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  • 1. “ The Criteria for a Holy Book” by : Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail Singapore. - a case for the Qur’an
  • 2. WHY CRITERIA ? INTRODUCTION AND A BRIEF BACKGROUND ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail
  • 3. CLAIMS ITSELF TO BE FROM GOD………. The Book itself must make the claim, and not what people attribute to it based on whatever reasons. ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail THE CRITERIA
  • 4. وَبِٱلۡحَقِّ أَنزَلۡنَـٰهُ وَبِٱلۡحَقِّ نَزَلَ‌ۗ وَمَآ أَرۡسَلۡنَـٰكَ إِلَّا مُبَشِّرً۬ا وَنَذِيرً۬ا وَقُرۡءَانً۬ا فَرَقۡنَـٰهُ لِتَقۡرَأَهُ ۥ عَلَى ٱلنَّاسِ عَلَىٰ مُكۡثٍ۬ وَنَزَّلۡنَـٰهُ تَنزِيلاً۬ ( Qur’an : Bani Isra’il : 105-106 ) ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail
  • 5. “ We (Allah) sent down the Qur’an in Truth, and in Truth has it descended : and We sent you but to give glad tidings and to warn (sinners). It is a Qur’an which We have divided (into parts from time to time) in order that you (O Muhammad) might recite it to men at intervals : We have revealed it by stages” ( Qur’an : Bani Isra’il : 105 ) ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail
  • 6. UNIQUE AND INIMITABLE………. A Book from God must be unique so that it is distinct from other books. Thus, inimitability (not possible for any to produce another like it) is an important quality. ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail THE CRITERIA
  • 7. The Qur’an provides outstanding challenge وَإِن ڪُنتُمۡ فِى رَيۡبٍ۬ مِّمَّا نَزَّلۡنَا عَلَىٰ عَبۡدِنَا فَأۡتُواْ بِسُورَةٍ۬ مِّن مِّثۡلِهِۦ وَٱدۡعُواْ شُهَدَآءَكُم مِّن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ إِن كُنتُمۡ صَـٰدِقِينَ ( Surah al-Baqarah : 23 ) ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail
  • 8. The Qur’an provides outstanding challenge “ And if you are in doubt as to what We have revealed from time to time to our servant, then produce a Surah like thereunto ; and call your witness or helpers (if there are any) besides Allah, if your (doubts) are true” ( Surah al-Baqarah : 23 ) ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail
  • 9. Ust .Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail The Qur’an provides a test and an outstanding challenge وَمَا كَانَ هَـٰذَا ٱلۡقُرۡءَانُ أَن يُفۡتَرَىٰ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ وَلَـٰكِن تَصۡدِيقَ ٱلَّذِى بَيۡنَ يَدَيۡهِ وَتَفۡصِيلَ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبِ لَا رَيۡبَ فِيهِ مِن رَّبِّ ٱلۡعَـٰلَمِينَ ( Surah Yunos : 37 ) ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail
  • 10. Ust .Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail The Qur’an provides a test and an outstanding challenge “ This Qur’an is not such as can be produced by other than Allah. On the contrary it is a confirmation of revelations that went before it, and a fuller explanation of the Book wherein there is no doubt - from the Lord of the Universe” ( Surah Yunos : 37 ) ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail
  • 11. CONTAINS ABSOLUTE PRINCIPLES………. All principles which the book contains must be absolute (not affected by time) and remain as true today as they will remain true in the future and as they had proven true in the past. ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail THE CRITERIA
  • 12. CONTAINS NEITHER DISCREPANCY NOR INACCURACY………. God is perfect in His Wisdom and cannot be the author of discrepancies and/or inaccuracies. ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail
  • 13. أَفَلَا يَتَدَبَّرُونَ ٱلۡقُرۡءَانَ‌ۚ وَلَوۡ كَانَ مِنۡ عِندِ غَيۡرِ ٱللَّهِ لَوَجَدُواْ فِيهِ ٱخۡتِلَـٰفً۬ا ڪَثِيرً۬ا ( Surah An- Nisa’ : 82 ) ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail The Qur’an provides the test and another outstanding challenge
  • 14. “ Do they not consider the Qur’an with care ? Had it been from other than Allah, they would surely have found therein much discrepancy” ( Surah An- Nisa’ : 82 ) ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail The Qur’an provides the test and another outstanding challenge
  • 15. CONTRIBUTES TO THE WELL-BEING OF PEOPLE OF ALL LEVELS………. Unlike other books which appeal to or benefit only certain classes of people according to their intellectual levels, the Book of God is meant for all classes of people. Only God’s Wisdom is capable of producing such a Book. ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail THE CRITERIA
  • 16. SOME PROPHECIES PROVEN TRUE………. Proof of God’s knowledge is in the truth of His prophecies. Although there are many which have not yet come to pass, still there must be some prophecies which can validate this unique attribute of God in the Book. ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail THE CRITERIA
  • 17.
    • VICTORY OVER MAKKAH
    • لَّقَدۡ صَدَقَ ٱللَّهُ رَسُولَهُ ٱلرُّءۡيَا بِٱلۡحَقِّ‌ۖ لَتَدۡخُلُنَّ ٱلۡمَسۡجِدَ ٱلۡحَرَامَ إِن شَآءَ ٱللَّهُ ءَامِنِينَ مُحَلِّقِينَ رُءُوسَكُمۡ وَمُقَصِّرِينَ لَا تَخَافُونَ‌ۖ فَعَلِمَ مَا لَمۡ تَعۡلَمُواْ فَجَعَلَ مِن دُونِ ذَٲلِكَ فَتۡحً۬ا قَرِيبًا
    • هُوَ ٱلَّذِىٓ أَرۡسَلَ رَسُولَهُ ۥ بِٱلۡهُدَىٰ وَدِينِ ٱلۡحَقِّ لِيُظۡهِرَهُ ۥ عَلَى ٱلدِّينِ كُلِّهِۦ‌ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِٱللَّهِ شَهِيدً۬ا
    ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail
  • 18.
    • VICTORY OVER MAKKAH
    • “ Truly did Allah fulfil the vision for His Messenger: Ye shall enter the Sacred Mosque, if Allah wills, with minds secure, heads, shaved, hair cut short, and without fear. For He knew what ye knew not and He granted besides this a speedy victory. It is He who has sent His Messenger with Guidance and the Religion of Truth, to proclaim it over all religion: and enough is Allah for a Witness.”
    • ( Qur’an: Surah Fath: 48: 27-28 )
    ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail
  • 19.
    • VICTORY OVER MAKKAH
    • revealed when Muslims were a disregarded group, oppressed and weak, living in Madinah after being forced to migrate there, and then had faced several invasions by the Quraish. Yet the prophecy came of his imminent conquest and victory.
    ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail
  • 20.
    • GREEK (RUM) VICTORY OVER THE PERSIAN
    • الٓمٓ غُلِبَتِ ٱلرُّومُ  فِىٓ أَدۡنَى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَهُم مِّنۢ بَعۡدِ غَلَبِهِمۡ سَيَغۡلِبُونَ فِى بِضۡعِ سِنِينَ‌ۗ لِلَّهِ ٱلۡأَمۡرُ مِن قَبۡلُ وَمِنۢ بَعۡدُ‌ۚ وَيَوۡمَٮِٕذٍ۬ يَفۡرَحُ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنُونَ
    ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail
  • 21.
    • GREEK (RUM) VICTORY OVER THE PERSIAN
    • “ Alif Lam Mim. The Roman Empire has been defeated― In a land close by; but they, (even) after (this) defeat of theirs, will soon be victorious. Within a few years. With Allah is the Decision, in the Past and in the Future: on that Day shall the Believers rejoice―”
    • ( Qur’an: Rum: 30: 1-4 )
    ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail
  • 22.
    • GREEK (RUM) VICTORY OVER THE PERSIAN
    • although this verse came just after news of their recent defeat by the Persian made the pagan Quraysh to mock at the Muslims.
    ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail
  • 23.
    • ABU LAHAB’S FINAL END
    • تَبَّتۡ يَدَآ أَبِى لَهَبٍ۬ وَتَبَّ مَآ أَغۡنَىٰ عَنۡهُ مَالُهُ ۥ وَمَا ڪَسَبَ سَيَصۡلَىٰ نَارً۬ا ذَاتَ لَهَبٍ۬ وَٱمۡرَأَتُهُ ۥ حَمَّالَةَ ٱلۡحَطَبِ فِى جِيدِهَا حَبۡلٌ۬ مِّن مَّسَدِۭ
    ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail
  • 24.
    • ABU LAHAB’S FINAL END
    • “ Perish the hands of Abu Lahab (the Father of Flame)! Perish he! No profit to him from all his wealth, and all his gains! Burnt soon will he be in a Fire of blazing Flame! His wife shall carry the (crackling) wood ―as fuel!― A twisted rope of palm-leaf fibre round her (own) neck!”
    • ( Qur’an: al-Masad: 111: 1-5 )
    ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail
  • 25.
    • ABU LAHAB’S FINAL END
    • Even after this verse, he lived for another 10 years but finally died as an unbeliever, true to the prophecy.
    ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail
  • 26. SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH VALIDATES DATA IN THE BOOK………. Any scientific fact mentioned in the Book should be able to stand the test of time and scientific research. ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail THE CRITERIA
  • 27.
    • Our understanding of empirical science and human discovery in nature is that of the inevitable outcome of man’s reflection of God’s signs (aayat) In the universe, and would not lead to any definitive contradiction in terms of scientific facts.
    An important qualification: ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail
  • 28.
    • Yet, science being relative and therefore cannot claim to have absolute certainty, is therefore inadequate to be used as definitive criteria.
    An important qualification: ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail
  • 29.
    • But, in the case of the Qur’an, what we can show is that, as man discover new things in nature, it would not make the statements in the Qur’an redundant, but rather only enhances mankind’s understanding of them.
    An important qualification: ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail
  • 30. The Qur’an even prophesizes this..
    • سَنُرِيهِمۡ ءَايَـٰتِنَا فِى ٱلۡأَفَاقِ وَفِىٓ أَنفُسِہِمۡ حَتَّىٰ يَتَبَيَّنَ لَهُمۡ أَنَّهُ ٱلۡحَقُّ‌ۗ أَوَلَمۡ يَكۡفِ بِرَبِّكَ أَنَّهُ ۥ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَىۡءٍ۬ شَہِيدٌ
    • ( Qur’an: Fussilat: 41: 53)
    ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail
  • 31. The Qur’an even prophesizes this..
    • “ In time We shall make them fully understand Our messages [through what they perceive] in the utmost horizons [of the universe] and within themselves, so that it will become clear unto them that this [revelation] is indeed the truth. [Still] is it not enough [for them to know] that thy Sustainer is witness unto everything?”
    • ( Qur’an: Fussilat: 41: 53)
    ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail
  • 32. References :
    • “ The Bible, the Qur’an and Modern Science” by Dr. Maurice Bucaille
    • “ The Developing Human” by Dr. Keith L Moore (with Islamic additions)
    • “ The Basis for a Muslim Belief” by Gary Miller
    ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail
  • 33. Western preformation theory notice the preformed shape of a foetus Seventeenth century drawing by Hartsoeker of a sperm (circa 1600) ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail
  • 34. ثُمَّ جَعَلۡنَـٰهُ نُطۡفَةً۬ فِى قَرَارٍ۬ مَّكِينٍ۬ ثُمَّ خَلَقۡنَا ٱلنُّطۡفَةَ عَلَقَةً۬ فَخَلَقۡنَا ٱلۡعَلَقَةَ مُضۡغَةً۬ فَخَلَقۡنَا ٱلۡمُضۡغَةَ عِظَـٰمً۬ا فَكَسَوۡنَا ٱلۡعِظَـٰمَ لَحۡمً۬ا ثُمَّ أَنشَأۡنَـٰهُ خَلۡقًا ءَاخَرَ‌ۚ فَتَبَارَكَ ٱللَّهُ أَحۡسَنُ ٱلۡخَـٰلِقِينَ ( Q : al- Mu’minun : 23:12-15 ) ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail
  • 35. “ We (Allah) created man from a quintessence (gentle extraction) of clay; We then placed him as a drop ( nutfah ) in a place of rest firmly fixed; then We made the drop into an “ alaqah ” (leech-like); and then We change the “ alaqah ” into “ mudghah ” (chewed-like substance); then We made out of that “mudghah” bones (‘ izam ); then We clothed the bones with flesh (‘ lahm ); then We developed out of it another creation. So blessed be Allah, the best to create.” ( Q : al- Mu’minun : 23:12-15 ) ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail
  • 36. What did the Prophet say ? “ When forty-two nights have passed over the Nutfah (i.e. the zygote) Allah sends an angel to it, who shapes it and make its ears, skin, flesh and bones. Then the angel says ‘O Lord ! Is it male or female ?’ And your Lord decide what He wishes and then the angel records it.” ( Hadith reported by Muslim in Kitab al-Qadr ) ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail
  • 37. Admission of a modern professor of Embryology, Keith L Moore. “ It appears that Human knowledge had, at one time contradicted some of the facts brought by Islam on some aspects of reproduction. It is also realised that as man discovers new facts, he finds himself repeating what had already been stated by the Qur’an and the Hadith.” ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail
  • 38. MUST REMAIN PRESERVED AND NOT BE TAMPERED WITH………. A claim of a Book from God must be on the basis of its original writing. Not something which has been doctored with or edited, with the intention of giving it credibility, based on newly discovered knowledge. ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail THE CRITERIA
  • 39. إِنَّا نَحۡنُ نَزَّلۡنَا ٱلذِّكۡرَ وَإِنَّا لَهُ ۥ لَحَـٰفِظُونَ ( Surah al- Hijr : 9 ) ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail
  • 40. “ We (Allah) have, without doubt, send down the Message (Al-Qur’an) And We will assuredly guard it (from corruption)” ( Surah al- Hijr : 9 ) ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail
  • 41. History of its preservation Prophetic Era 13AH - 10AH Revelation to Prophet Muhammad * memorised * Dictated * Recorded * Collated * Counter-checked ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail
  • 42. History of its preservation 1st Mushaf 12AH Battle of Yamamah * original materials which have been recorded by the Prophet’s scribe were sorted out, checked and bound into a single Book. ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail
  • 43. History of its preservation Mushaf Uthmani 30AH
    • Expansion of Islam
    • Uthman’s recension - 7 official copies made from the 1st Mushaf – these sent to all Islamic centres accompanied by a Reciter (muqri’)
    • (extant copies of these are available even to this day)
    ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail
  • 44. History of its preservation Diacretial marking 65AH (Science) Ilmu-Qira’atil Qur’an * inclusion of markings to the script conforming with Prophet’s recitation, and to facilitate non-Arab learning recitation ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail
  • 45. Ust .Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail History of its preservation MUSHAF FUAD 1342AH From Mushaf Uthmani, text compiled at AL-AZHAR with one of the original manner of Recitation which has been preserved - from HAFASH. ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail
  • 46. Hafash ‘ Asim ibn Abin Nujud Abi Abdur Rahman Abd ibn Habib as-Sulaimi ‘ Ali Abi Talib Uthman ‘Affan Zaid Tsabit Ubay Ka’ab Holy Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. History of its preservation ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail
  • 47. History of its preservation MUSHAF MADINAH 1403AH (1980) Commissioned by Saudi King, text using the Rasm’ Uthmani - following strictly the spelling, letter for letter, identical to Mushaf Uthmani. ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail
  • 48. MUST SPEAK ABOUT GOD AND HIS DIVINE PLAN If God sends a Book to us, it must be to inform us about Himself and His Divine Plan. ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail THE CRITERIA
  • 49. UNIVERSAL APPEAL AND APPLICATION … Whatever the message of the Book, it must remain relevant throughout the ages from the time of its revelation. ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail THE CRITERIA
  • 50. “ CONCLUSION”: If a Book …..
    • claims to be from God;
    • And which could not be produced by any who tries;
    • And contains absolute principles;
    • And does not contain discrepancies;
    • And has contributed to the well-being of mankind at all levels;
    ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail
  • 51. “ CONCLUSION”: If a Book …..
    • claims to be from God;
    • And which could not be produced by any who tries;
    • And contains absolute principles;
    • And does not contain discrepancies;
    • And has contributed to the well-being of mankind at all levels;
    • And can be shown that some of its prophecies were proven true;
    • And some of its data compatible with scientific research;
    • And the whole book still remains in its original text (language);
    • And speaks of God and His plan;
    • And has universal appeal and application.
    ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail
  • 52. “ CONCLUSION”: If a Book …..
    • claims to be from God;
    • And which could not be produced by any who tries;
    • And contains absolute principles;
    • And does not contain discrepancies;
    • And has contributed to the well-being of mankind at all levels;
    • And can be shown that some of its prophecies were proven true;
    • And some of its data compatible with scientific research;
    • And the whole book still remains in its original text (language);
    • And speaks of God and His plan;
    • And has universal appeal and application.
    WHAT MUST BE THE VERDICT OR CONCLUSION?..... ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail
  • 53. Then, most certainl y, it must have come from God ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail
  • 54. Then, most certainl y, it must have come from God No other conclusion is plausible….! ©2006ZhulkefleeHjIsmail
  • 55. VISIT: http://criteriaforaholybook-quran.blogspot.com/ For detail elaboration of what has been presented on this presentation (All rights reserved©2005 Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail) Also other sites by same author: http://an-naseehah.blogspot.com/ http://introductiontotauhid.blogspot.com/ http://oyoubelievers.blogspot.com/ http://al-amthaal.blogspot.com/ http://zhulkeflee-archive.blogspot.com/ http://with-the-truthful.blogspot.com/