) )
  40. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) )
  41. “THE SIGN OF THE TRULY LEARNED IS HUMILITY IN THE PRESENCE OF THE ALLKNOWING – WHILE THE HEEDLESS AND ARROGANT MAY BREACH THE ADAB” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) )
  42. This is based on my limited reading, understanding, and personal experiences - semblance of these approaches I have seen in my teachers’ mentoring approaches upon individuals and myself, even though it was done privately and not in educational institutions. What many have forgotten is that ‘ulama (Islamic Scholars) are the effect of the nurturing by true teachers (murobbi’), not merely from which educational institutions a person comes out from. It is the teacher, not the school which is the crucial factor. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) )
  43. Many students currently may still be developed traditionally, utilizing whatever is available – in madrasah, mosque, halaqah, home - in replicating the earlier Islamic scholars exposure and path of learning, in spite of the many disadvantages faced. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) )
  44. Starts at home: nurtured with Adab, inculcation of basic obligatory practices of a Muslim and linguistic proficiency. Sent to “Kuttab” – recitation and memorization of Al-Qur’an; may proceed to include other important texts, poetry etc. – importance of rote-learning for the young. Sitting (talaqqi) with scholars (in Jami’ [mosque] or madrasah or halaqah) to expand upon the knowledge of the Deen, both horizontally (eclectic) and vertically (depth and profoundness). All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) )
  45. His field of study may be expanded to include various other (AAKHAR) worldly sciences, where the interest in those relevant field of study are also progressively nurtured. Some may be sent to guilds to also to be mentored to acquire skills, crafts or trades, and contemporary empirical knowledge which today we call “worldly sciences and technology” – relevant to his development, while still continuing in their learning path, primarily upon the knowledge of the Religion ‘ULUM AD-DEEN *. * It is wrong to refer to it as UKHRAWI All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) )
  46. Thus for example, we learnt that Abu ‘Ali Ibn Sina (AVICCENA) already was acknowledged at 17 years old, to be a scholar in the knowledge of the Deen but his passion to learn every other knowledge and sciences available then, was also pursued by him with equal religious fervour and passion. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) ) IBNU SINA
  47. He was already known to be well-versed in the sciences of the Deen, but the world today seemed to only appreciate and highlight his expertise in the medical science – especially the Latin translation :“Canon Medicinæ” or “Canon of Medicine” (“Qanun fi-al-Tibb”) which impacted the Western civilization. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) )
  48. Abu Ḥ amed Muḥ ammad ibn Muḥ ammad al-Ghazali (ALGAZALE) began to receive instruction in FIQH (Islamic jurisprudence) under illustrious scholars of the time until he assumed a very high scholarship in Islam. AL-GHAZALI Later he was immersed into Sufism for which Al-Ghazali contributed significantly to the development of a systematic view of TASAWWUF and its integration and acceptance in mainstream Islam. He was also well versed in Greek philosophy and refuted several of the views which was held by the Mu’tazilite of his time. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) )
  49. Abu al-Walid Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Rushd (AVERROES). His education followed a traditional path, beginning with studies in hadith, linguistics, jurisprudence (FIQH) IBNU RUSHD and scholastic theology (‘ILM UL-KALAM). The earliest biographers and Muslim chroniclers speak little about his education in science and philosophy; where most interest from Western scholarship in him lies; but note his propensity towards the law and his life as a jurist (QADHI). All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) )
  50. It is generally believed that Ibn Rushd was influenced by the philosophy of Ibn Bajjah (AVEMPACE), and perhaps was once tutored by him. His medical education was directed IBNU RUSHD under Abu Jafar ibn Harun of Trujillo. His aptitude for medicine too was noted by his contemporaries and his major enduring work Kitab al-Kulliyat fi al-Tibb (Generalities), together with another book (on Particulars) written by Abu Marwan Ibn Zuhr, became the main medical textbooks for physicians in the Jewish, Christian and Muslim worlds for centuries to come. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) )
  51. WHAT CAN BE LEARNT Although essentially these scholars are scholars of the Deen, yet their eclectic exposure motivated them to expand and profoundly learnt other sciences which their learning paths had exposed them to. The concept of “ITQAN ” and the principle would be adhered to in their “learning culture / discipline”. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) )
  52. “Every matter (knowledge, skill, etc.), for which an obligation cannot be fulfilled except by (possessing) it (i.e. knowledge and skill), its acquisition is (therefore) obligatory (waajib).” - An Islamic principle. To understand this, refer to Adab of students in Imam Ghazali’s “Ihya ‘ulumuddeen” Kitaab al- ’ilm”) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) )
  53. From the preceding background that has been explained, our next pertinent and relevant question is …. “ CAN WE MUSLIMS, DO SOMETHING ABOUT IT, NOW ? ” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) )
  54. There cannot be any effective solution without knowing the history All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) )
  55. Western colonial powers introduced their schooling system, even though natives already have their own- i.e. either vernacular or religious based. When linked to economic and job opportunities, which favoured cohorts from such schools, private native or religious full-time schools lost its appeal. Yet, Muslims students generally were provided Islamic religious classes outside school hours at home, mosques or the madrasah (part-time). All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) )
  56. Full-time madrasah gradually evolved distinctly to focus in producing the elite – “teachers of Islam” - to ensure the rest of the Muslims are guided with their Islamic knowledge. Thus, other Muslim students were made to adapt to this “dualistic education system” – full-time conventional school (academic) and part-time (religious) taught by these teachers. The full-time Madrasah is therefore an exception rather than the rule; fully private and independent, constituting only less than 4% of the total cohorts; sustained by the community & philanthropists. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) )
  57. Students who were sent to these full-time Madrasah originally, were those with parents with altruistic-religious reasons, not due to economic gains as their primary reason. The basic curriculum at the primary level were equally needed by those who do not attend full-time Madrasah. To accommodate these, traditional Madrasah extended their function or assign their students to conduct part-time Madrasah. We in Singapore have had over 30 registered independent madrasahs but today it dwindled to only 6 which are as full-time schools. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) )
  58. When at one time, IRK (Islamic Religious Knowledge) was incorporated in government schools which somewhat took on the function which independent Madrasah had fulfilled, its proliferation and existence then became regarded as less urgent. Lulled into the availability of ‘alternative’, many of these part-time Madrasah lost its appeal leading to lesser cohorts and gradually became neglected. When IRK was scrapped from being taught in government schools, it hence left a major void. We have not yet fully recovered from this ‘traumatic’ loss . The truncation from our tradition and loss of Adab - have now caused many to ‘experiment’ with many kinds of curriculum or approaches. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) )
  59. TASAWWUR ISLAM IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL. Extracted from: “INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF FIQH ” Intermediate Level Islamic course in English for Adults conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) UPDATED APRIL 2013
  60. “Invite (all) to the way of thy Lord with wisdom ( BIL-HIKMAH) and beautiful preaching (MAU-’IZAH-HASANAH); and argue with them in ways that are best and most gracious (JAADIL-HUM-BIL-LATI -HIYA AHSAN): for thy Lord knows, best who have strayed from His Path, and who receive guidance. “ All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) (Qur’an: an-Nahlu: 16: 125)
  61. “O Prophet! Truly We have sent thee as a Witness (SHAAHIDAH), a Bearer of Glad Tidings (MUBAS-SHIRAH), and a Warner (NADZEERAH)― And as one who invites to Allah's (Grace) by His leave ( DAA-’IYAN ILALLAAH) , and as a Lamp spreading Light (SIRAAJAN MUNEERAH).” (Qur’an: an-Nahlu: 16: 45-46) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  62. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  63. Independent – by community HALAQAH KUTTAB VISITING ISLAMIC SCHOLARS QUR’AN SCHOOL MOSQUE All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  64. Independent – by community HALAQAH KUTTAB VISITING ISLAMIC SCHOLARS QUR’AN SCHOOL Government controlled BRITISH ENGLISH SCHOOLS ENGLISH SCHOOLS MOSQUE Seen as alien (and Christian), generally the indigenous Malay-Muslims then, were afraid to sending their children All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  65. Independent – by community HALAQAH KUTTAB VISITING ISLAMIC SCHOLARS QUR’AN SCHOOL Government controlled BRITISH ENGLISH SCHOOLS ENGLISH SCHOOLS MOSQUE VERNACULAR SCHOOLS To remove the fear, the British colonial Government Introduced Vernacular schools referred to as ‘Sekolah Melayu’ All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  66. Independent – by community HALAQAH KUTTAB VISITING ISLAMIC SCHOLARS QUR’AN SCHOOL Government controlled BRITISH ENGLISH SCHOOLS ENGLISH SCHOOLS MOSQUE ARABIC SCHOOL ( Madrasah) Yet, full-time schools teaching Islam continued but to differentiate it, began to be referred to as ‘Sekolah Arab’ All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) VERNACULAR SCHOOLS
  67. Independent – by community HALAQAH KUTTAB Government controlled VISITING ISLAMIC SCHOLARS QUR’AN SCHOOL BRITISH ENGLISH SCHOOLS ENGLISH SCHOOLS MOSQUE ARABIC SCHOOL ( Madrasah) SEKOLAH AGAMA (Madrasah) More such school teaching the religion sprouted. And to emphasize its religious orientation, these schools then were simply called “Sekolah Agama” or the Arabic “Madrasah” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) VERNACULAR SCHOOLS
  68. Independent – by community HALAQAH KUTTAB VISITING ISLAMIC SCHOLARS QUR’AN SCHOOL Government controlled BRITISH ENGLISH SCHOOLS ENGLISH SCHOOLS MOSQUE ARABIC SCHOOL ( Madrasah) SEKOLAH AGAMA (Madrasah) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) VERNACULAR SCHOOLS Asaatizah absorbed by M.O.E into vernacular schools to teach I.R.K. (Islamic Religious knowledge)
  69. Independent – by community HALAQAH KUTTAB VISITING ISLAMIC SCHOLARS QUR’AN SCHOOL Government controlled BRITISH ENGLISH SCHOOLS ENGLISH SCHOOLS MOSQUE ARABIC SCHOOL ( Madrasah) SEKOLAH AGAMA (Madrasah) VERNACULAR SCHOOLS Asaatizah absorbed by M.O.E into vernacular schools to teach I.R.K. (Islamic Religious knowledge) With the availability of lesson on Islam, the general Malay-Muslim population’s concern for their children’s Islamic education were pacified All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  70. Independent – by community HALAQAH KUTTAB VISITING ISLAMIC SCHOLARS QUR’AN SCHOOL Government controlled BRITISH ENGLISH SCHOOLS ENGLISH SCHOOLS MOSQUE ARABIC SCHOOL (Madrasah) SEKOLAH AGAMA (Madrasah) VERNACULAR SCHOOLS Asaatizah absorbed by M.O.E into vernacular schools to teach I.R.K. (Islamic Religious knowledge) INTEGRATED SCHOOLS All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  71. Independent – by community HALAQAH KUTTAB VISITING ISLAMIC SCHOLARS QUR’AN SCHOOL Government controlled BRITISH ENGLISH SCHOOLS ENGLISH SCHOOLS MOSQUE ARABIC SCHOOL (Madrasah) SEKOLAH AGAMA (Madrasah) VERNACULAR SCHOOLS Asaatizah absorbed by M.O.E into vernacular schools to teach I.R.K. (Islamic Religious knowledge) INTEGRATED SCHOOLS FULL ENGLISH MEDIUM SCHOOLS All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  72. Independent – by community HALAQAH KUTTAB VISITING ISLAMIC SCHOLARS QUR’AN SCHOOL Government controlled BRITISH ENGLISH SCHOOLS ENGLISH SCHOOLS MOSQUE ARABIC SCHOOL (Madrasah) SEKOLAH AGAMA (Madrasah) VERNACULAR SCHOOLS Asaatizah absorbed by M.O.E into vernacular schools to teach I.R.K. (Islamic Religious knowledge) INTEGRATED SCHOOLS FULL ENGLISH MEDIUM SCHOOLS TEACHING I.R.K TOTALLY SCRAPPED All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  73. Independent – by community HALAQAH KUTTAB VISITING ISLAMIC SCHOLARS QUR’AN SCHOOL Government controlled BRITISH ENGLISH SCHOOLS ENGLISH SCHOOLS MOSQUE ARABIC SCHOOL (Madrasah) MADRASAH Home-based study circles; Family trust; MUIS - mosgues; Islamic organizations; VERNACULAR SCHOOLS Asaatizah absorbed by M.O.E into vernacular schools to teach I.R.K. (Islamic Religious knowledge) INTEGRATED SCHOOLS FULL ENGLISH MEDIUM SCHOOLS private schools ; individual scholars; etc. TEACHING I.R.K TOTALLY SCRAPPED All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  74. Independent – by community HALAQAH VISITING u es ISLAMIC ntin o SCHOLARS ge c n Government controlled … BRITISH ENGLISH SCHOOLS e hall c ENGLISH SCHOOLS the QUR’AN SCHOOL And MOSQUE ‘WAQF’ – THE VERNACULAR SCHOOLS KUTTAB VERNACULAR SCHOOLS Acquisition and Land Lease issue ARABIC SCHOOL (Madrasah) MADRASAH Asaatizah absorbed by THE COMPULSORY EDUCATION vernacular M.O.E into PSLE BENCHMARK schools to teach I.R.K. AND LIMITATION OF COHORTS INTEGRATED SCHOOLS Home-based study circles; Family THE J.M.S. ISSUE trust; FULL ENGLISH MEDIUM SCHOOLS MUIS - mosgues; IslamicASAATIZAH – TEACHERS- TRAINING organizations; private schools ; individual scholars; etc.…. ETC. TEACHING I.R.K TOTALLY SCRAPPED All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  75. * As conveyed to me by al-Ustaz Ahmad Sonhadji Muhammad Milatu (Allahyarhamhu) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  76.  Madrasah Islah Islamiyyah Pepys Rd. off Pasir Panjang Rd.  Ma’ahadul Irsyad 67-6 Hindhede Rd.  Madrasatul Haq Al-Islamiyyah 97-C West Coast Road.  Madrasah Addiniyah Al-Islamiyah Kg. Bahru Road. E OR M NO All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) IN CE EN ST EXI
  77.  Madrasah Al-Hidayah Al-Islamiyah 26, Block 24, Tanglin Halt.  Madrasah Ar-Ridwan Lot G, Jalan Madrasah  Madrasah Khairah Block 60, Canberra Road.  Madrasah Attarbiyah Addiniyah 27, Lorong Mekola off Jalan Kayu. CE EN  Madrasah Al-Islamiyah Sembawang T XIS E E IN R 51, Andrew Avenue. MO O All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) N
  78.  Madrasah Abu Kassim Lorong Abu Kassim, Pasir Panjang Road.  Madrasah Taman Jurong Block 54, 45/47 Yung An Road.  Madrasah Asriyah 56, Lorong Melayu.  Madrasah Al-Hidayah Lorong 21, Geylang Road. CE EN ST EXI  Madrasah Bustanul Arifin IN RE MO Coronation Road. NO All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  79.  Madrasah Kampung Paya Goyang Somerset Road.  Madrasah Al-Wataniyah Kampung Paya, Jalan Serai.  Madrasatus-Sibyan Kg. Bunga Raya, Lorong Engku Aman.  Madrasah al-Saedatul Islamiyyah West Coast Rd , 81/4 ms.  Madrasatul Islamiyah CE EN T XIS 2A, Kampung Berih Rd off Chua Chu Kang RE IN E O OM N All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  80.  Madrasah Tahdzibiyah Islamiyah 15, Jalan Ulu Seletar, Nee Soon.  Madrasah Diniyah Ellis Road.  Madrasatul Mabtadi 120, Block 14, Stirling Road.  Madrasah Ahmad Yahya Masjid Ahmad, South Buona Vista CE EN ST EXI  Madrasah Azamiyah Islamiyah E IN R MO c/o Penjara Changi. NO All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  81.  Madrasah Attariah Al-Islamiyah 97A Estate off Jalan Woodbridge  Madrasah Tengku Abdul Jalil Kampung Pahang, Pulau Tekong  Sekolah Ugama Pulau Seking Pulau Seking.  Taman Pendidikan Islam 14, Jalan Kunyit. CE EN ST EXI  Sekolah Ugama Radin Mas IN RE MO 47A, Raden Mas, Telok Blanga. NO All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  82.  Sekolah Ugama Penjara Singapura 48, Jalan Penjara off Margaret Drive  Sekolah Ugama Kampung Bedok 11, Jalan Bilal off Bedok Road.  Sekolah Ugama Rakyat Jurong Jalan Majapahit, Upper Jurong Road.  Sekolah Ugama Rakyat Naval Base Canada Road, Naval Base, Sembawang. CE EN ST EXI  Sekolah Rakyat Islam IN RE MO Jalan Eunos. NO All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  83.  Sekolah Ugama Bukit Gombak Lorong 4, Bukit Gombak.  Sekolah Ugama Surau Akhyar Lorong Lompang. E OR M NO All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) IN CE EN ST EXI
  84. STILL EXISTING - AS IN 2011 Madrasah Al-Khairiyah Islamiyyah 152, Still Road.(as part-time) Madrasah Aljunied Al-Islamiyyah 395, Victoria Street. (built in 1927) 30, Victoria Lane (relocated) Madrasah Wak Tanjong 589-D Sims Avenue. (built in 1987) Madrasah Alsagoff Al-Arabiyyah 111, Jalan Sultan. (built in 1912) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  85. STILL EXISTING - AS IN 2011 Madrasah Al-Arabiyyah No 12, Jalan Selamat. Lorong 13 Geylang Road. (relocated) Madrasah Al-Ma’arif No.14, Ipoh Lane. (built 1939) No. 3, Lorong 39, Geylang Road (relocated) Madrasah Al-Irsyad Al-Islamiyah No.6 Hindhede Road No. 9 Winstedt Road Islamic Hub, 277 Braddel Road (relocated) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  86. STILL EXISTING - AS IN 2011 PART-TIME MADRASAH MANAGED BY PERGAS AND OTHER MUSLIM ASSOCIATIONS. PART-TIME MADRASAH IN LOCAL MOSQUES THROUGHOUT SINGAPORE. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  87. STILL EXISTING - AS IN 2011 ISLAMIC RELIGIOUS CLASSES, HALAQAH, CONDUCTED BY INDIVIDUAL TEACHERS. PRIVATE ISLAMIC EDUCATIONAL CENTRES. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  88. COHORTS FROM CURRENT FULL-TIME MADRASAH SYSTEM All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  89. The direction of where the current full-time Madrasah education is heading to, may be becoming vague. It seemed to be imitating what conventional schools are doing - many seemed to have forgotten that being independent (just like seminary), it should pursue its own course of aim and objective for which it was instituted, and not allow itself to be dictated by others with their extraneous interest and agendas. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  90. Whereas now, economic concern and paper chase (exambased) curriculum are being imitated, and students are unnecessarily burdened, requiring them to also compete with those in conventional schools. Thus, they lose focus of their primary objective to become the future vanguard Islamic scholars into joining the general student cohorts destined for the ‘rat-race’. If these full-time madrasah are meant to supply religious teachers, they should not be “distracted” and become “diverted” from its original aim. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  91. Psychologically, the students from full-time Madrasah are affected negatively - being made to compare themselves with those of the mainstream. Surely, its like trying “to compare apples with oranges – although both are fruits.” Already disadvantaged with many inadequacies, their morale are further affected by confusion in terms of management, leadership, staffing, curriculum, etc. And now, it may face closure if cohorts do not meet the national school PSLE standards. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  92. They are our precious hope to become personalities exuding honour, self-esteem, courage, sagacity and pillar of strength as successors of the legacy of prophets – whereas now the opposite effect is undermining their growth and development. They are our community’s hope to become religious guides and lead future generations, yet are left neglected and made to be at a disadvantage. Their future are made to look bleak, many of these cohorts may have already contemplated discarding their task of replacing our ulama’ as future religious teachers- to pursue other career. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  93. Actually, the so-called ‘economic or pragmatic argument’ is irrelevant. The issue here is about “Amanah” (a sacred trust). The Muslim community must recognize the real value of this group in their social contribution and most importantly as guardians of ‘ulum al-Deen - to provide our community Irshadah (guidance). The disparity between their true worth and their economic worth must be corrected by the Muslim community themselves; in creating jobs and set their appropriate remunerations which should not to be determined by market forces but based on realistic societal-value. Utilize funds from “Baytul-maal” if need be. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  94. Some who attempt to integrate the syllabus with the so-called “dunyawi - ukhrawi ” labelling are themselves unclear of how actual Islamic categorization of knowledge should be. Some peoples’ claim that what they do for the Madrasah’s curriculum is “Islamizing” it. Yet, it may in fact be “de-Islamizing” because the definitive Islamic character of Madrasah and its graduates which they should aspire to is neglected to merely imitating the conventional school. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  95. Thus, its aim may have already been eroded and replaced by something else, and the graduates now are not very different from that of the mainstream schools. So have we truly upheld the trust Amanah and aspiration of our predecessors? All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  96. COHORTS FROM CONVENTIONAL ( NON – MADRASAH ) SYSTEM All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  97. Students from this system who do not have Islamic lessons in their schools have to be given separate Islamic education outside their school hours. This is especially crucial ever since IRK (Islamic Religious knowledge) was scrapped. Many may not even have any rudimentary lesson on Islam, especially once they start going to conventional schools or because their parents and family are neglectful or are not well-endowed with religious knowledge themselves. Those who still regard their child’s Islamic upbringing as important may seek for them whatever Islamic religious classes outside school. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  98. Those who pursue in part-time Madrasah may just receive a “watered-down” and a very general curriculum of Fardhu ‘Ain, and may lack the motivation or passion in attending these classes. Given the emphasis on Academic excellence, their “ Aqeedah-mic” aspect of development takes a back-seat or even totally neglected. The way lessons on Islam taught to them generally are disparate and unstructured. Usually conducted based on subjects, but without emphasis of their interconnectedness and the absence of urgency (compulsion) regarding their acquisition. Many assumed merely to be attending only in one of these weekly as sufficient. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  99. As long as this education is kept “dualistic” without the proper and correct orientation towards understanding the Islamic worldview, the Muslims in general are made to somehow accept the secular philosophy of dichotomizing knowledge into secular-vs-religious. The reality is that every contemporary science and knowledge are not neutral but are mostly based upon the secular-humanistic worldview. Although some may regard it as being free of religion, yet those who teach them or specialize in them usually advocate “secularism” - as a philosophical agenda. And ironically they do it ‘religiously’ but claiming themselves as being neutral (areligious). All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  100. Thus it is that many Muslim professionals from this system may even encounter a kind of dilemma in their respective career. A remarkable example was the experience of Prof. Malik Badri who explained his life-experience in his excellent book (published 1979) – “The dilemma of Muslim Psychologists”. Although it deals with psychology, yet it typically represent similar dilemma of Muslims in other fields of specialization - career - especially when they were taught social sciences and humanistic studies from conventional university. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  101. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  102. Amongst the remedies is the “ISLAMIZATION” movement – for both types in these dualistic education system – envisaged since 1977. Although this process can be applied wherever required in whichever system, yet it is to be most effective at the higher level (tertiary) prior to these graduates assuming their roles as scholars - educators of the Ummah. The anti-thesis to “Islamization” is really “Secularism” which every Muslim aspiring to be scholars must know profoundly too, so that they can appreciate the relevant responses, so that a complete and Islamized education can be achieved. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  103. A RECOMMENDED READING The author deals with fundamental problems faced by contemporary Muslims and provides real solutions, beginning with a discussion on ‘The Contemporary Western Christian Background’ in Chapter (I), followed by his analysis of the concepts (which he newly defines) of ‘secular’, ‘secularization’, and ‘secularism’ in Chapter (II). All this is then contrasted in Chapter (IV) of the book entitled ‘Islam: The Concept of Religion and the Foundation of Ethics and Morality’. Based on all the preceding explanation, the author proceeds to analyze the Muslim ‘dilemma’ by declaring that it should be resolved primarily through what he calls the “dewesternization of knowledge” or, conversely, the “islamization of contemporary knowledge”, an original concept conceived and elucidated by the author for the past three decades. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) ISLAM AND SECULARISM
  104. A RECOMMENDED READING Prolegomena to the Metaphysics of Islam by Muhammad Naquib Syed Al-Attas This is a very important book. No book of its kind, in profundity as well as magnitude of scope and comprehensive grasp of modern intellectual challenges facing the contemporary Muslim World, appeared in the last century. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  105. A RECOMMENDED READING Wan Mohd Nor Wan Daud, The Educational Philosophy and Practice of Syed Muhammad Naquib Al‑ Attas, ISTAC, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Although there are several groups promoting the ‘Islamization’ agenda especially in the West, the use of this term and its idea was first mooted by Prof. Syed M. Naquib Al-Attas. Many who are critical of ‘Islamization’ may have mistaken what others are attempting without knowing what was advocated originally by him. The author have presented how Al-Attas’ seminal ideas may have been ‘hijacked’ and misrepresented. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  106. A RECOMMENDED READING Islam And The Plight Of Modern Man by Seyyed Hossein Nasr This is one of the most important writings of the author on the subject of the encounter and interrelation between Islam and modernism. Addressed at once to Muslims and Westerners, the author deals in depth with the intellectual and spiritual crisis of modern man as well as the dilemmas of the contemporary Muslim faced with the daunting challenge of the modern world. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  107. A RECOMMENDED READING Traditional Islam in the Modern World by Seyyed Hossein Nasr An elaboration and defence of "traditional" Islam, as opposed to the modernist and fundamentalist forms, by one of the best-informed, most articulate Muslims of our time. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  108. A RECOMMENDED READING “Today, there are few intellectual issues more important to the contemporary Islamic world than the relation of Islam and modern science and in this central discourse the voice of Osman Bakar remains among the most pertinent. Among his many writings, the present book holds a privileged position and the appearance of a new edition of it is itself proof of the pertinence of this opus and the continuous interest in it. “ --Seyyed Hossein Nasr All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) Tawhid and Science By : Osman Bakar
  109. A RECOMMENDED READING “The lives and the ideas of the three thinkers discussed in Classification of Knowledge in Islam - al-Farabi (870-950AD), al-Ghazzali (1058-1111AD) and Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi (1236-1311AD) - cover the pivotal period of Islamic history from the first flourishing of the philosophical sciences to the sacking of Baghdad by the Mongols. In addition, each of these three thinkers was either a founder or an eminent representative of a major intellectual school in Islam.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) Classification of Knowledge in Islam: A Study in Islamic Philosophies of Science By : Osman Bakar
  110. What are the proven desired outcomes …. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  111. God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer, perpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yet worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just, humble and compassionate, and many more ... But they would always regard themselves as perpetual students. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  112. God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer, perpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yet worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just, humble and compassionate, and many more ... But they would always regard themselves as perpetual students. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  113. God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer, perpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yet worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just, humble and compassionate, and many more ... But they would always regard themselves as perpetual students. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  114. God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer, perpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yet worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just, humble and compassionate, and many more ... But they would always regard themselves as perpetual students. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  115. God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer, perpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yet worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just, humble and compassionate, and many more ... But they would always regard themselves as perpetual students. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  116. God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer, perpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yet worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just, humble and compassionate, and many more ... But they would always regard themselves as perpetual students. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  117. God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer, perpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yet worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just, humble and compassionate, and many more ... But they would always regard themselves as perpetual students. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  118. God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer, perpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yet worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just, humble and compassionate, and many more ... But they would always regard themselves as perpetual students. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  119. God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer, perpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yet worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just, humble and compassionate, and many more ... But they would always regard themselves as perpetual students. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  120. God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer, perpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yet worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just, humble and compassionate, and many more ... But they would always regard themselves as perpetual students. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  121. God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer, perpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yet worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just, humble and compassionate, and many more ... But they would always regard themselves as perpetual students. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  122. God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer, perpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yet worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just, humble and compassionate, and many more ... But they would always regard themselves as perpetual students. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  123. God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer, perpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yet worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just, humble and compassionate, and many more ... But they would always regard themselves as perpetual students. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  124. NOTE: God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, THIS LIST IS NOT EXHAUSTIVE, ONLY TO HIGHLIGHT THOSE thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer, WHICH ARE SIGNIFICANTLY perpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yet OVERLOOKED BY MANY WHO MAY worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just, ONLY EMPHASISE PAPER humble and compassionate, and many more ... QUALIFICATION But they would always regard themselves as AND NOT THEIR PERSONAL ISLAMIC VIRTUES perpetual students. AND CHARACTERISTICS. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  125. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  126. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  127. This advice is for those who are upon the course of study, generally regarded as “Islamic Studies” – a label of convenience in the ‘Dualistic’ system of education – the effect of secularism. Sadly: “... many Muslims may have learnt Islam as a subject, but not subjecting themselves to Islam.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  128. Because currently we Muslims tend to imitate conventional approach, our students specializing in the sciences of the Deen (Deeniyat) may not have had adequate Fardhu ‘ain groundings. By this I mean – a generic but eclectic exposure of various knowledge, which must include other (ukhra - aakhar) contemporary worldly sciences, knowledge and life-skills, crafts and trades etc. complimenting with the Islamic knowledge gained. This linkage between Deeniyat-Dunyawi - perhaps can be explained in the basic “ISLAM-IIMAN-IHSAN” – Tauhidic paradigm of a Muslim’s basic education. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  129. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) 129
  130. Tauheedic paradigm ‘ILM TAUHEED - ‘AQIDAH (Creed or Theology)   All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  131. Tauheedic paradigm ‘ILM TAUHEED - ‘AQIDAH (Creed or Theology)   Purpose / Objective Development of Certainty (Belief) Awareness of Reality / Truth Develop discernment between Truth & Falsehood, What is involved? ‘Aql - (proper use of Reason / Intellect) Fitrah - Instincts & innate feeling (perception) Tauqifiy – Revelations & reliable traditions What is the Effect? To develop firm conviction, strong principle, Commitment to concept of Unity & Justice of Allah (Tauheed); knowing the true purpose, role and Destiny of Man. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) 131
  132. Tauheedic paradigm ‘ILM TAUHIID - ‘AQIDAH (Creed or Theology)   RELEVANT COMPLEMENTARY Purpose / Objective KNOWLEDGE: Development of Certainty (Belief) Languages, Logic & philosophy, Awareness of Reality / Truth Epistemology, Biology, Botany, Develop discernment between Truth & Falsehood, Chemistry, Physical sciences, Astronomy, Geology, History, Anthropology, Marine & Space, What is involved? Etc. ‘Aql - (proper use of Reason / Intellect) Fitrah - Instincts & innate feeling (perception) Tauqifiy – Revelations & reliable traditions What is the Effect? To develop firm conviction, strong principle, Commitment to concept of Unity & Justice of Allah (Tauheed); knowing the true purpose, role and Destiny of Man. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) 132
  133. Tauheedic paradigm ‘ILM FIQH (Practical Laws for life; Learning of the Shari’ah)   All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  134. Tauheedic paradigm ‘ILM FIQH (Practical Laws for life; Learning of the Shari’ah)   Purpose / Objective Development of Correct Practices; Submission & Obedience to Will of Allah (Islam) What is involved? Knowing the law, rules as Guidance to every aspect of life Capability to implementing them in life What is the Effect? To develop a community of people, Inviting to what is good Enjoining what is right, and forbidding evil, Advocating the fulfilment of AMANAH (Trust) As Allah’s Khalifah (vicegerent), Establishing the Brotherhood of Man in The servitude of One God. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) 134
  135. Tauheedic paradigm ‘ILM FIQH (Practical Laws for life; Learning of the Shari’ah)   Purpose / Objective Development of Correct Practices; BROAD EXTENTObedience to WillCOVERED IN FIQH Submission & OF TOPICS of Allah (Islam) ‘ibadah (personal devotion / worship) What is involved? Muamalah (social transaction) Knowing the law, rules as Guidance to every aspect of life Munakahah (Marriageimplementing them in life Capability to & family) Irth / fara’id (Distribution of wealth) What & punishment) Jinayah (crimes is the Effect? To develop a community of people, Qodha’iyah (judiciary) Inviting to what is good jihad / is right, and forbidding evil, & peace) Enjoining what Da’wah (struggle in war imarah (Leadership/government) Advocating the fulfilment of AMANAH (Trust) As Allah’s Khalifah (vicegerent), Establishing the Brotherhood of Man in The servitude of One God. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) 135
  136. Tauheedic paradigm ‘ILM FIQH (Practical Laws for life; Learning of the Shari’ah) RELEVANT COMPLEMENTARY KNOWLEDGE:   All applied sciences, technology Purpose / Objective and skills, knowledge of economics, politics, social & Development of Correct Practices; administrative Submission & Obedience to Will of Allah (Islam) sciences etc. that can assist in the fulfilment of establishing justice, order, peace, What is involved? Knowing the harmony, prosperity, physical law, rules as Guidance to every aspect of life Capability progress, and them in life with moralto implementingthe well-being of Man & society, etc. What is the Effect? To develop a community of people, Inviting to what is good Enjoining what is right, and forbidding evil, Advocating the fulfilment of AMANAH (Trust) As Allah’s Khalifah (vicegerent), Establishing the Brotherhood of Man in The servitude of One God. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) 136
  137. Tauheedic paradigm ‘ILM AKHLAQ / TASAWWUF / IRFAN (Science of human Disposition/ Sufism)   All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  138. Tauheedic paradigm ‘ILM AKHLAQ / TASAWWUF / IRFAN (Science of human Disposition/ Sufism)   Purpose / Objective Development of Righteous Personality Purification/perfection of the Self What is involved? Reforming or purification of the Self (Nafs) Best behaviour in relationship with Allah, within oneself, and with others. Knowledge of Self and of Allah (Gnosis) What is the Effect? Development of Most noble personality traits Founded on Love of Allah, of all His prophets [Nabiyyin] especially the Seal of Prophethood Muhammad s.a.w., his Household [itrah or Ahlul-bayti wa Aali -Rasul] and loyal Companions [Ashaab], In fellowship with the Truthful [siddiqqin], the Witnesses & martyrs [shuhada] and the Righteous servants of Allah [Solihin]; Striving to purify the Self (Nafs) and adorning it with the Exalted Moral traits of Our Beloved Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. (The Perfected Man – “Insan Kaamil”) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) 138
  139. Tauheedic paradigm ‘ILM AKHLAQ / TASAWWUF / IRFAN (Science of human Disposition/ Sufism)   Purpose / Objective RELEVANT COMPLEMENTARY KNOWLEDGE: Development of Righteous Personality This aspect of development requires Purification/perfection of the being practical behaviour, the aspect ofSelf and becoming. Its area of development is the innerWhat is involved? psyche’ or Self, the ‘human Reforming or purification of the Selfhis the state of the Soul reflected in (Nafs) Best behaviour in relationship with close Disposition (Akhlaq). Therefore, theAllah, within perhaps be with others. equivalent mayoneself, and‘human’ psychology, Knowledge of Self and of Allah (Gnosis) behavioural sciences, manners & discipline, etc. What is the Effect? Development of Most noble personality traits Founded on Love of Allah, of all His prophets [Nabiyyin] especially the Seal of Prophethood Muhammad s.a.w., his Household [itrah or Ahlul-bayti wa Aali -Rasul] and loyal Companions [Ashaab], In fellowship with the Truthful [siddiqqin], the Witnesses & martyrs [shuhada] and the Righteous servants of Allah [Solihin]; Striving to purify the Self (Nafs) and adorning it with the Exalted Moral traits of Our Beloved Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. (The Perfected Man – “Insan Kaamil”) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) 139
  140. Unfortunately, their specialization in only ‘Ulum-ud-deen (but imitating conventional system in producing specialist – in their case “religious sciences”) may have been prematurely embarked too soon which, unfortunately led to their discarding the traditional criteria for what constitute Fardhu ‘Ain knowledge, which has to be eclectic to include acquisition of contemporary science and knowledge (relevant & complimentary) vis-a-vis to what they are learning in Islam (Deeniyat). Even when these contemporary sciences and knowledge are taught, it seem to be merely imitating mechanically what is done in conventional schools without concern for how it is relevant to their Islamic development – instead of to clear the PSLE examination. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  141. It is found that when they are exposed further at tertiary level to contemporary science, knowledge and ideologies (secular humanist philosophy) in conventional learning centres or university, most of them would not be able to critically sieve and react to those teachings which are antithetical to Islamic worldview from those that are not. It has happened to several Madrasah students, some were prominent graduates from ‘Pesantren’ even, who sadly, have become totally transformed (secularized) after being sent abroad to continue their tertiary or post-graduate education in Western universities. Many of them now are in fact leading the “Liberal Islam network” groups. We cannot accept this scandalous “ brain-drain” to continue to persist. Let’s face it - Secularization of Muslim as a program, is real. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  142. We should introduce intervention – e.g. diagnostic of what may have been missed in their education - has to be done. Also, to conduct a re-orientation of their attitude, philosophy and motivation (drivers) and proactively prepare them with those that a true Islamic Scholar should have – this is imperative. Thus somekind of “clinic, therapy, counselling”- (not merely in academic but also in terms of spiritual and especially Adab) to address this, for each student, throughout their stint in the Madrasah. This can be through mentoring by a qualified “murobbi” who traditionally, will usually begin with this “diagnosis” and henceforth monitor the student’s educational development. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  143. To become an Islamic scholar specializing in religious sciences (Deeniyat), his grasp of the general Fardhu ‘ain knowledge must be of a much higher standard than that for a lay Muslim’s. This is quite similar perhaps in medical profession i.e. before a doctor proceed towards becoming a specialist, he or she is required to have obtained good competency in the general medical course first. In fact the general perception of what constitute Fardhu ‘Ain knowledge for Muslims, needs to be clarified and any misconceptions regarding it, corrected for all Muslims – especially to the parents and guardians; the teachers and mentors, etc. involved with the Madrasah. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  144. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  145. This advice is for those who are in the conventional schooling system. The irony that the “University” from the word (kulliyat – ‘universal’) actually was inspired or copied from the “ Jami’ah” the centre where early Muslims learnt many sciences; is actually now producing specialists and should rather be called “Specialise-ty” : because it is producing scholars with “ Juz-’iy” (particular) rather than “kulliy” (universal) knowledge. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  146. Although Muslim students and graduates from conventional educational system, can be said to possess knowledge; or they may even be regarded as experts in their academic field, yet to confer the epithet “Islamic scholars – (‘ulama)” is very much dependent upon whether, Islamic criteria e.g. Its creed, practices, worldview, philosophy, approaches etc. has shaped his scholarship or not. Unfortunately, many may have discarded the Islamic norms (or hold it abeyance), to embrace a secular philosophy and approach, purporting themselves to being neutral from any religion, when undergoing conventional education. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  147. To be regarded as Islamic scholars, even when specializing in ‘socalled’ non-religious sciences (Dunyawi), his grasp of the general Fardhu ‘ain knowledge as Muslims, must already be of such high standard – to commensurate or be at par, with his intellectual / academic achievement and status. Only when, in their field of scholarship it is fully dominated or driven by the Islamic ethos, worldview and motivation etc. – i.e. Islam colouring their knowledge and the particular scientific field – can they qualify to carry the epithet Islamic Scholar ( ’ulama). This was how our early scholars had qualified themselves. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  148. AN IMPORTANT NOTE: The term ‘ULAMA (plural) from ‘ALEEM “ “ – although today is used to refer exclusively to the Islamic scholars of the Deen (those specializing in religious sciences), but actually the term generally refers to “the learned or those endowed with knowledge” – from the root word “ “. Allah SWT even uses this term generally to believers who are endowed with knowledge and science of the universe itself. Thus the Arabic word for “universe” and the “learned” can be similarly spelt as “ “ - but pronounced differently, either “AALAM ” or “AALIM” respectively. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  149. AN IMPORTANT NOTE: “Of all His servants, only such as are endowed with (innate) knowledge (AL-’ULAMA) stand (truly) in awe of Allah: (for they alone comprehend that) verily, Allah is Almighty, Much Forgiving.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) (Qur’an: Fatir 35 : 40)
  150. AN IMPORTANT NOTE: From this therefore, Muslim cohorts from conventional schooling or university, only has the right to be regarded also as amongst the ‘ULAMA – although specializing in knowledge and science other than pertaining to the religion (Deen) - when their knowledge, belief and practice of Islam have been adequately developed, to an extent that it permeates his very being and identity as Muslim scholar or scientist. To fill this ‘gap’ in their educational development is required, which thus requires a special Fardhu ’Ain curriculum to be progressively inculcated, at every stage in their life development. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  151. AN IMPORTANT NOTE: Unfortunately today, many of our Muslim scientists and intellectuals do not reflect anything ‘Islamic’ in their works, nor do they claim to be so. Rather they would admit to have been secularly trained and thus, they are just like other secular scientists and academicians. Only in religious affiliation do they regard themselves to be Muslims. Unlike the Muslim intellectuals and scientists which the Islamic civilization had once produced, who although having learnt from other cultures and past civilizations, yet they were able to somehow “Islamize” these knowledge and sciences - to then shared them which benefitted the world. How was it done? Can we recover the methods? All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  152. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  153. IMPORTANT DU’A ALLAA-HUM-MA – ARI-NAL-HAQ-QA - HAQ-QAN WAR- ZUQ-NAT - TI-BAA- ’A WA-ARI-NAL – BAA-TWILA – BAA-TWI-LAAN WAR-ZUQ-NAJ – TI –NAA - BAH “O Allah! Make us see the Truth to be true and grant us ability to follow it. And make us see Falsehood to be false and grant us the ability to reject it.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  154. AS THIS IS JUST A PRELIMINARY REFLECTION, AND DUE TO TIME CONSTRAIN – I HAVE TO END HERE, FOR THE MOMENT. INSHA-ALLAH! MAY WE HAVE OTHER OPPORTUNITY TOREFLECT FURTHER. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) )
  155.      All welcome to visit my web-blog: http://an-naseehah.blogspot.com/ http://introductiontotauhid.blogspot.com/ http://oyoubelievers.blogspot.com/  http://al-amthaal.blogspot.com/ http://zhulkeflee-archive.blogspot.com/ http://criteriaforaholybook-quran.blogspot.com/ http://with-the-truthful.blogspot.com/ http ://muqaddam-nurul.blogspot.com/ All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) ) 155

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