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  • 05/10/10 01:36 © 2007 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft, Windows, Windows Vista and other product names are or may be registered trademarks and/or trademarks in the U.S. and/or other countries. The information herein is for informational purposes only and represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation as of the date of this presentation. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information provided after the date of this presentation. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS PRESENTATION.
  • 05/10/10 01:36 © 2007 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft, Windows, Windows Vista and other product names are or may be registered trademarks and/or trademarks in the U.S. and/or other countries. The information herein is for informational purposes only and represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation as of the date of this presentation. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information provided after the date of this presentation. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS PRESENTATION.
  • 05/10/10 01:36 © 2007 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft, Windows, Windows Vista and other product names are or may be registered trademarks and/or trademarks in the U.S. and/or other countries. The information herein is for informational purposes only and represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation as of the date of this presentation. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information provided after the date of this presentation. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS PRESENTATION.
  • 05/10/10 01:36 © 2007 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft, Windows, Windows Vista and other product names are or may be registered trademarks and/or trademarks in the U.S. and/or other countries. The information herein is for informational purposes only and represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation as of the date of this presentation. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information provided after the date of this presentation. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS PRESENTATION.
  • 05/10/10 01:36 © 2007 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft, Windows, Windows Vista and other product names are or may be registered trademarks and/or trademarks in the U.S. and/or other countries. The information herein is for informational purposes only and represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation as of the date of this presentation. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information provided after the date of this presentation. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS PRESENTATION.
  • 05/10/10 01:36 © 2007 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft, Windows, Windows Vista and other product names are or may be registered trademarks and/or trademarks in the U.S. and/or other countries. The information herein is for informational purposes only and represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation as of the date of this presentation. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information provided after the date of this presentation. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS PRESENTATION.
  • 05/10/10 01:36 © 2007 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft, Windows, Windows Vista and other product names are or may be registered trademarks and/or trademarks in the U.S. and/or other countries. The information herein is for informational purposes only and represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation as of the date of this presentation. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information provided after the date of this presentation. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS PRESENTATION.
  • 05/10/10 01:36 © 2007 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft, Windows, Windows Vista and other product names are or may be registered trademarks and/or trademarks in the U.S. and/or other countries. The information herein is for informational purposes only and represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation as of the date of this presentation. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information provided after the date of this presentation. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS PRESENTATION.

Adab( Introduction)Slideshare Adab( Introduction)Slideshare Presentation Transcript

  • “ Aa-daab ” Arabic (plural) of Adab : meanings – “good breeding, decency, nurture, good manners, refinement, cultured, decorum, courteous, etiquette, propriety, social grace, to educate, discipline, the humanities, etc.” sense of proportion and knowledge of their rightful place in the order of things, the absence of which indicates injustice LESSONS ON ISLAMIC CONCEPT OF ADAB By: Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail Insha’Allah -This is a follow-up course, after completion of 18 weeks course on the kitab “ Ta’lim al-Muta’allim Tariqit Ta’allum ” of Sheikh Tajuddin Nu’man Zarnuji Beginning (3 rd April 2010) Every Saturday @ 8pm Wisma Indah 448 Changi Rd,#02-00 (Next to Masjid Kassim), آدَابٌ LESSON#1
  • “ Aa-daab ” Arabic (plural) of Adab * : meaning – “good breeding, nurture, manners, refinement, cultured, decorum, etiquette propriety, social grace, educated, etc.” آدَابٌ All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010 A BRIEF LESSON ON ADAB By: Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
  • “ THE BEST AMONGST YOU IS ONE WHO LEARNS THE QUR’AN AND WHO TEACHES IT” (HADITH) RASULULLAH S.A.W. SAID : All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • “ TAUHID ” AND UPHOLDING OF JUSTICE “ Although ultimately Islamic teaching advocates Ihsan and Rahma h (Doing good and spreading Mercy), this can only be pursued firstly with establishing Truth and Justice ( Haqq and ‘Adala ).” All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
    • “ There is no god but He: that is the witness of Allah His angels and those endued with knowledge, standing firm on justice. There is no god but He, the Exalted in Power, the Wise."
    • (Qur’an: Aali ‘Imran: 3: 18)
    All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • “ AN IMPORTANT PILLAR” “ STANDING FIRM UPON ‘ADL (JUSTICE), IHSAN (DOING GOOD), GIVING WHAT IS THE DUE RIGHT OF PEOPLE ...” All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • It was reported by As-Sulafiy in kitab: al-Mukhtar min ath-thuyuriyah :
    • The Prophet’s companion, ‘Abdullah Ibnu Mas‘ud r.a. was asked:
    • “ What is the Qur’anic verse which contain the most comprehensive ‘Hukm’ i.e. law or commandments ?”
    • Whereby he recited this verse an-Nahlu verse 90.
    All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • “ Behold, Allah commands justice, the doing of good, and the giving (i.e. generosity) to kith and kin (i.e. fellow man), and He forbids all shameful deeds, and injustice and rebellion: He instructs you, that ye may receive admonition.” (Qur’an: an-Nahlu: 16 : 90) All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • Meaning of various terms for Justice:
    • قِسْط - ( “ Qist ” ) meaning: “justice, fairness, equity, fair-mindedness, etc.” as in allotment of share or portion, also in the appropriate instalments.
    • Thus “ مُقْسِط ( “ muqsit ”) – is “acting justly, or with fairness, correctness and appropriateness.”
    All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • Meaning of various terms for Justice:
    • عَدَلَ - ( “ ’A-da-la ” ) – to act justly, equitable, treating everyone with indiscriminate justice, etc. it also imply عَدْل ( “ ‘adl ” ) to straighten, to be straightforward, justice, rectify, put in order, balance etc.
    All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
    • “ O ye who believe! stand out firmly for justice, as witnesses to Allah, even as against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin ...”
    • (Qur’an: an-Nisa’: 4 : 135)
    All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
    • “ The sun and the moon follow courses (exactly) computed; And the herbs and the trees-both (alike) bow in adoration. And the Firmament has He raised high, and He has set up the balance (of Justice), in order that ye may not transgress (due) balance. So establish weight with justice and fall not short in the balance.”
    • (Qur’an: ar-Rahmaan: 55 : 5-9)
    All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
    • “ So set thou thy face steadily and truly to the faith: (establish) Allah's handiwork according to the pattern on which He has made mankind: no change (let there be) in the work (wrought) by Allah: that is the standard Religion: but most among mankind understand not.”
    • (Qur’an: ar-Rum: 30 : 30)
    All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • “ REFLECTION FROM HISTORY IN THE QUR’AN All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010 CRISIS IN LOSS OF ADAB
    • “ Behold thy Lord said to the angels: "I will create a vicegerent on earth." They said "Wilt thou place therein one who will make mischief therein and shed blood? Whilst we do celebrate Thy praises and glorify Thy holy (name)?"
    • He said: "I know what ye know not."
    • (Qur’an: Baqarah: 2: 30)
    All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
    • “ And He taught Adam the names of all things; then He placed them before the angels and said: "Tell Me the names of these if ye are right."
    • They said: "Glory to Thee: of knowledge we have none, save that Thou hast taught us: in truth it is Thou who art perfect in knowledge and wisdom.”
    • (Qur’an: Baqarah: 2: 31-32)
    All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
    • “ He said: "O Adam! tell them their names." When he had told them their names, Allah said: "Did I not tell you that I know the secrets of heaven and earth, and I know what ye reveal and what ye conceal?"
    • And behold We said to the angels: "Bow down to Adam"; and they bowed down: not so Iblis: he refused and was haughty: he was of those who reject Faith.”
    • (Qur’an: Baqarah: 2: 33-34)
    All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
    • “ It is We who created you and gave you shape; then We bade the angels prostrate to Adam, and they prostrated, not so Iblis ; he refused to be of those who bow down.
    • (Allah) said: "what prevented thee from bowing down when I commanded thee?" He said: "I am better than he: thou didst create me from fire, and him from clay."
    • (Allah) said: "Get thee down from this: it is not for thee to be arrogant here: get out, for thou art of the meanest (of creatures)."
    • (Qur’an: A’raf: 7: 11-13)
    All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • REFLECTION:
    • It was not about knowledge.
    • It was not about ‘amal.
    • It was not about status or position, as it has not even been assumed.
    • It was not about wealth or possession, as all creations (angels/jinn) then have acknowledged that it all belongs to Allah.....
    All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • REFLECTION:
    • It was not about knowledge.
    • It was not about ‘amal.
    • It was not about status or position, as it has not even been assumed.
    • It was not about wealth or possession, as all creations (angels/jinn) then have acknowledged that it all belongs to Allah.
    • Actually, it was when the loss of Adab occurs, false pride and conceit reigns – even in the presence of Allah azzawajalla – the beginning of evil. WaAllaahu a’lam
    All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • * “ Adab ” Also defined as – “sense of proportion and knowledge of their rightful place in the order of things, the absence of which indicates injustice (zulm). ” IN OTHER WORDS: All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • A Story of a Seeker “ ADAB IN LEARNING” - ON THE LIGHTER SIDE ....... All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010 آدَابٌ
    • Once there was a man who, having travelled far and wide seeking knowledge arrived at the house of a well-known sheikh.
    • His purpose was to seek acceptance of this illustrious sheikh for him to be accepted as a student.
    THE STORY ...... All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
    • When he met the Sheikh, he said:
    • “ O illustrious Teacher! I am but a humble seeker of Truth and Wisdom. As enjoined by Islam, my thirst for knowledge led me to read many books and became aware of the need to be guided by a teacher.”
    THE STORY ...... All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
    • “ So I travelled far and wide, spending time learning under many teachers.
    • My disappointment with them was because I found that what they are imparting to me was nothing new, as I have in fact, read all of them.”
    THE STORY ...... All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • THE STORY ......
    • “ Sometimes I even feel that what I already know from my readings, far exceeded what these teachers were teaching me.
    • And having wasted much time with them, I felt perhaps I need to seek out a True Teacher - one with the calibre that suits my need, and not the ordinary type.”
    All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • THE STORY ......
    • The Sheikh responded:
    • “ My son! I am but an ordinary teacher, just like the rest who try sincerely to carry out the trust ( amanah ) of imparting whatever little knowledge and wisdom that Allah s.w.t. may have already bestowed upon us, to those who deserves.”
    All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • THE STORY ......
    • “ Ah! But your fame has spread far and wide.” The man interjected.
    • “ Many of your students are now teachers, and therefore I know that I have come to the right person who can teach me Wisdom.” he added.
    All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • THE STORY ......
    • The Sheikh then said “I do not think that I am that teacher, whom you think that I am.
    • Furthermore, there is no more space in my home (school) to cater for another student.
    • Therefore I am so sorry to have to turn down your request.”
    All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • THE STORY ......
    • Then, seeing disappointment in the man’s eyes, the Sheikh added:
    • “ But I shall teach you something, which perhaps may be useful, something you may in fact be in much need of. “
    All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • THE STORY ......
    • The Sheikh then continued: “In your searching for a true teacher, you can apply this criteria, a kind of test, if you like, so that you do not waste too much time for being disappointed time and again, for not knowing.”
    All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • THE STORY ......
    • Elated, the man eagerly said: “O Sheikh! Please do tell. At least what you will give me is the key to my search.
    • Alas, with it, perchance I would be able to easily distinguish the genuine from the false teachers.”
    All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • THE STORY ......
    • Then the Sheikh said “Know that True teachers are few, and for you today, it may even be rare –“
    • He paused to allow these words to sink in because too often, students only listen to their own self and failed to pay careful attention to a teacher’s words.
    All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • THE STORY ......
    • He then proceeded with slow measured tone, as though each word he uttered was deliberately meant to be inscribed in the student’s heart/mind.
    • “ Therefore the test that I shall teach you is – ‘how to know who is not a True teacher’ because, my son, I’m afraid you will encounter many of what you have called, the “false teachers.”
    All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • THE STORY ......
    • “ The test is this :–
    • IF A TEACHER ACCEPTS A STUDENT SUCH AS YOU, TO BE TAUGHT KNOWLEDGE AND WISDOM ........
    All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • THE STORY ......
    • “ The test is this :–
    • IF A TEACHER ACCEPTS A STUDENT SUCH AS YOU, TO BE TAUGHT KNOWLEDGE AND WISDOM ........
    • KNOW THAT HE IS NOT A TRUE TEACHER!”
    All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • “ Say (O Muhammad): Are those who know equal with those who know not? But only men of understanding will pay heed.” (Qur’an: az-Zumar: 39: 9) All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • LESSON # 1 – Reflect “ TA’RUF & SHORT GROUP DISCUSSION (3)” All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • REFLECT AND PONDER DEEPLY Ask yourself: “What are the lessons in this story for me ...? ” All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • POINTS TO PONDER
    • [1] Interest and eagerness alone is insufficient.
    • A more basic requirement is your preparedness to the pursuit in learning; in your attitude and etiquette – in your “ADAB.”
    THE STORY ...... All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • POINTS TO PONDER
    • [2] To be deserving of knowledge, one has to check oneself. It is easy to blame other factors for your failure in learning, yet usually the blame is in your own neglect to consider your Adab as student, especially in the presence of a teacher of the Deen .
    • ( This especially applies to traditional Islamic teachers in ‘ Uluum ad-Deen , whom I have observed, are very sensitive to human states ( Haal - ahwaal ) in the Nafs of the student .)
    THE STORY ...... All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • POINTS TO PONDER
    • [3] So, the question is not that there is no teacher available, or that there is nothing to be learnt from traditional Islamic teachers, perhaps it is we ourselves, who do not know how to learn.
    • Have we learnt how to learn? And if any claim to already know this, how does he know that he has indeed learned this without being affirmed of it, by another who truly knows?
    • Or do we in fact, care about this?
    THE STORY ...... All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • POINTS TO PONDER
    • [4] Example of this sometimes, is seen when students are assigned to discuss in a learning circle, traditionally referred to as “ Halaqah ”.
    • In this ‘ halaqah ’, (it is unlike discussion group or web-site forum, but) it is meant to be an extension of your learning with a teacher.
    • The teacher is in fact present overseeing somewhere (or even if on web-group, he is present, albeit, virtually). As students you must know your place at all times.
    THE STORY ...... All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • POINTS TO PONDER
    • Your state ( haal ) or ‘mode’ or attitude as a learner, is all the time being observed.
    • So: Do not be too forward (refer to my reflection on my blog) :
    • http://oyoubelievers.blogspot.com/2008/05/put-not-yourselves-forward.html )
    THE STORY ...... All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • POINTS TO PONDER
    • As students in sharing your thoughts and knowledge amongst fellow seekers of knowledge, do reflect upon the lesson of the teacher – which are:
    • to be relevant and consider our own learning, and not be the ones to teach,
    • to heed the directive of the teacher and not be the one directing (unless assigned by the teacher to do),
    THE STORY ...... All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • POINTS TO PONDER
    • to be focussed on what the teacher has assigned to be done, and not be the one assigning topics without the teacher’s leave,
    • you may share your experiences of lessons you may have learnt or read elsewhere, as long it is relevant and not cause doubts or distraction from the current subject being discussed or taught, etc. –
    THE STORY ...... All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • POINTS TO PONDER
    • Importantly, one must suppress the desire to want to teach, for it may lead to usurping the teacher’s position in the halaqah (especially when the teacher is overseeing the discussion).
    • Remember yourself as a student, an apprentice, a learner, a novice, a seeker ...
    • Therefore always be mindful of the difference between “ sharing ” and “ teaching ”.
    THE STORY ...... All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • POINTS TO PONDER
    • Sometimes guidance ( irshadah ) may be given in clear statements, or it may even be subtle. In the latter it serves as a means for the teacher to perhaps assess -the heedless from the heedful; the refined and sensitive from the gross; the rock from the scum; the attentive from the distracted; etc. So, be mindful!
    THE STORY ...... All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • POINTS TO PONDER
    • Sometimes guidance ( irshadah ) may be given in clear statements, or it may even be subtle. In the latter it serves as a means for the teacher to perhaps assess -the heedless from the heedful; the refined and sensitive from the gross; the rock from the scum; the attentive from the distracted; etc. So, be mindful!
    • May Allah grant us Hidaayah and Taufiq from Himself – upon the Straight Way.
    THE STORY ...... All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • POINTS TO PONDER
    • [5] Unfortunately, many of us have already been affected (programmed) by other learning culture which may be different from traditional Islamic learning.
    • We, inadvertently may have become creatures of habit.
    • Islam teaches us to be optimistic in that we can change to become better.
    THE STORY ...... All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • POINTS TO PONDER
    • This is what is meant by ikhtiyar (refer brief explanation on this here under “What we mean by freedom?”:
    • http://an-naseehah.blogspot.com/2008/05/using-name-allaah-part-3.html. ).
    • Habits must be consciously changed towards becoming better through practice. So do practice it whenever you are involve in any of the halaqah .
    THE STORY ...... All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • POINTS TO PONDER
    • As I have indicated, we hope that the halaqah you are involved in, especially in my class, emulates the traditional ways, which emphasise much upon Adab .
    • So, consider this point and there must be a difference between your halaqah from other vain discourses, meetings, discussion groups, chat-rooms etc.
    •  
    THE STORY ...... All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • POINTS TO PONDER
    • As I have indicated, we hope that the halaqah you are involved in, especially in my class, emulates the traditional ways, which emphasise much upon Adab .
    • So, consider this point and there must be a difference between your halaqah from other vain discourses, meetings, discussion groups, chat-rooms etc.
    •   WaAllaahu a’lam ,
    THE STORY ...... All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • A FOLLOW-UP STOR Y (Wisdom in the Dismissal) Some may find in the previous story, perhaps the seeker was unfairly treated by the Sheikh... Or was he? All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • THE ‘DISMISSAL’ ......
    • Someone asked Shah Naqshband: “It must have caused you pain to dismiss a certain student.”
    • He replied:
    • “ The best of all ways to test and help a disciple, if it is possible and most appropriate, may actually be to dismiss him!”
    All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
    • He then went on to explain:
    • “ .. If he (because of the dismissal) then turn against you (the teacher), he has a chance of observing his own shallowness and the defects which led to his dismissal.....”
    THE ‘DISMISSAL’ ...... All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
    • He then went on to explain:
    • “ .. If he forgives you, he has an opportunity of seeing whether in that there is any sanctimoniousness (i.e. sort of pretentiousness that in this, he is better ... another extreme state)”
    THE ‘DISMISSAL’ ...... All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
    • He then went on to explain:
    • “ .. If he regains his balance, then he will be able to benefit from this, of our teaching method (which ultimately seeks to instil justice and Adab ) and thus especially benefitting himself.”
    THE ‘DISMISSAL’ ...... All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • “ We are (much) in need of a little adab , from (that of) going out (seeking) after much of ‘ilm (knowledge)” – Imam Mubarak نَحْنُ إِلَى قَلِيْلٍ مِنَ اْلأَدَب أخْرَجُ مِنَّ إِلَى كَثِيرٍمِنَ الْعِلْم All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010 آدَابٌ
  • LESSON # 1a “ THE SIGN OF THE TRULY LEARNED IS HUMILITY IN THE PRESENCE OF THE ALL-KNOWING – WHILE THE HEEDLESS AND ARROGANT MAY BREACH THE ADAB” All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • LESSON # 1 b “ LOSS OF ADAB” – main problem which then leads to perpetuation of continuous confusion in knowledge and education. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • BREAKDOWN IN ADAB – LEADING TO LEVELLING Prof. Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas’ analysis: All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
    • External
    • Loss of Adab (B)
    • Internal
    • (A)
    • Confusion and Error in Knowledge
    • .
    • It is because of (A) the confusion and error in Knowledge that lead to condition for
    • (B) The loss of Adab in the community. Both internally and externally.
  • BREAKDOWN IN ADAB – LEADING TO LEVELLING Prof. Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas’ analysis: All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
    • (C)
    • Rise / election of
    • False leaders
    • External
    • Loss of Adab (B)
    • Internal
    • (A)
    • Confusion and Error in Knowledge
    • Figure 1
    • The condition arising out of (A) and (B) is:
    • (C) “The rise of leaders who are not qualified for valid leadership of the Muslim Community, who do not possess the high moral, intellectual and spiritual standards required for Islamic leadership..”
  • BREAKDOWN IN ADAB – LEADING TO LEVELLING Prof. Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas’ analysis: All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
    • (C)
    • Rise / election of
    • False leaders
    • External
    • Loss of Adab (B)
    • Internal
    • (A)
    • Confusion and Error in Knowledge
    • “ These false leaders then usurped Islamic leadership, who (then) perpetuate the condition in (A) [1] above and ensure the continued control of the affairs of the Community by leaders like them who dominate in all fields.” [2]
    • [ 1] The loss of Adab in the community. Thus restoration of Adab has higher priority for Adab precedes even learning.
    • [2] Wan Mohd Nor Wan Daud’s “The Educational Philosophy and Practice of Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas” (ISTAC publication 1998) p 74
  • BREAKDOWN IN ADAB – LEADING TO LEVELLING Prof. Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas’ analysis: All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010 (C) Rise / election of False leaders External Loss of Adab (B) Internal (A) Confusion and Error in Knowledge “ This state of perpetual confusion at all levels of societal leadership is ingeniously termed by al-Attas as the loss of adab. [1] The loss of Adab in the community. Thus restoration of Adab has higher priority for Adab precedes even learning. [2] Wan Mohd Nor Wan Daud’s “The Educational Philosophy and Practice of Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas” (ISTAC publication 1998) p 74
  • CONCLUSION
    • “ Although confusion in knowledge can be corrected through Education
    All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • CONCLUSION
    • “ Although confusion in knowledge can be corrected through Education
    • Yet, education cannot be truly done without “ Adab ” itself.
    All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • CONCLUSION
    • “ Although confusion in knowledge can be corrected through Education
    • Yet, education cannot be truly done without “ Adab ” itself.
    • Thus the importance of restoring “ Adab ”.
    All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • LESSON # 1c “ Ta’dib ” is the preferred term for EDUCATION All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
    • Ta’lim تعليم generally it means, “ to teach ” or “ the teaching ” of knowledge as different from information, but a profound understanding of this word requires us to know the root word “ ‘ ilm” which is different from “ ma’lumat ”
    • Ta’allum ( تعلُّم ) “to learn or be taught knowledge”
    • (see definition of knowledge عِلْمٌ next -below).
    Other terms sometimes used: All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
    • Amongst the definitions:
    • “ ... Knowledge is the arrival ( husul ) of the meaning ( ma’na ) of a thing or object of knowledge in the soul of the subject; and simultaneously,..... Knowledge is the soul’s arrival ( wusul ) at the meaning of that thing or the object of knowledge.”
    • By “ meaning ” ( ma’na ) is: “the recognition of the proper place of anything in a system ...”
    • S.M. Naquib Al-Attas
    Meaning of knowledge ( عِلْمٌ ): All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
    • Tarbiyyah تربية – although used by many Islamist to refer to education (perhaps influenced by the Western methodology), it’s use to refer to ‘education’ is not appropriate due to its narrow and limited scope when applied to the Islamic approach to education, because our Islamic worldview regarding man is unlike those from the Western outlook that still regards man as an animal specie (although evolved).
    Other terms sometimes used: All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • Other terms sometimes used:
    • Tarbiyyah تربية – has the meanings “education, upbringing, breeding, raising (of animals), instruction, pedagogy, etc.
    • From which we have term “ murabbin ” مُرَبٍّ “ educator, breeder, tutor etc.
    • Yet, it is too general a term and can also be applied in terms of raising, breeding and training of animals.
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  • Other terms sometimes used:
    • Darasa دَرَسَ – “ to learn, to study under a teacher, instructor, lecturer etc. ( mudarris - مُدَرِّس ).
    • Thus a school is called a “ madrasah ” مَدْرَسَة
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  • Meaning of the term:
    • Ta’-dib تأديب – term preferred for ‘education’, from the term ‘Adab’ أَدَبٌ meaning – “good breeding, nurture, manners, refinement, cultured, decorum, propriety, social grace, educated, etc.”
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  • Term in the Ahadith :
    • Hadith from Ibn Mas’ud:
    • إِنَّ هذَا اْلقُرْآنَ مَأْدَبَةُ اللهِ فِيْ اْلأَرْضِ فَتَعَلَّمُوْا مِنْ مَأْدَبَتِهِ
    • In-na haa-dza-al-Qur’aan ma’da-ba-tullaaha fil-ardh fa- ta’-la-muu- min ma’-da-batih
    • “ Verily! The Qur’an is Allah’s Banquet on earth, so learn thoroughly, then, from (or of) His Banquet.” [1]
    [1] S.M.Naquib Al-Attas “Islam and Secularism” page 150 All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
    • Thus,“ Adab” in the original basic sense (in Arabic) is the “inviting to a banquet.”
    • The idea of a banquet implies the host is a man of honour and prestige, and that many people are present; that the people who are present are those who in the host’s estimation are deserving of the honour of the invitation, and they are therefore people of refined qualities and upbringing who are expected to behave as befits their station, in speech, conduct and etiquette.” [1]
    [1] S.M.Naquib Al-Attas “Islam and Secularism” page 149 Term in the Ahadith : All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • أَدَّبَنِيْ رَبِّي فَأَحْسَنَ تَأْدِبِيْ “ Ad-dabani Rob-bii fa - ah-sana ta’-di-bii “ My Lord educated me, and made my education most excellent.” (Hadith) [2 ] [2] S.M.Naquib Al-Attas “Islam and Secularism” page 1510 Term in the Ahadith : All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • أَدِّبُوْا أَوْلاَدَكُمْ عَلَى ثَلاثِ خِصَالٍ ، حُبِّ نَبِيِّكُمْ ، وَحُبِّ آلِ بَيْتِهِ ، وَتِلاَوُةِالْقُرْآنِ Ad-di-buu -au-laa-da-kum – ‘alaa – thalatha- hi-swal – Hub-bu nabi-yi-kum, wa –Hub-bu – aa-li –bai-ti-hi, wa –ti-la-wa-til-Qur’an “ Educate (nurture with Adab – ‘addibu ’) your children upon three things: To Love your Prophet ( s.a.w.), and to love the Family members of his household ( Aali Muhammad ), and (learn) to recite Al-Qur’an.” ( Hadith of the Prophet s.a.w. narrated by Tabrani ) Term in the Ahadith : All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • أَدِّبُوْاأَوْلاَدَكُمْ وَأَحْسِنُوْاأَدَبَهُمْ Ad-di-buu – au-laa-da-kum – wa –aH-sanuu – a-da-ba-hum. “ Educate (nurture with Adab – ‘addibu ’) your children with the best education.” ( Hadith of the Prophet s.a.w. narrated by Ibnu Majah ) Term in the Ahadith : All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • عَلِّمُوْا أَوْلاَ دَكُمْ وَأَهْلِيْكُمُ الْخَيْرَ وَ أَدِّبُوْهُمْ ‘ Al-li-muu – au-laa-da-kum- wa – ah-lee-ku-mul-khay-ra wa – ad-di-buu -hum- “ Teach your children and your family members with the best, and educate them (instil in them Adab ).” (Hadith of the Prophet s.a.w. reported by ‘Abdur Razaq and Sa’id ibn Manshur as quoted by Dr. ‘Abdullah Nashih ‘Ulwan) Term in the Ahadith : All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • مَا نَحَلَ وَالِدٌ وَلَدًا مِنْ نُحْلٍ أَفْضَلَ مِنْ أَدَبٍ حَسَنٍ Maa- na –Hala – waa-li-dun wa –la-dan – min nuH- lin – af-dwa-la – min – a-da-bin Ha-san. “ There is no gift (that you can give) to your children better than (instilling in them) the good Adab .” ( Hadith of the Prophet reported by Tirmidzi ) Term in the Ahadith : All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • أَكْرِمُوْا أَوْلاَدَكُمْ وَأَحْسِنُوْا أَدَبَهُمْ Ak-ri-muu – au-laa-da-kum – wa– aH-si-nuu –a-da-ba-hum. “ Honour your children by (educating) instilling in them the best Adab .” ( Hadith of the Prophet s.a.w. reported by Ibnu Majah from Ibnu ‘Abbas r.a. ) Term in the Ahadith : All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • مِنْ حَقِّ الْوَالِدِ عَلَى الْوَلَدِ أَنْ يُحْسِنَ أَدَبَهُ وَيُحْسِنَ اسْمَهُ Min –Haq-qil-waa-li-di –’alaal-wa-la-di – an –yuH-si-na –a-da-ba-hu – wa –yuH-si-nas-ma-hu. From amongst the rights of a children upon their parents are, that they be instilled (educated by them) with Ada b and to be given a good name.” ( Hadith of the Prophet s.a.w. reported by Baihaqy from Ibnu ‘Abbas r.a .) Term in the Ahadith : All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • نَحْنُ إِلَى قَلِيْلٍ مِنَ اْلأَدَب أخْرَجُ مِنَّ إِلَى كَثِيرٍمِنَ الْعِلْم LET US LEARN TO BE PEOPLE OF ADAB FROM AL-QUR’AN AND AS-SUNNAH All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • “ We are (much) in need of a little adab , from (that of) going out (seeking) after much of ‘ilm (knowledge)” – Imam ‘Abdullah al-Mubarak LET US LEARN TO BE PEOPLE OF ADAB FROM AL-QUR’AN AND AS-SUNNAH All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010
  • QUR’AN & AHADITH RELATED TO ADAB “ Adab ” is synonymous with “ ’Adl’ “ (justice) and “ Ihsan ” (best conduct), for the absence of “ Adab ” denotes injustice ( zulm ) ..... - Entire Education in Islam can be termed as “Ta’dib” All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee2010 REFLECTIONS