Slideshare (adab-2013)lesson#-7-relationship-(adab-in following-madzhab)-(5-oct-2013)
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Slideshare (adab-2013)lesson#-7-relationship-(adab-in following-madzhab)-(5-oct-2013)

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Slideshare (adab-2013)lesson#-7-relationship-(adab-in following-madzhab)-(5-oct-2013) Presentation Transcript

  • 1. LESSON # 7LESSON # 7 RELATIONSHIPRELATIONSHIP (ADAB IN FOLLOWING MADZHAB)(ADAB IN FOLLOWING MADZHAB) 3RD RUN OF THE MODULE Arabic (plural) of Adab : meanings – “good breeding, decency, nurture, good manners, refinement, cultured, decorum, courteous, etiquette, propriety, social grace, to educate, discipline, the humanities, etc.” sense of proportion and knowledge of their rightful place in the order of things, the absence of which indicates injustice Insha’Allah -This is a follow-up course, after completion of 18 weeks course on the kitab “Ta’lim al-Muta’allim Tariqit Ta’allum ” of Sheikh Tajuddin Nu’man Zarnuji started 24 August 2013 IN THE NAME OF ALLAH,IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE,MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL.MOST MERCIFUL. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013) UPDATED 5 SOCT 2013UPDATED 5 SOCT 2013 Topic for 5 October 2013Topic for 5 October 2013
  • 2. Relationship with the SelfRelationship with the Self THE WORLDTHE WORLD TIMETIME SELFSELFBODYBODY TONGUETONGUE MINDMIND DESIREDESIRE HEARTHEART Initial traitsInitial traits :: [1] Appetite,[1] Appetite, [2] Emotion still link to needs,[2] Emotion still link to needs, [3] curiosity, memory,[3] curiosity, memory, [4] imitative, see, listen & do,[4] imitative, see, listen & do, [5] application of[5] application of basic sensory feelingsbasic sensory feelings NAFS al-AMMARAHNAFS al-AMMARAH (Commanding self)(Commanding self) Link to variousLink to various QuwwahQuwwah (powers):(powers): [1][1] shahwiyyashahwiyya (desires)(desires) [2][2] ghadabiyyaghadabiyya (anger)(anger) [3][3] WahmiyahWahmiyah (imaginative)(imaginative) [4][4] ‘aqliyya‘aqliyya (thoughts)(thoughts) Importance of linguistics to thoughts: RECAP PREVIOUS LESSON All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 3. Relationship with the SelfRelationship with the Self THE WORLDTHE WORLD TIMETIME SELFSELFBODYBODY TONGUETONGUE MINDMIND DESIREDESIRE HEARTHEART Initial traitsInitial traits :: [1] Appetite,[1] Appetite, [2] Emotion still link to needs,[2] Emotion still link to needs, [3] curiosity, memory,[3] curiosity, memory, [4] imitative, see, listen & do,[4] imitative, see, listen & do, [5] application of[5] application of basic sensory feelingsbasic sensory feelings NAFS al-AMMARAHNAFS al-AMMARAH (Commanding self)(Commanding self) Link to variousLink to various QuwwahQuwwah (powers):(powers): [1][1] shahwiyyashahwiyya (desires)(desires) [2][2] ghadabiyyaghadabiyya (anger)(anger) [3][3] WahmiyahWahmiyah (imaginative)(imaginative) [4][4] ‘aqliyya‘aqliyya (thoughts)(thoughts) Importance of linguistics to thoughts: ““He (Allah) has created man: He has impartedHe (Allah) has created man: He has imparted unto him articulate thought and speech.” (Q:55: 3-5)unto him articulate thought and speech.” (Q:55: 3-5) RECAP PREVIOUS LESSON All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 4. By retracing our life, we start with understandingBy retracing our life, we start with understanding our basic nature as a human being - havingour basic nature as a human being - having inherent powers and their potentialities to beinherent powers and their potentialities to be developed.developed. RECAP PREVIOUS LESSON All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 5. In our relationship regarding our Education – weIn our relationship regarding our Education – we are to encounter, i.e. assisted by our educators -are to encounter, i.e. assisted by our educators - with what is referred to as, “with what is referred to as, “knowledgeknowledge”.”. RECAP PREVIOUS LESSON All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 6. Yet, we are born helpless and have to be cared,Yet, we are born helpless and have to be cared, nurtured, to be inculcated with discipline, taught andnurtured, to be inculcated with discipline, taught and developed by adeveloped by a Murabbi’Murabbi’ (EDUCATOR) – the first of(EDUCATOR) – the first of whom are our PARENTS.whom are our PARENTS. RECAP PREVIOUS LESSON All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 7. Relationship with the Parents and TeacherRelationship with the Parents and Teacher Yet, we are born helpless and have to be cared,Yet, we are born helpless and have to be cared, nurtured, to be inculcated with discipline, taught andnurtured, to be inculcated with discipline, taught and developed by adeveloped by a Murabbi’Murabbi’ (EDUCATOR) – the first of(EDUCATOR) – the first of whom are our PARENTS.whom are our PARENTS. RECAP PREVIOUS LESSON All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 8. Islam: to submit the entire self (body, tongue, heart and Mind) – Freeing it from desire which needs to always be guided to the Will of Allah. THE WORLDTHE WORLD TIMETIME SELFSELFBODY TONGUE MIND DESIRE HEART Obedience to Parents and teachersObedience to Parents and teachers Beginning of education: [1] Tarbiyya pertains to training of the soul still attached to desires, etc. Teacher/Educator: [1] Parent [2] Teacher Although ultimate is Knowledge, (both theoretical and practical) – initial disciplining, rote learning, memorization, etc. may be crucial. PARENTSPARENTS TEACHERSTEACHERS KNOWLEDGEKNOWLEDGE Relationship with the Parents and TeacherRelationship with the Parents and Teacher All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 9. Islam: to submit the entire self (body, tongue, heart and Mind) – Freeing it from desire which needs to always be guided to the Will of Allah. THE WORLDTHE WORLD TIMETIME SELFSELFBODY TONGUE MIND DESIRE HEART Obedience to Parents and teachersObedience to Parents and teachers Beginning of education: [1] Tarbiyya pertains to training of the soul still attached to desires, etc. Teacher/Educator: [1] Parent [2] Teacher Although ultimate is Knowledge, (both theoretical and practical) – initial disciplining, rote learning, memorization, etc. may be crucial. KNOWLEDGEKNOWLEDGE Relationship with the Parents and TeacherRelationship with the Parents and Teacher PARENTSPARENTS TEACHERSTEACHERS All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 10. ““[O man] be grateful towards Me and towards thy parents,[O man] be grateful towards Me and towards thy parents, [and remember that] with Me is all journeys’ end.”[and remember that] with Me is all journeys’ end.” ((Qur’an: Luqman: 31: 14Qur’an: Luqman: 31: 14)) RECAP PREVIOUS LESSON All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 11. These are the rules as listed by Imam Abu Hamid al-Ghazalie r.a. as well as from other traditional sources. RECAP PREVIOUS LESSON All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 12. TO PROCEED ... LESSON # 7TO PROCEED ... LESSON # 7 All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 13. 13 ““He is not from my Ummah (community),He is not from my Ummah (community), One who do not respect our elders, orOne who do not respect our elders, or One who is not merciful (kind) to our young, andOne who is not merciful (kind) to our young, and one who do not know (and respect the rights of)one who do not know (and respect the rights of) ourour ‘Ulama’‘Ulama’ (Islamic scholars).”(Islamic scholars).” ((Hadith of our Prophet s.a.w. Reported by TabranyHadith of our Prophet s.a.w. Reported by Tabrany)) Prophet Muhammad s.a.a.w. said: EXCERPTS FROM MY PREVIOUS MODULEEXCERPTS FROM MY PREVIOUS MODULE ““INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF FIQH”INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF FIQH” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 14. ““The pursuit of knowledge is not carried on without sixThe pursuit of knowledge is not carried on without six things which I shall inform you through words that are clear:things which I shall inform you through words that are clear: [1] Ingenious acumen,[1] Ingenious acumen, [2] fervent desire,[2] fervent desire, [3] patience,[3] patience, [4] sufficient sustenance,[4] sufficient sustenance, [5] guidance of a teacher,[5] guidance of a teacher, andand [6] length of time.”[6] length of time.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 15. 15 ””Verily this is knowledge (contains the rules) of theVerily this is knowledge (contains the rules) of the DEENDEEN (Religion), so look thoroughly into(Religion), so look thoroughly into the person from whom you acquirethe person from whom you acquire (the knowledge of) your(the knowledge of) your DEENDEEN (Religion).”(Religion).” Imam Muhammad ibnu Sirrin (rhm.a) advices and warns us Muslims:Imam Muhammad ibnu Sirrin (rhm.a) advices and warns us Muslims: All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 16. ““An immoral man of learning is a great evil,An immoral man of learning is a great evil, yet a greater evil is an ignoramus leading a ‘godly’ life.yet a greater evil is an ignoramus leading a ‘godly’ life. Both are a great trial everywhere,Both are a great trial everywhere, to whomever depends to them both,to whomever depends to them both, in holding on to his religion”in holding on to his religion” REFLECTIONREFLECTION:: We would indeed be afflicted with thisWe would indeed be afflicted with this FitnahFitnah (trial). Only with appropriate(trial). Only with appropriate knowledge andknowledge and irshaadahirshaadah, and more importantly, and more importantly Taufiq wal-Hidaa-yaTaufiq wal-Hidaa-ya fromfrom Allah SWT. would we be saved from its evil.Allah SWT. would we be saved from its evil. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 17. EXCERPTS FROM MY PREVIOUS MODULEEXCERPTS FROM MY PREVIOUS MODULE ““INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF FIQH”INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF FIQH” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 18. STRATEGIC LOCATION OF THE NUSANTARA All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 19. STRATEGIC LOCATION OF THE NUSANTARA ACHEHACHEH All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 20. STRATEGIC LOCATION OF THE NUSANTARA PATTANIPATTANI All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 21. STRATEGIC LOCATION OF THE NUSANTARA CHAMPACHAMPA All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 22. STRATEGIC LOCATION OF THE NUSANTARA SULUSULU MINADANAOMINADANAO All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 23. STRATEGIC LOCATION OF THE NUSANTARA SULUSULU MINADANAOMINADANAO All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 24. STRATEGIC LOCATION OF THE NUSANTARA MELAKAMELAKA All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 25. STRATEGIC LOCATION OF THE NUSANTARA MELAKAMELAKA All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 26. STRATEGIC LOCATION OF THE NUSANTARA DEMAK AND CIREBONDEMAK AND CIREBON ( AFTER MAJAPAHIT JAVA)( AFTER MAJAPAHIT JAVA) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 27. STRATEGIC LOCATION OF THE NUSANTARA A early 18th century map of Java. Note that only major trading ports on the northern coast were known to the European. From west to east: * Banten* Jayakarta* Cirebon * Tegal * Demak * Jepara * Tuban* Sedayu, now near Gresik * Surabaya DEMAK AND CIREBONDEMAK AND CIREBON ( AFTER MAJAPAHIT JAVA)( AFTER MAJAPAHIT JAVA) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 28. Presentation by: Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (Singapore) EXCERPTS FROM MY PREVIOUS MODULEEXCERPTS FROM MY PREVIOUS MODULE ““INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF FIQH”INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF FIQH” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 29. AHMAD AL-MUHAJIR Ibrahim Zeinuddin al-Akbar (Ibrahim Asmoro – ‘As-Samarqandi’) Ahmad Rahmatullah SUNAN AMPEL Maulana Ishaq‘Ali Murtadho Maulana ‘Ainul Yaqeen SUNAN GIRI Ibrahim SUNAN BONANG Hashim SUNAN DRAJAT Ja’far Sodiq SUNAN QUDUS Jamaluddin Hussain al-Akbar ’Ali Nurul ‘Alam ’Abdullah Sharif Hidayatullah SUNAN GUNUNG JATI Zein al-’Alam Barakat ( SHARIF AWLIYA’ ) Maulana Malik Ibrahim SUNAN GERISIK Raden Shahid SUNAN KALIJAGA Raden ‘Umar Sa’id SUNAN MURIA Son-in-law Ahmad Jalal Shah ‘Abdullah Khan Abdul Malik ‘Alwi Muhammad (Shohib Mirbat) ‘Ali (Khali’ Qasam)‘AlwiMuhammad‘Alwi‘Ubaydullah Grandfather to Adzamat Khan family of Hind (India) ““Behold! verily on the (Behold! verily on the (AWLIYA’AWLIYA’) friends of Allah) friends of Allah there is no fear, nor shall they grieve”there is no fear, nor shall they grieve” ((Qur’an: Yunus: 10: 62Qur’an: Yunus: 10: 62)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 30. AHMAD AL-MUHAJIR‘ISA ‘Ubaydullah ‘Alwi Muhammad ‘Alwi ‘Ali (Khali’ Qasam) Muhammad (Shohib Mirbat) ‘Ali IMAM MUHAMMAD (al-Faqih al-Muqaddam) ‘Alwi Abdul Malik MUHAMMAD IMAM ‘ALI AL-URAIDHI IMAM JA’FAR SODIQ IMAM MUHAMMAD AL-BAQIR IMAM ‘ALI ZEIN AL-’ABIDIN IMAM ‘ALI BIN ABI TOLIB IMAM HUSSAYN FATIMAH AL-ZAHRA’ MUHAMMAD (RASULULLAH) S.A.A.W. Descent lineage to Wali Songo THE LINEAGE OF THE BA-’ALAWI OF HADHRAMAWT ( AND THE ISLAMIZATION OF THE NUSANTARA ) FOUNDER OF TARIQAH ‘ALAWIYYAHFOUNDER OF TARIQAH ‘ALAWIYYAHFOUNDER OF TARIQAH ‘ALAWIYYAHFOUNDER OF TARIQAH ‘ALAWIYYAHSHEIKH ABU MADYAN His spiritual chain (silsilah – khirqa) linked All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 31. Presentation by: Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (Singapore) EXCERPTS FROM MY PREVIOUS MODULEEXCERPTS FROM MY PREVIOUS MODULE ““INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF FIQH”INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF FIQH” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 32. ZABID (Yemen) TARIM (Yemen) SURAT (India) PASAI (Acheh) MELAKA (Malaya) PATTANI (Siam) DEMAK (Java) PALEMBANG (Sumatra) BANDJARMASIN (Kalimantan) KELANTAN (Malaya) HARAMAINHARAMAIN ( Makkah & Madinah( Makkah & Madinah) DAMASCUS (Syria) BAGHDAD (Iraq) ADEN (Yemen) PENYENGAT (Bintan-Riau) SEIYWUN (Yemen) BAYT AL-MAQDIS (Palestine) CAIRO (Egypt) ISTANBUL (Turkey) BUKIT TINGGI (Sumatra) MULUKU MAKASAR SULAWESI QARAWIYIN (Morroco) TERENGGGANU BASRAH All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 33. HOPE TO FURTHER ELUCIDATE THISHOPE TO FURTHER ELUCIDATE THIS IN SEPARATE SESSION –IN SEPARATE SESSION – INSH-ALLAH!INSH-ALLAH! Presentation by: Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (Singapore) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 34. HOPE TO FURTHER ELUCIDATE THISHOPE TO FURTHER ELUCIDATE THIS IN SEPARATE SESSION –IN SEPARATE SESSION – INSH-ALLAH!INSH-ALLAH! Presentation by: Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (Singapore) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 35. EXCERPTS FROM MY PREVIOUS MODULEEXCERPTS FROM MY PREVIOUS MODULE ““INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF FIQH”INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF FIQH” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 36. DEVIANT TEACHINGS WITHIN THE COMMUNITY JAMA-’AH AHMADIYYA (“QADIANIY “)JAMA-’AH AHMADIYYA (“QADIANIY “) SYNCRETIC MYSTICISM “ KEJAWEN “ OR “ ‘ILMU KEBATINAN ”SYNCRETIC MYSTICISM “ KEJAWEN “ OR “ ‘ILMU KEBATINAN ” CULTS AND RELIGIOUS CHARLATANTSCULTS AND RELIGIOUS CHARLATANTS ANTI-HADITH (“ INGKAR SUNNAH ”)ANTI-HADITH (“ INGKAR SUNNAH ”) INNOVATION (INFILTRATION) OF ‘NEW-WAVE’ RELIGIONINNOVATION (INFILTRATION) OF ‘NEW-WAVE’ RELIGION All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 37. EXTREMIST INTERPRETATIONS CONFUSION IN KNOWLEDGECONFUSION IN KNOWLEDGE LOSS OF ADAB AND (USURPATION) - RISE OF FALSE LEADERSLOSS OF ADAB AND (USURPATION) - RISE OF FALSE LEADERS BLIND AND FANATICAL IN FOLLOWING A MADZHABBLIND AND FANATICAL IN FOLLOWING A MADZHAB REJECTION OF THE IMPERATIVE TO FOLLOWING MADZHABREJECTION OF THE IMPERATIVE TO FOLLOWING MADZHAB REDUCTIONIST TENDENCIES IN WORLDVIEW OF ISLAMREDUCTIONIST TENDENCIES IN WORLDVIEW OF ISLAM All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 38. ORIENTALIST’S ISLAM ADVOCATING THE LEARNING OF ISLAM AS SUBJECTS –ADVOCATING THE LEARNING OF ISLAM AS SUBJECTS – (Muslims to remain neutral by being ‘ Objective’ when learning(Muslims to remain neutral by being ‘ Objective’ when learning Islam’)Islam’) INVALIDITY OF ALL ‘TRUTH-CLAIM’ –INVALIDITY OF ALL ‘TRUTH-CLAIM’ – Anthropological - religion as social construct, need to evolve, etc.Anthropological - religion as social construct, need to evolve, etc. TRANCENDENTAL UNITY OF RELIGION –TRANCENDENTAL UNITY OF RELIGION – (Rigid black/white dichotomy of Inclusive vs. Exclusive)(Rigid black/white dichotomy of Inclusive vs. Exclusive) MANY TYPES OF ISLAM (Labeling) – Liberal, Progressive, Moderate,MANY TYPES OF ISLAM (Labeling) – Liberal, Progressive, Moderate, Reformed (Protestant), Pacifist, Modernist, etc.Reformed (Protestant), Pacifist, Modernist, etc. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 39. SECULARIZATION OF MUSLIM BREAKDOWN IN OUR ADHERANCE TO ISLAMIC TRADITION -BREAKDOWN IN OUR ADHERANCE TO ISLAMIC TRADITION - FAILURE TO FULLLY BENEFIT FROM THE ‘DUALISTIC EDUCTIONALFAILURE TO FULLLY BENEFIT FROM THE ‘DUALISTIC EDUCTIONAL SYSTEM’SYSTEM’ REMOVAL OR DISAPPEARANCE OF “DA’WAH-ISLAH” SPIRIT –REMOVAL OR DISAPPEARANCE OF “DA’WAH-ISLAH” SPIRIT – FAILURE TO RESPOND TO CONTEMPORARY CHALLENGES REGARDINGFAILURE TO RESPOND TO CONTEMPORARY CHALLENGES REGARDING VALUES.VALUES. THE PASSIVE MODE TOWARDS MEDIA EXPOSURE AND THETHE PASSIVE MODE TOWARDS MEDIA EXPOSURE AND THE ENCROACHMENT OF ‘SECULARISM’ IN A MULTI-RELIGIOUS SPACE.ENCROACHMENT OF ‘SECULARISM’ IN A MULTI-RELIGIOUS SPACE. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 40. TO PROCEED ... LESSON # 7TO PROCEED ... LESSON # 7 All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 41. ““O ye who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger andO ye who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those charged with authority from among you (those charged with authority from among you (ulil-’amriulil-’amri min-kummin-kum).”).” ((Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 59Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 59)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 42. ““... Ask from those who possess the Message (az-Zikr : the... Ask from those who possess the Message (az-Zikr : the remembrance) in matters which you do not know.“remembrance) in matters which you do not know.“ ((Qur’an: al-Nahlu: 16: 43Qur’an: al-Nahlu: 16: 43)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 43. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 44. ““Nor should the Believers all go forth together: if aNor should the Believers all go forth together: if a contingent from every expedition remained behind, theycontingent from every expedition remained behind, they could devote themselves to studies in religion (could devote themselves to studies in religion (faqih fid-faqih fid- deendeen) and admonish the people when they return to them ―) and admonish the people when they return to them ― that thus they (may learn) to guard themselvesthat thus they (may learn) to guard themselves (against evil).”(against evil).” ((Qur’an: Taubah: 9: 122Qur’an: Taubah: 9: 122)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 45. ““Allah will raise up, to (suitable) ranks (and degrees), those of youAllah will raise up, to (suitable) ranks (and degrees), those of you who believe and who have been granted Knowledge :who believe and who have been granted Knowledge : and Allah isand Allah is well-acquainted with all that ye dowell-acquainted with all that ye do.“.“ ((Qur’an: Mujadilah: 58: 11Qur’an: Mujadilah: 58: 11)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 46. ““(Honour) My successors, may Allah s.w.t. be Merciful towards them!.”(Honour) My successors, may Allah s.w.t. be Merciful towards them!.” He was asked: “Who are your successors O Messenger of Allah?” And heHe was asked: “Who are your successors O Messenger of Allah?” And he said: “They are those who revive my Sunnah and teaches them to thesaid: “They are those who revive my Sunnah and teaches them to the servants of Allah.”servants of Allah.” ((Hadith of the Prophet s.a.wHadith of the Prophet s.a.w.).) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 47. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 48. 48 ““(‘Ali ibn Abi Talib r.a. said) “I asked: ‘O Messenger of Allah! (What are we to(‘Ali ibn Abi Talib r.a. said) “I asked: ‘O Messenger of Allah! (What are we to do when) matters come before us wherewith there is no (explicit) indicationdo when) matters come before us wherewith there is no (explicit) indication regarding them in the Qur’an nor in the Sunnah from you regarding themregarding them in the Qur’an nor in the Sunnah from you regarding them (regarding its ruling)?’(regarding its ruling)?’ (The Prophet s.a.w.) he said: “You are to gather together the learned(The Prophet s.a.w.) he said: “You are to gather together the learned ((‘ulama‘ulama) amongst them” – or he may have said “The worshippers () amongst them” – or he may have said “The worshippers (‘abideen‘abideen )) from amongst the Believers” – “Convene with themfrom amongst the Believers” – “Convene with them shurashura (mutual(mutual consultations to derive a collective decision) in regard to religious rulings. Doconsultations to derive a collective decision) in regard to religious rulings. Do not decide based upon (idea or knowledge of) only one (singular) person’snot decide based upon (idea or knowledge of) only one (singular) person’s thought.”thought.” ((Hadith reported by Ibnu Abdil BarrHadith reported by Ibnu Abdil Barr)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 49. ““If anyone contends with the Messenger even afterIf anyone contends with the Messenger even after guidance has been plainly conveyed to him, and followsguidance has been plainly conveyed to him, and follows a path other than that becoming to men to Faith, We shalla path other than that becoming to men to Faith, We shall leave him in the path he has chosen, and land him in Hell,leave him in the path he has chosen, and land him in Hell, what an evil refuge.”what an evil refuge.” ((Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 115)Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 115) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 50. ““Thus have We made of you an Ummah justly balanced ThatThus have We made of you an Ummah justly balanced That ye might be witnesses over the nations and the Messenger aye might be witnesses over the nations and the Messenger a witness over yourselveswitness over yourselves.”.” ((Qur’an: Baqarah: 2: 143Qur’an: Baqarah: 2: 143)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 51. ““My ummah (community) will never agreeMy ummah (community) will never agree upon matters which are erroneous”upon matters which are erroneous” ((Hadith reported by Tirmidzi, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah & DaruqutniHadith reported by Tirmidzi, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah & Daruqutni)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 52. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 53. "Verily Allah does not remove knowledge from the (hearts of the)Verily Allah does not remove knowledge from the (hearts of the) people, rather he takes away knowledge by taking away itspeople, rather he takes away knowledge by taking away its people (the true scholars –people (the true scholars – ‘ULAMA‘ULAMA), until there are no more), until there are no more scholars, the people then take leaders that are ignorant, andscholars, the people then take leaders that are ignorant, and when they are asked, and givewhen they are asked, and give fatwasfatwas – religious rulings, (they– religious rulings, (they give) without knowledge, so they misguide and are misguided.“give) without knowledge, so they misguide and are misguided.“ ((Hadith reported by Ashaab as-Sunnan from Ibnu ‘Umar r.aHadith reported by Ashaab as-Sunnan from Ibnu ‘Umar r.a.).) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 54. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 55. ““When a trust (When a trust (AMANAHAMANAH)is neglected,)is neglected, then wait for the time (of its destruction).”then wait for the time (of its destruction).” Somebody ask:Somebody ask: ‘‘How shall this be neglected O Messenger of Allah?’How shall this be neglected O Messenger of Allah?’ He the replied: “When a matter (affair) is given over,He the replied: “When a matter (affair) is given over, not to its rightful (legitimate) person (not to its rightful (legitimate) person (AHLIHAAHLIHA),), then wait for its time (of destruction).”then wait for its time (of destruction).” ((Hadith reported by BukharyHadith reported by Bukhary)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 56. ““If ye differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to AllahIf ye differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messengerand His Messenger ** if ye do believe in Allah and the Lastif ye do believe in Allah and the Last Day: that is best, and most suitable for final determination.”Day: that is best, and most suitable for final determination.” ((Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 59Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 59)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 57. ** This is especially referring to the Islamic scholars andThis is especially referring to the Islamic scholars and jurists (jurists (mujtahidmujtahid), who are competent to refer back to), who are competent to refer back to these two primary sources – not just any one.these two primary sources – not just any one.  The general Muslims must rely upon those juristsThe general Muslims must rely upon those jurists and scholars (and scholars (mujtahidmujtahid of aof a madzhabmadzhab) decisions by) decisions by TaqlidTaqlid..  Differences of opinions amongstDifferences of opinions amongst madzaahibmadzaahib termedtermed ““khilafiyyahkhilafiyyah ” are to be respected with Adab which is” are to be respected with Adab which is expected of Muslim students towards all our Islamicexpected of Muslim students towards all our Islamic teachers and scholars (teachers and scholars (ulama’ulama’.).) IMPORTANT CLARIFICATIONIMPORTANT CLARIFICATION All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 58. From “Qa-la-da” – to adorn with a necklace; to entrust authority to someone; to follow, imitate, etc. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 59.  In Islamic legal theory, the scholars define “In Islamic legal theory, the scholars define “TAQLIDTAQLID”” asas :: ““Accepting the view of someone (who is a qualified jurist –Accepting the view of someone (who is a qualified jurist – termed :termed : FAQIHFAQIH // MUJTAHIDMUJTAHID) without a proof”) without a proof” ((qabuu-lu qaw-lil-ghayr min ghay-ri -Hujjah).”qabuu-lu qaw-lil-ghayr min ghay-ri -Hujjah).”11 1 – Imam al-Ghazalie r.h.m. Al-Mustasfå min ‘Ilm al-Usul (Cairo: Maktabah al-Tijariyyah, 1356), 2:387. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 60.  Those who are not qualified scholars (termedThose who are not qualified scholars (termed ‘‘FAQIHFAQIH’ - one who are competent to do “’ - one who are competent to do “IJTIHADIJTIHAD ““ also called “also called “MUJTAHIDMUJTAHID”) , are”) , are the ordinary Muslimthe ordinary Muslim (still technically regarded as a “(still technically regarded as a “MUQOLLIDMUQOLLID” ) , it is” ) , it is obligatory to “obligatory to “TAQLIDTAQLID” to opinions of a” to opinions of a mujtahidmujtahid.. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 61. From “Ja-ha-da” – to strive; effort; exertion, endeavour, labour, etc. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 62.  In Islamic legal theory, scholastic method referred toIn Islamic legal theory, scholastic method referred to as “as “IJTIHADIJTIHAD”” means simplymeans simply,, ‘‘exertionexertion’,’,  Religiously speaking, it refers to a competent juristReligiously speaking, it refers to a competent jurist ((FAQIHFAQIH) “) “expending every possible effort to examineexpending every possible effort to examine”” thethe textual evidences, so as to arrive at a ruling of the Sacredtextual evidences, so as to arrive at a ruling of the Sacred Law.Law. CLARIFICATIONCLARIFICATION All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 63.  The point here is that “The point here is that “IJTIHADIJTIHAD is not just one ofis not just one of scholarly exertion, but of exhaustion.scholarly exertion, but of exhaustion.”” Fathoming theFathoming the intent of the Lawgiver, and inferring new rulings from theintent of the Lawgiver, and inferring new rulings from the primary sources extensively - so as to reach a sound legalprimary sources extensively - so as to reach a sound legal conclusion - is indeed a most arduous and demanding taskconclusion - is indeed a most arduous and demanding task not for just any or everyone.not for just any or everyone. CLARIFICATIONCLARIFICATION All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 64.  In Islamic legal theory, such a scholar is calledIn Islamic legal theory, such a scholar is called ““MUJTAHIDMUJTAHID” – and has many levels, those of the highest” – and has many levels, those of the highest category, whose juristic methods and decisions are widelycategory, whose juristic methods and decisions are widely followed termed – “followed termed – “MUJTAHID MUTLAQMUJTAHID MUTLAQ ” – became as a” – became as a school of jurisprudence called “school of jurisprudence called “MADZHABMADZHAB” (singular) or” (singular) or ““MADZAAHIBMADZAAHIB”(plural).”(plural). CLARIFICATIONCLARIFICATION All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 65.  The well-knownThe well-known MADZAAHIBMADZAAHIB that survived are :that survived are : [1][1] JA’FARIJA’FARI – Imam Ja’far ibn Muhammad as-Sodiq– Imam Ja’far ibn Muhammad as-Sodiq [2][2] HANAFIHANAFI – Imam Abu Hanifah Nu’man ibn Tsabit– Imam Abu Hanifah Nu’man ibn Tsabit [3][3] MALIKIMALIKI – Imam Malik bin Anas– Imam Malik bin Anas [4][4] SHAFI-’IESHAFI-’IE – Imam Muhammad Idris as-Shafi-’ie– Imam Muhammad Idris as-Shafi-’ie [5][5] HANBALIHANBALI – Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal– Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal [6][6] ZAIDIYYA –ZAIDIYYA – Imam Zaid ibn ‘Ali ibn Hussein ibn ‘AliImam Zaid ibn ‘Ali ibn Hussein ibn ‘Ali [7][7] ‘IBAADHIY -‘IBAADHIY - Abdullah ibn ‘Ibadh of Banu TamimAbdullah ibn ‘Ibadh of Banu Tamim [8][8] ZAHIRIY –ZAHIRIY – Imam Dawud ibn Khalaf Al-ZahiriImam Dawud ibn Khalaf Al-Zahiri CLARIFICATIONCLARIFICATION All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 66.  Imam al-Qurtubi rhm. says: “No difference existsImam al-Qurtubi rhm. says: “No difference exists among the scholars that, the laymen are to performamong the scholars that, the laymen are to perform taqlidtaqlid of their scholars (of their scholars (MUJJTAHIDMUJJTAHID)).”.” **  Ibn Qudamah explicitly states: “As far asIbn Qudamah explicitly states: “As far as taqlidtaqlid in thein the details of the Sacred Law (details of the Sacred Law (FURU‘FURU‘) is) is concerned, it isconcerned, it is allowed by consensus (allowed by consensus (IJMAIJMA’’).”).”++ CLARIFICATIONCLARIFICATION * Al-Jami‘ li Ahkam al-Qur’an (Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah), + Al-Rawdatu’l-Nazir wa Jannat al-Manazir (Riyadh: Maktabah al-Rushd), All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 67.  Contemporary scholar, Imam al-Shanqiti rhm.wrote:Contemporary scholar, Imam al-Shanqiti rhm.wrote: ““The prescribed taqlid, which none of the Muslims contest, is theThe prescribed taqlid, which none of the Muslims contest, is the layman’s performing taqlid of a scholar qualified to issue fatwa onlayman’s performing taqlid of a scholar qualified to issue fatwa on various matters. This type of taqlid was in vogue during the time of thevarious matters. This type of taqlid was in vogue during the time of the Prophet, peace be upon him, and there was no contention about it. TheProphet, peace be upon him, and there was no contention about it. The layman asked whosoever he wished from the Companions of thelayman asked whosoever he wished from the Companions of the Prophet, may Allah be pleased with them, about the ruling for a givenProphet, may Allah be pleased with them, about the ruling for a given case. Whenever a fatwa was given, he simply complied with it.”case. Whenever a fatwa was given, he simply complied with it.” ** CLARIFICATIONCLARIFICATION * Adwa’ al-Bayån, 7:318 All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 68. “What are the requirement and necessary qualification for a Mujtahid ?” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 69. – literally means “an effort or an exercise to arrive at one’s own judgement” – technically it is used in regards to “the exertion by a (mujtahid) qualified Islamic scholar in (istinbat) extracting legal rulings from the primary sources.” IJTIHADIJTIHAD All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 70.  Knowledgeable about the religion of Islam, the Sunnah (Ways or traditions of the Prophet s.a.a.w.), Fiqh (Jurisprudence) and Usul-al-Fiqh (Principles of Jurisprudence) especially: [A] He must be so very well versed in the study of Qur’an, that he must know its sciences, the reason why and when the verses and chapters of the Qur’an were revealed (Asbab-al-Nuzul), the eloquence, the commentaries etc.; REQUIREMENTREQUIREMENT All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 71. [B] He must be well versed in the study of the traditions of the Prophet Muhammad s.a.a.w. That is, he must know the distinction between authentic Hadith from the spurious and the various other technical categories of Ahadith – viz. Mutawwatir, Shahih, Hasan, Dho’if, Maudhu’ etc.; REQUIREMENTREQUIREMENT All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 72. [C] He must know the principles of Ijma’ (scholarly consensus) very well; [D] He must know the injunctions of Qiyas (jurisdistic analogy). REQUIREMENTREQUIREMENT All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 73. Apart from his qualification, he must posses good Islamic character apart from academic excellence. Among the moral qualities are:  (a) He must be a good Muslim. That he must not be a nominal Muslim; rather, must be a practising one. OTHER IMPORTANT CRITERIAOTHER IMPORTANT CRITERIA All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 74. Apart from his qualification, he must posses good Islamic character apart from academic excellence. Among the moral qualities are:  (b) He must be very pious and law-abiding to all the injunctions of the Holy Qur’an. OTHER IMPORTANT CRITERIAOTHER IMPORTANT CRITERIA All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 75. Apart from his qualification, he must posses good Islamic character apart from academic excellence. Among the moral qualities are:  (c) He must not be influenced by any heretical influences. OTHER IMPORTANT CRITERIAOTHER IMPORTANT CRITERIA All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 76. Apart from his qualification, he must posses good Islamic character apart from academic excellence. Among the moral qualities are:  (d) He must be just, reliable, trustworthy and pure from iniquitous practices. OTHER IMPORTANT CRITERIAOTHER IMPORTANT CRITERIA All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 77. –– These were those who didThese were those who did ijtihadijtihad in the matter ofin the matter of Shari’ahShari’ah amongst the companions of the Prophet till theamongst the companions of the Prophet till the third century of Islam.third century of Islam. AL-MUJTAHID FI - AL-SHARI-’AHAL-MUJTAHID FI - AL-SHARI-’AH (reference from “Shariah: The Islamic Law” by Abdur Rahman I. Doi) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 78. –– these are those who didthese are those who did ijtihadijtihad after the companionafter the companion ((SahabiSahabi)) era and later found schools of jurisprudence.era and later found schools of jurisprudence. There are today 8 main surviving schools ofThere are today 8 main surviving schools of Jurisprudence, viz. Ja’fari, Maliki, Hanafi, Shafi’ie, Hanbali,Jurisprudence, viz. Ja’fari, Maliki, Hanafi, Shafi’ie, Hanbali, Zaidiy,’Ibadhi, and Zahiri.Zaidiy,’Ibadhi, and Zahiri. AL-MUJTAHID FI - AL-MADZHABAL-MUJTAHID FI - AL-MADZHAB (reference from “Shariah: The Islamic Law” by Abdur Rahman I. Doi) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 79. –– these are those who follow them (these are those who follow them (mujtahid fi-al-Madzhabmujtahid fi-al-Madzhab )) i.e. the present dayi.e. the present day mujtahidsmujtahids who give Fatwa (or Juristicwho give Fatwa (or Juristic opinions) on religious matters when required.opinions) on religious matters when required. AL-MUJTAHID FI - AL-MASAA-ILAL-MUJTAHID FI - AL-MASAA-IL (reference from “Shariah: The Islamic Law” by Abdur Rahman I. Doi) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 80. AL-QUR’ANAL-QUR’AN The Revealed Book AS-SUNNAHAS-SUNNAH The Way of the Prophet IJMA’ Consensus QIYAS Analogous deduction  Generally, these four are known by many Muslims as the sources by which Islamic rulings are derived. The primary sources being “Kitabullah wa Sunnati Rosuulihi”.  What follows are (secondary) generally falls under the method termed “ijtihad” that has many approaches, of priority is “ijma” and “Qiyas ”. Yet, there are more .... All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 81.  Generally, these four are known by many Muslims as the sources by which Islamic rulings are derived. The primary sources being “Kitabullah wa Sunnati Rosuulihi”.  What follows are (secondary) generally falls under the method termed “ijtihad” that has many approaches, of priority is “ijma” and “Qiyas ”. Yet, there are more .... Istidlal and Istishab deduction by logic and reasoning; and relying on presumption;deduction by logic and reasoning; and relying on presumption; continuation of a rule for a certain situation in a circumstancecontinuation of a rule for a certain situation in a circumstance where it is not known whether or not the original situation stillwhere it is not known whether or not the original situation still existsexists All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 82.  Generally, these four are known by many Muslims as the sources by which Islamic rulings are derived. The primary sources being “Kitabullah wa Sunnati Rosuulihi”.  What follows are (secondary) generally falls under the method termed “ijtihad” that has many approaches, of priority is “ijma” and “Qiyas ”. Yet, there are more .... Istihsan preference Maslahah al-mursalah for public interest All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 83.  Generally, these four are known by many Muslims as the sources by which Islamic rulings are derived. The primary sources being “Kitabullah wa Sunnati Rosuulihi”.  What follows are (secondary) generally falls under the method termed “ijtihad” that has many approaches, of priority is “ijma” and “Qiyas ”. Yet, there are more .... al-‘Urf Customs or norms Sadd-uz-zara-’i “closing the door of mischief” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 84.  Generally, these four are known by many Muslims as the sources by which Islamic rulings are derived. The primary sources being “Kitabullah wa Sunnati Rosuulihi”.  What follows are (secondary) generally falls under the method termed “ijtihad” that has many approaches, of priority is “ijma” and “Qiyas ”. Yet, there are more .... ‘Amal ahl-al-madinah “practices of the people of Madinah” Ash-shar-’u manqablana the path traversed by those before us – i.e. the jurists (mujtahidun) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 85.  Generally, these four are known by many Muslims as the sources by which Islamic rulings are derived. The primary sources being “Kitabullah wa Sunnati Rosuulihi”.  What follows are (secondary) generally falls under the method termed “ijtihad” that has many approaches, of priority is “ijma” and “Qiyas ”. Yet, there are more .... ‘Madzhab Sahaabiy opinions of Companions of the Prophet All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 86. “The learned and wise among Muslims must use constant vigilance in detecting erroneous usage in language which impinges upon semantic change in major key elements and creates general confusion and error in the understanding of Islam and of its worldview.” Prof. Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 87.  ““TaqlidTaqlid isis haramharam (forbidden)”(forbidden)”  ““FollowingFollowing MadzhabMadzhab isis Bid’ahBid’ah (innovation) ! ”(innovation) ! ”  ““I want to follow only theI want to follow only the MadzhabMadzhab of the Prophet s.a.w. ! ”of the Prophet s.a.w. ! ”  ““We should not follow anyWe should not follow any MadzhabMadzhab, we must all follow only the, we must all follow only the Qur’an and Sunnah ! ”Qur’an and Sunnah ! ”  ““There is no priesthood in Islam, so why must we obey theThere is no priesthood in Islam, so why must we obey the ‘ulama’.‘ulama’. After all each one of us can now easily access the Qur’an andAfter all each one of us can now easily access the Qur’an and Ahadith ! ” etc.Ahadith ! ” etc. Some people carelessly argues:Some people carelessly argues: Allow me to respond and clarify..Allow me to respond and clarify.. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 88. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 89.  TaqlidTaqlid is in fact “is in fact “wajibwajib” (obligatory) for every Muslim who” (obligatory) for every Muslim who are non-are non-MujtahidMujtahid..  This has been the consensus (This has been the consensus (ijma’ijma’ ) of Islamic scholars since) of Islamic scholars since the Prophet’s time – to follow those who are the learned,the Prophet’s time – to follow those who are the learned, and the Qur’anic basis are many viz:and the Qur’anic basis are many viz: ““IsIs TaqlidTaqlid isis HaramHaram (forbidden)” ?(forbidden)” ? #1 All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 90.  TaqlidTaqlid is in fact “is in fact “wajibwajib” (obligatory) for every Muslim who” (obligatory) for every Muslim who are non-are non-MujtahidMujtahid..  This has been the consensus (This has been the consensus (ijma’ijma’ ) of Islamic scholars since) of Islamic scholars since the Prophet’s time – to follow those who are the learned,the Prophet’s time – to follow those who are the learned, and the Qur’anic basis are many viz:and the Qur’anic basis are many viz: ““IsIs TaqlidTaqlid isis HaramHaram (forbidden)” ?(forbidden)” ? #1 ““ask of those who possess the Message,ask of those who possess the Message, in matters which you do not know.”in matters which you do not know.” ((Qur’an: An-Nahlu: 16:43Qur’an: An-Nahlu: 16:43)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 91.  TaqlidTaqlid is in fact “is in fact “wajibwajib” (obligatory) for every Muslim who” (obligatory) for every Muslim who are non-are non-MujtahidMujtahid..  This has been the consensus (This has been the consensus (ijma’ijma’ ) of Islamic scholars since) of Islamic scholars since the Prophet’s time – to follow those who are the learned,the Prophet’s time – to follow those who are the learned, and the Qur’anic basis are many viz:and the Qur’anic basis are many viz: ““IsIs TaqlidTaqlid isis HaramHaram (forbidden)” ?(forbidden)” ? #1 All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 92.  TaqlidTaqlid is in fact “is in fact “wajibwajib” (obligatory) for every Muslim who” (obligatory) for every Muslim who are non-are non-MujtahidMujtahid..  This has been the consensus (This has been the consensus (ijma’ijma’ ) of Islamic scholars since) of Islamic scholars since the Prophet’s time – to follow those who are the learned,the Prophet’s time – to follow those who are the learned, and the Qur’anic basis are many viz:and the Qur’anic basis are many viz: ““IsIs TaqlidTaqlid isis HaramHaram (forbidden)” ?(forbidden)” ? #1 ““Allah will raise up, to (suitable) ranks (and degrees), those ofAllah will raise up, to (suitable) ranks (and degrees), those of you who believe and who have been granted Knowledge”you who believe and who have been granted Knowledge” ((Qur’an: Mujadilah: 58: 11Qur’an: Mujadilah: 58: 11)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 93.  TaqlidTaqlid is in fact “is in fact “wajibwajib” (obligatory) for every Muslim who” (obligatory) for every Muslim who are non-are non-MujtahidMujtahid..  This has been the consensus (This has been the consensus (ijma’ijma’ ) of Islamic scholars since) of Islamic scholars since the Prophet’s time – to follow those who are the learned,the Prophet’s time – to follow those who are the learned, and the Qur’anic basis are many viz:and the Qur’anic basis are many viz: ““IsIs TaqlidTaqlid isis HaramHaram (forbidden)” ?(forbidden)” ? #1 All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 94.  TaqlidTaqlid is in fact “is in fact “wajibwajib” (obligatory) for every Muslim who” (obligatory) for every Muslim who are non-are non-MujtahidMujtahid..  This has been the consensus (This has been the consensus (ijma’ijma’ ) of Islamic scholars since) of Islamic scholars since the Prophet’s time – to follow those who are the learned,the Prophet’s time – to follow those who are the learned, and the Qur’anic basis are many viz:and the Qur’anic basis are many viz: ““IsIs TaqlidTaqlid isis HaramHaram (forbidden)” ?(forbidden)” ? #1 ““O ye who believe! Obey Allah and obey the MessengerO ye who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those charged with authority among you”and those charged with authority among you” ((Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 59Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 59)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 95.  Study in the lives of theStudy in the lives of the Khulafa’ RashidunKhulafa’ Rashidun, Ibn Mas’ud,, Ibn Mas’ud, Mu’adz, Ibn ‘Abbas, Ibn ‘Umar, A’ishah, Umm Salamah, etc.Mu’adz, Ibn ‘Abbas, Ibn ‘Umar, A’ishah, Umm Salamah, etc. show that they not only conveyshow that they not only convey AhadithAhadith, but also give, but also give ““iftahiftah” religious rulings on certain matters.” religious rulings on certain matters.  This is whereThis is where MadzhabMadzhab has its beginnings – i.e. during thehas its beginnings – i.e. during the Prophet’s time – “Prophet’s time – “Madzhab SahabyMadzhab Sahaby”” (juristic opinions of the(juristic opinions of the Companions). And the Prophet s.a.w. knew and evenCompanions). And the Prophet s.a.w. knew and even sanctioned this practice.sanctioned this practice. ““IsIs TaqlidTaqlid isis HaramHaram (forbidden)” ?(forbidden)” ? #1 All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 96.  Some scholars advocate “it-tiba’ “ i.e. “following ” by also understanding the basis (dalil) for a decision. This is to prevent laziness and cult-like blind adherence (ta’assub) merely towards personalities and their charisma.  Howbeit, this “it-tiba’ “ is still regarded as “Taqlid ” because the person (muttabi’) still has to rely upon whatever the scholars have presented, for he (who obviously is not mujtahid) has no competency to adequately assess the basis from its sources independently. ““IsIs TaqlidTaqlid isis HaramHaram (forbidden)” ?(forbidden)” ? #1 All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 97.  His knowing of the basis is not compulsory, but only encouraged as a learning process i.e. as encouragement to aspire to upgrade himself towards becoming knowledgeable of the Deen; as well as for him to appreciate and learn the methodology.  It is only in matters of AQEEDAH or in matters that outwardly opposes known principles and teachings of Islam, that “Taqlid “ (in the sense of following blindly) is Haram (forbidden) i.e. for those who can think and who can verify. ““IsIs TaqlidTaqlid isis HaramHaram (forbidden)” ?(forbidden)” ? #1 All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 98.  Some erroneously assumed that this reliance upon the authority whose competency can be generally ascertained to be forbidden, while they conveniently forget that this itself is in fact complying to Allah’s commandment: ““IsIs TaqlidTaqlid isis HaramHaram (forbidden)” ?(forbidden)” ? #1 ““... Ask from those who possess the Message (az-Zikr : the... Ask from those who possess the Message (az-Zikr : the remembrance) in matters which you do not know.“remembrance) in matters which you do not know.“ ((Qur’an: al-Nahlu: 16: 43Qur’an: al-Nahlu: 16: 43)) WaAllaahu a’lamWaAllaahu a’lam All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 99. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 100.  If by “Bid’ah “ we mean strictly to refer to any “ innovation” i.e. something which has not been done by the Prophet s.a.a.w. himself ” - then yes, of course it is “Bid’ah “.  This was because there was no necessity for the Prophet s.a.a.w. to be following any one else’s opinion on religious matter. ““Is followingIs following MadzhabMadzhab isis Bid’ahBid’ah (innovation) ? ”(innovation) ? ” # 2 All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 101.  Yet, amongst the Companions of the Prophet, there are those whom he specifically pointed out to be referred by others, because these were acknowledged by him as competent scholars and teachers in the Prophet’s absence.  So if by “madzhab “ we mean “school of thoughts in matters of juristic, Qur’anic interpretations”, then this is clearly already advocated by the Prophet s.a.w. himself during his life-time. ““Is followingIs following MadzhabMadzhab isis Bid’ahBid’ah (innovation) ? ”(innovation) ? ” # 2 All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 102.  So, if some practices occur which is known to the Prophet s.a.w. and he consented (by not forbidding it) then, technically it is to be regarded as a Sunnah (Taqririyya). Here, then the argument in fact supports that following “madzhab ” is not a “Bid’ah ” but rather is actually a “Sunnah ”. ““Is followingIs following MadzhabMadzhab isis Bid’ahBid’ah (innovation) ? ”(innovation) ? ” # 2 All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 103.  As to the concern of varieties of views, yes, there were already “ikhtilaaf ” (differences) in the opinions amongst the companions themselves, although few, but it was wisely tolerated by the Prophet s.a.w. himself even during that period, to teach us how we are supposed to regard differences of opinions with Adab, amongst the learned. These differences are even regarded as a mercy. WaAllaahu a’lam. ““Is followingIs following MadzhabMadzhab isis Bid’ahBid’ah (innovation) ? ”(innovation) ? ” # 2 All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 104. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 105.  Although the slogan “Let’s go back to Al-Qur’an and As- Sunnah” may be correct and in vogue, yet it is a general statement which must be read with a caveat – i.e. “for those knowledgeable and who truly are competent to do so” – which therefore is not a licence for just everyone.  The general Muslims are required to refer to Islamic jurists and scholars whose opinions, explicitly or implicitly as a rule, must be founded upon the Qur’an and As-Sunnah. ““Why must we followWhy must we follow MadzhabMadzhab when we can gowhen we can go to the Qur’an and Ahadith ourselves ? ”to the Qur’an and Ahadith ourselves ? ” # 3 All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 106.  So the obvious response to the above is crucially with a question – “Are you a ‘Mujtahid’? “  The claim of one’s ability to “going back to Al-Qur’an and Ahadith” must first be ascertained and verified . Without which one still has to rely upon those who can.  And all “Madzaahib” are in fact a body or collegiate of competent Islamic scholars whose task are to refer matters to the Qur’an and As-Sunnah. ““Why must we followWhy must we follow MadzhabMadzhab when we can gowhen we can go to the Qur’an and Ahadith ourselves ? ”to the Qur’an and Ahadith ourselves ? ” # 3 All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 107.  Today those whose advocacy is : “We do not follow any Madzhab” are spewing a contradiction because they are in fact setting up a new “Madzhab” i.e. technically it is still “a madzhab of those who reject traditional Madzhab”, except that they may not even be learned themselves.  Thus, it is a misguidance of the misguided. May Allah safeguard us all from every kinds of misguidance. WaAllaahu a’lam. ““Why must we followWhy must we follow MadzhabMadzhab when we can gowhen we can go to the Qur’an and Ahadith ourselves ? ”to the Qur’an and Ahadith ourselves ? ” # 3 All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 108. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 109.  No! Madzaahib in Islam is not the same as ‘denomination’ or ‘sects’ as in Christianity because: [1] Muslim scholars of every Madzhab adhere to similar principles – Al-Qur’an, As-Sunnah, Ijma’, Qiyas, etc. – they differ only in some few secondary matters of interpretations, but are generally in agreement in most fundamental issues. ““Would not followingWould not following MadzhabMadzhab a form of sectarianisma form of sectarianism like the denominations of the Christian churches ? ”like the denominations of the Christian churches ? ” # 4 All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 110.  No! Madzaahib in Islam is not the same as ‘denomination’ or ‘sects’ as in Christianity because: [2] Whereas in Christianity, ‘denominations’ amongst them differ in regard to fundamentals and primary sources viz. the Bible, their dogmas, their rites , etc. ““Would not followingWould not following MadzhabMadzhab a form of sectarianisma form of sectarianism like the denominations of the Christian churches ? ”like the denominations of the Christian churches ? ” # 4 All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 111.  No! Madzaahib in Islam is not the same as ‘denomination’ or ‘sects’ as in Christianity because: [3] All Muslims is to aspire to become ‘Ulama (scholars) to some degree, and they can re-check whatever opinions with other scholars - whereas in Christianity, most of their Church cleric has almost an excusive authority, and are unquestionably followed by the ordinary congregation. ““Would not followingWould not following MadzhabMadzhab a form of sectarianisma form of sectarianism like the denominations of the Christian churches ? ”like the denominations of the Christian churches ? ” # 4 WaAllaahu a’lamWaAllaahu a’lam All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 112. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 113.  Every one should begin following only one Madzhab first. It is not only following the final juristic decision, but also to learn the principles, methods and approaches to its juristic interpretation. ““Must we follow only oneMust we follow only one MadzhabMadzhab? Can we not move? Can we not move to the opinion of otherto the opinion of other MadzaahibMadzaahib ?”?” # 5 All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 114.  Because, there are difference in the methodological preferences used between Madzaahib – viz. what is stressed strictly (‘azeemah), what can be given dispensation (rukhshah), etc. therefore, changing or mixing opinions of Madzaahib before knowing each of the basis, is forbidden as it can lead to confusion for novice.  This is to prevent ‘hybrid’ opinion which strictly speaking is neither of this madzhab nor of that – termed ‘talfiq’. ““Must we follow only oneMust we follow only one MadzhabMadzhab? Can we not move? Can we not move to the opinion of otherto the opinion of other MadzaahibMadzaahib ?”?” # 5 All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 115.  However, for those advanced in following a Madzhab, are known to adopt views or juristic opinions from other Madzaahib after comparing the basis used, as well as to consider which opinions can offer the best solution to an issue at hand (but avoiding the error of ‘talfiq’) .  Yet even so, they do not have to declare, nor necessary to regard themselves to have changed Madzhab.  WaAllaahu a’lam ““Must we follow only oneMust we follow only one MadzhabMadzhab? Can we not move? Can we not move to the opinion of otherto the opinion of other MadzaahibMadzaahib ?”?” # 5 All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 116. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 117. MAIN RIVER SOURCE DISTRIBUTARIESDISTRIBUTARIES All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 118.  All distributaries emanates from the main river source.All distributaries emanates from the main river source.  The nearer it is to the source, the purer will be the water.The nearer it is to the source, the purer will be the water.  None of the distributaries alone can claim to represent theNone of the distributaries alone can claim to represent the entire main river, yet as long as they are connected to theentire main river, yet as long as they are connected to the main source, they are all part of the river system (nomain source, they are all part of the river system (no doubt).doubt). All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 119.  It may even merge into one another. Or some mayIt may even merge into one another. Or some may completely disappear from the earth’s surface. Or purecompletely disappear from the earth’s surface. Or pure water from the sky may be added to it.water from the sky may be added to it.  Each distributaries could also be affected by the soil uponEach distributaries could also be affected by the soil upon which it flows through, or impurities may have beenwhich it flows through, or impurities may have been thrown into them, or other pollutants inadvertentlythrown into them, or other pollutants inadvertently introduced as when irrigation or dam have to beintroduced as when irrigation or dam have to be constructed etc..constructed etc.. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 120.  Thus, the concern is for users of each distributaries to be cautious when drinking from it, lest it may be harmful, although one has to still drink from it- or else die from thirst. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 121.  To deprive any one from the available water that they already can access to, with the excuse that it has become polluted is foolish, just as long as the stream they are drinking from, still contain the water which is from the main source. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 122.  Similarly foolish is to argue “my distributaries is better than your distributaries” when both actually possesses life-sustaining water (H2O). All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 123.  Those who have collected for themselves clean water may share them with others – but, it would be sheer arrogance to ‘incite or instigate’ common people who have always relied upon these distributaries for their sustenance, to abandon benefitting from the abundant flow of these streams, for the sake of ‘small insignificant cisterns and tanks’ being offered. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 124.  It is equally foolish, nay irresponsible, to confuse – or rather to “scare and confound”- the common people whose need for water does not necessarily require him to be expert chemists themselves – only for them to heed whatever advises of the medical experts amongst them as well as from the “water authority”. WaAllaahu a’lamWaAllaahu a’lam.. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 125. ““O ye who believe! if you are conscious of and fear AllahO ye who believe! if you are conscious of and fear Allah ((TAQWATAQWA), He will grant you a criterion (), He will grant you a criterion (FURQANFURQAN-to judge-to judge between right and wrong), remove from you (all) evil (that maybetween right and wrong), remove from you (all) evil (that may afflict) you, and forgive you: for Allah is the Lord of graceafflict) you, and forgive you: for Allah is the Lord of grace unbounded.”unbounded.” ((Qur’an: Anfaal: 8: 29Qur’an: Anfaal: 8: 29)) REMEMBER THIS IMPORTANT COMMANDREMEMBER THIS IMPORTANT COMMAND All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 126. ALLAA-HUM-MA – ARI-NAL-HAQ-QA - HAQ-QAN WAR- ZUQ-NAT - TI-BAA- ’A WA-ARI-NAL – BAA-TWILA – BAA-TWI-LAAN WAR-ZUQ-NAJ – TI –NAA - BAH ““O Allah! Make us see the Truth to be trueO Allah! Make us see the Truth to be true and grant us ability to follow it.and grant us ability to follow it. And make us see Falsehood to be falseAnd make us see Falsehood to be false and grant us the ability to reject it.”and grant us the ability to reject it.” IMPORTANT DU’AIMPORTANT DU’A All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 127. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 128. "Our Lord, do not impose blame upon us if we have"Our Lord, do not impose blame upon us if we have forgotten or erred.forgotten or erred. Our Lord, and lay not upon us a burden like that whichOur Lord, and lay not upon us a burden like that which You laid upon those before us.You laid upon those before us. Our Lord, and burden us not with that which we have noOur Lord, and burden us not with that which we have no ability to bear. And pardon us; and forgive us; and haveability to bear. And pardon us; and forgive us; and have mercy upon us. You are our protector, so give us victorymercy upon us. You are our protector, so give us victory over the disbelieving people."over the disbelieving people." All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 129. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 130. “O Allah, make my speech be guidance, inspire me with reverential fear, give me success in that which is most pure, and employ me in what is most pleasing to Thee! O Allah, let me tread the most exemplary path and make me live and die in Thy creed! O Allah, bless Muhammad and his Household, give me to enjoy moderation, make me into one of the people of right behaviour, the proofs of right conduct, and the servants of righteousness," All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 131. O Allah! Make faith (O Allah! Make faith (iimaniiman) dear to us and beautify it in our hearts) dear to us and beautify it in our hearts and make disbelief (and make disbelief (KufrKufr), sinning (), sinning (FusuqFusuq) and rebelliousness () and rebelliousness (`isyan`isyan)) hateful to us, and make us among the rightly guided (hateful to us, and make us among the rightly guided (Raa-shi-duunRaa-shi-duun).). All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 132. O Allah! Allow us to die as Muslims, live as MuslimsO Allah! Allow us to die as Muslims, live as Muslims and join us with the ranks of the righteous ones,and join us with the ranks of the righteous ones, without tasting humiliation or turmoil.without tasting humiliation or turmoil. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 133. ‘‘And (may AllAnd (may Allaah send) salutations and prayers upon Muh send) salutations and prayers upon Muhhammadammad and upon the household and companions of Muand upon the household and companions of Muhhammadammad (the pure ones of his family and all the loyal followers).(the pure ones of his family and all the loyal followers). All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 134. ““Glory to thy Lord the Lord, of Honour and Power!Glory to thy Lord the Lord, of Honour and Power! (He is free) from what they ascribe (to Him)!(He is free) from what they ascribe (to Him)! And Peace on the Messengers!And Peace on the Messengers! And praise to Allah, the Lord and Cherisher of the Worlds.”And praise to Allah, the Lord and Cherisher of the Worlds.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)
  • 135. http://an-naseehah.blogspot.com/http://an-naseehah.blogspot.com/ http://introductiontotauhid.blogspot.com/http://introductiontotauhid.blogspot.com/ http://oyoubelievers.blogspot.com/http://oyoubelievers.blogspot.com/ http://al-amthaal.blogspot.com/http://al-amthaal.blogspot.com/ http://zhulkeflee-archive.blogspot.com/http://zhulkeflee-archive.blogspot.com/ http://criteriaforaholybook-quran.blogspot.com/http://criteriaforaholybook-quran.blogspot.com/ http://with-the-truthful.blogspot.com/http://with-the-truthful.blogspot.com/ http ://muqaddam-nurul.blogspot.com/http ://muqaddam-nurul.blogspot.com/ All welcome to visit my web-blog:All welcome to visit my web-blog: 135 All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)