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(Adab 2011)lesson#2-
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(Adab 2011)lesson#2-

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LESSONS ON ISLAMIC …

LESSONS ON ISLAMIC
CONCEPT OF ADAB
By: Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail

LESSON# 2

( 19 October 2011 )

Published in: Education
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  • 1. Arabic (plural) of Adab : meanings – “good breeding, decency, nurture, good manners, refinement, cultured, decorum, courteous, etiquette, propriety, social grace, to educate, discipline, the humanities, etc.” sense of proportion and knowledge of their rightful place in the order of things, the absence of which indicates injustice LESSONS ON ISLAMIC CONCEPT OF ADAB By: Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail Insha’Allah -This is a follow-up course, after completion of 18 weeks course on the kitab “ Ta’lim al-Muta’allim Tariqit Ta’allum ” of Sheikh Tajuddin Nu’man Zarnuji ( 19 October 2011 ) Every Wednesday night @ 8pm Wisma Indah 448 Changi Rd,#02-00 (Next to Masjid Kassim), LESSON# 2 IN THE NAME OF ALLAH MOST COMPASSIONATE MOST MERCIFUL. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) 2 ND RUN OF THE MODULE
  • 2. RASULULLAH S.A.W. SAID : All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) “ The best among you is the one who learn the Qur’an and who teaches (it to others).” ( Hadith narrated by Bukhary )
  • 3. “ Although ultimately Islamic teaching advocates Ihsan and Rahma h (Doing good and spreading Mercy), this can only be pursued firstly with establishing Truth and Justice ( Haqq and ‘Adala ).” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) RE-CAP PREVIOUS LESSON
  • 4. “ STANDING FIRM UPON ‘ADL (JUSTICE), I H SAN (DOING GOOD), GIVING WHAT IS THE DUE RIGHT TOWARDS OTHERS ...” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) RE-CAP PREVIOUS LESSON
  • 5. “ Behold, Allah commands justice, the doing of good, and the giving (i.e. generosity) to kith and kin (i.e. fellow man), and He forbids all shameful deeds, and injustice and rebellion: He instructs you, that ye may receive admonition.” ( Qur’an: an-Nahlu: 16 : 90 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) RE-CAP PREVIOUS LESSON
  • 6. <ul><li>Although both terms imply “ justice ”, yet there is a slight difference in their meanings : </li></ul><ul><li>In a transaction between 2 parties (e.g. Buying and selling), to accord to both parties their due rights whence both are satisfied (win-win) – the Arabic term . ( QISTw ) is used. This may require willingness on one or both party to show benevolence, goodwill and generosity to the other. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) قِسْط RE-CAP PREVIOUS LESSON
  • 7. <ul><li>In an adjudication ( judging ), where justice requires that one party gains and one party has to suffer loss, the Arabic term ( ‘ADL ) is used. This, perhaps is the minimal form of justice required. </li></ul><ul><li>Even to those amongst your enemy whom you hate, you must not deprive them of the ‘ADL . </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) عَدْل RE-CAP PREVIOUS LESSON
  • 8. <ul><li>Thus, ( QISTw ) would be a higher form of justice – a justice tempered with I H SAN and generosity. </li></ul><ul><li>As Muslims, we are to strive for this higher standard, if not, then uphold the minimal. </li></ul><ul><li>“ ADAAB “ encompass both these understandings. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) قِسْط RE-CAP PREVIOUS LESSON
  • 9. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) RE-CAP PREVIOUS LESSON
  • 10. <ul><li>To have Adab is (inter alia), to be taught not to forget what is appropriate and what is not in our perception and attitude towards others, and the ability to act appropriately with justice ( ‘ADL ) and goodness ( IHSAN ). </li></ul><ul><li>Thus Adab is not mere possession of ‘ knowledge ’. To be lacking knowledge is “ ignorance ”, but to lack Adab is “ ignorance compounded with conceit ” </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) RE-CAP PREVIOUS LESSON
  • 11. <ul><li>Ignorance can be removed with knowledge. But without Adab , how can education take place? To learn without Ada b may even worsen the self-conceit and arrogance in that person. </li></ul><ul><li>Such is the gravity regarding the “ loss of Adab ”, that it deserved immediate “chastisement” rather than teaching and enlightenment. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) RE-CAP PREVIOUS LESSON
  • 12. <ul><li>Actually, it was when this loss of Adab occurs; when false pride and conceit reigns; even in the presence of Allah azzawajalla – this was beginning of evil. </li></ul><ul><li>WaAllaahu a’lam </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) RE-CAP PREVIOUS LESSON
  • 13. “ ADAB IN LEARNING” - ON THE LIGHTER SIDE ....... Adapted from Idries Shah’s “Thinkers of the East” – Penguin Book IN THE NAME OF ALLAH MOST COMPASSIONATE MOST MERCIFUL RE-CAP PREVIOUS LESSON All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 14. Some may find in the previous story, perhaps the seeker was unfairly treated by the Sheikh... Or was he? Adapted from Idries Shah’s “Thinkers of the East” – Penguin Book IN THE NAME OF ALLAH MOST COMPASSIONATE MOST MERCIFUL All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 15. <ul><li>Someone asked Shah Naqshband: “It must have caused you pain to dismiss a certain student.” </li></ul><ul><li>He replied: </li></ul><ul><li>“ The best of all ways to test and help a disciple, if it is possible and most appropriate, may actually be to dismiss him!” </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 16. <ul><li>He then went on to explain: </li></ul><ul><li>“ .. If he (because of the dismissal) then turn against you (the teacher), he has a chance of observing his own shallowness and the defects which led to his dismissal.....” </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 17. <ul><li>He then went on to explain: </li></ul><ul><li>“ .. If he forgives you, he has an opportunity of seeing whether in that there is any sanctimonious-ness (i.e. sort of pretentiousness that in this, he is better ... another extreme state)” </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 18. <ul><li>He then went on to explain: </li></ul><ul><li>“ .. If he regains his balance, then he will be able to benefit from this, of our teaching method (which ultimately seeks to instil justice and Adab ) and thus especially benefitting himself.” </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 19. “ We are (much) in need of a little adab, from (that of) going out (seeking) after much of ‘ilm (knowledge)” – Imam ‘Abdullah al-Mubarak All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 20. <ul><li>Arabic (plural) of Adab : meanings – “good breeding, decency, nurture, good manners, refinement, cultured, decorum, courteous, etiquette, propriety, social grace, to educate, discipline, the humanities, etc.” </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) sense of proportion and knowledge of their rightful place in the order of things, the absence of which indicates injustice
  • 21. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 22. “ LOSS OF ADAB” – the main contemporary problem affecting the Ummah, which then leads to perpetuation of continuous confusion in knowledge and education. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 23. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) “ An immoral man of learning is a great evil, yet a greater evil is an ignoramus leading a ‘godly’ life. Both are a great trial (FITNAH) everywhere, to whomever depends to them both (for guidance), in holding on to his religion” ( From Imam Zarnuji - “Ta’lim Muta’allim Tariqit Ta’allum” )
  • 24. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 25. <ul><li> External </li></ul><ul><li> Loss of Adab (B) </li></ul><ul><li>Internal </li></ul><ul><li> (A) </li></ul><ul><li> Confusion and Error in Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>It is because of (A) the confusion and error in Knowledge that lead to condition for </li></ul><ul><li>(B) The loss of Adab in the community. Both internally and externally. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 26. <ul><li> (C) </li></ul><ul><li> Rise / election of </li></ul><ul><li> False leaders </li></ul><ul><li> External </li></ul><ul><li> Loss of Adab (B) </li></ul><ul><li>Internal </li></ul><ul><li> (A) </li></ul><ul><li> Confusion and Error in Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 1 </li></ul><ul><li>The condition arising out of (A) and (B) is: </li></ul><ul><li>(C) “The rise of leaders who are not qualified for valid leadership of the Muslim Community, who do not possess the high moral, intellectual and spiritual standards required for Islamic leadership..” </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 27. <ul><li> (C) </li></ul><ul><li> Rise / election of </li></ul><ul><li> False leaders </li></ul><ul><li> External </li></ul><ul><li> Loss of Adab (B) </li></ul><ul><li>Internal </li></ul><ul><li> (A) </li></ul><ul><li> Confusion and Error in Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>“ These false leaders then usurped Islamic leadership, who (then) perpetuate the condition in (A) [1] above and ensure the continued control of the affairs of the Community by leaders like them who dominate in all fields.” [2] </li></ul><ul><li>[ 1] The loss of Adab in the community. Thus restoration of Adab has higher priority for Adab precedes even learning. </li></ul><ul><li>[2] Wan Mohd Nor Wan Daud’s “The Educational Philosophy and Practice of Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas” (ISTAC publication 1998) p 74 </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 28. (C) Rise / election of False leaders External Loss of Adab (B) Internal (A) Confusion and Error in Knowledge “ This state of perpetual confusion at all levels of societal leadership is ingeniously termed by al-Attas as the loss of adab. [1] The loss of Adab in the community. Thus restoration of Adab has higher priority for Adab precedes even learning. [2] Wan Mohd Nor Wan Daud’s “The Educational Philosophy and Practice of Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas” (ISTAC publication 1998) p 74 All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 29. <ul><li>With the “ loss of Adab ”, even the knowledge of who the true leaders and scholars is lost, and the confusion compounded. </li></ul><ul><li>Actually this confusion in knowledge can be corrected through Education , </li></ul><ul><li>Yet, education in man cannot be truly done without his having basic “ Adab ” itself. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus the importance of restoring the “ Adab ” in every Muslim. </li></ul><ul><li>It may even have to begin by correcting their misuse of “ terms ” ( istilah ) and clarifying wrongly assumed “ definition ” ( ta’rifat ) that may have caused whatever misunderstandings. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 30. “ The learned and wise among Muslims must use constant vigilance in detecting erroneous usage in language which impinges upon semantic change in major key elements and creates general confusion and error in the understanding of Islam and of its worldview .” Quote: “The Concept of Education in Islam” pp. 37-38 All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) Prof. Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas :
  • 31.   facts ,  information Skills   Knowledge   education   MA’-LUMAT (information; facts) SINA’-AH (skills, industrious); FANNIYAH (artistry); ’ ILM – (science and knowledge) TA-ADDIB ; - which includes TA’-LIM ; TAR-BIYYAH ; TAZKIYYAH , etc. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) EQUIVALENT TERMS USED IN ISLAM
  • 32. Thus, perspective of Education in Islam can be defined: “ ... Recognition and acknowledgement, progressively instilled into man, of the proper places of things in the order of creation, such that it leads to the recognition and acknowledgement of the proper place of God in the order of being and existence.” Quoted from: “The Educational Philosophy and Practice of Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas” by Wan Mohd Nor Wan Daud (ISTAC publication). All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) EPISTEMOLOGY
  • 33. LEST WE FORGET All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) PERSPECTIVE FROM AN ISLAMIC WORLDVIEW TASAWWUR ISLAM
  • 34. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) <ul><li>Ta’lim ( ( generally it means, “ to teach ” or “ the teaching ” of knowledge as different from information, but a profound understanding of this word requires us to know the root word “ ‘ ilm” which is different from “ ma’lumat ” </li></ul><ul><li>Ta’allum ( ) “to learn or be taught knowledge” </li></ul><ul><li>consider definition of knowledge ( ) . </li></ul>TASAWWUR ISLAM
  • 35. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) <ul><li>Tarbiyyah ( ) – although used by many Islamist to refer to education (perhaps influenced by the Western methodology), it’s use to refer to ‘education’ is not appropriate due to its narrow and limited scope when applied to the Islamic approach to education, because our Islamic worldview regarding man is unlike those from the Western outlook that still regards man as an animal specie (although evolved). </li></ul>TASAWWUR ISLAM
  • 36. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) <ul><li>Tarbiyyah ( ) – has the meanings “education, upbringing, breeding, raising (of animals), instruction, pedagogy, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>From which we have term “ murabbin ” ( ) “educator, (as well as) breeder, tutor etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Yet, it is too general a term and can also be applied in terms of raising, breeding and training of animals. </li></ul>TASAWWUR ISLAM
  • 37. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) <ul><li>Darasa ( ( – “to learn, to study under a teacher, instructor, lecturer etc. ( mudarris - ). </li></ul><ul><li>Thus a school is called a “ madrasah ” ( ) </li></ul>TASAWWUR ISLAM
  • 38. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) TASAWWUR ISLAM
  • 39. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) <ul><li>“ Ta’-dib ” ( ) – preferred term for ‘education’, from the term ‘Adab’ ( ) meaning: – </li></ul><ul><li>“ good breeding, nurture, manners, refinement, cultured, </li></ul><ul><li>decorum, propriety, social grace, educated, etc.” </li></ul>TASAWWUR ISLAM
  • 40. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) <ul><li>Hadith from Ibn Mas’ud r.a.: </li></ul><ul><li>In-na haa-dza-al-Qur’aan ma’da-ba-tullaaha fil-ardh </li></ul><ul><li>fa- ta’-la-muu- min ma’-da-batih </li></ul><ul><li>“ Verily! The Qur’an is Allah’s Banquet on earth, </li></ul><ul><li>so learn thoroughly, then, from (or of) His Banquet.” [1] </li></ul>[1] S.M.Naquib Al-Attas “Islam and Secularism” page 150 TASAWWUR ISLAM BASIS
  • 41. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) <ul><li>Thus,“ Adab ” in the original basic sense (in Arabic) is the “ inviting to a banquet. ” </li></ul><ul><li>The idea of a banquet implies the host is a man of honour and prestige, and that many people are present; that the people who are present are those who in the host’s estimation are deserving of the honour of the invitation, and they are therefore people of refined qualities and upbringing who are expected to behave as befits their station, in speech, conduct and etiquette.” [1] </li></ul>[1] S.M.Naquib Al-Attas “Islam and Secularism” page 149 TASAWWUR ISLAM BASIS
  • 42. “ From amongst the rights of a children upon their parents are, that they be instilled (to be educated by them) with Adab and to be given a good name.” ( Hadith of the Prophet s.a.w. reported by Baihaqy from Ibnu ‘Abbas r.a .) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) TASAWWUR ISLAM BASIS
  • 43. “ Educate (nurture – ‘ addibu ’) your children with the best education ( ADAB ).” ( Hadith of the Prophet s.a.w. narrated by Ibnu Majah ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) TASAWWUR ISLAM BASIS
  • 44. “ Ad-da-bani Rob-bee - fa - a h -sa-na ta’-di-bee “ My Lord educated me, and made my education most excellent.” (Hadith) PROPHET MUHAMMAD S.A.A.W. SAID: All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) TASAWWUR ISLAM BASIS
  • 45. Ad-di-buu -au-laa-da-kum – ‘alaa – thalatha- hi-swal – Hub-bu nabi-yi-kum, wa –Hub-bu – aa-li –bai-ti-hi, wa –ti-la-wa-til-Qur’an “ Educate (nurture with Adab – ‘ addibu ’) your children upon three things: To Love your Prophet (s.a.w.), and to love the Family members of his household (Aali Muhammad), and (learn) to recite Al-Qur’an.” ( Hadith of the Prophet s.a.w. narrated by Tabrani ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) TASAWWUR ISLAM BASIS
  • 46. Al-li-muu – au-laa-da-kum- wa – ah-lee-ku-mul-khay-ra wa – ad-di-buu -hum- “ Teach your children and your family members with the best, and educate them (instil in them Adab ).” ( (Hadith of the Prophet s.a.w. reported by ‘Abdur Razaq and Sa’id ibn Manshur as quoted by Dr. ‘Abdullah Nashih ‘Ulwan) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) TASAWWUR ISLAM BASIS
  • 47. ‘ Maa- na –Hala – waa-li-dun wa –la-dan – min nuH- lin – af-dwa-la – min – a-da-bin Ha-san. “ There is no gift (that you can give) to your children better than (instilling in them) the good Adab .” ( Hadith of the Prophet reported by Tirmidzi ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) TASAWWUR ISLAM BASIS
  • 48. Ak-ri-muu – au-laa-da-kum – wa– aH-si-nuu –a-da-ba-hum. “ Honour your children by (educating) instilling in them the best Adab .” ( Hadith of the Prophet s.a.w. reported by Ibnu Majah from Ibnu ‘Abbas r.a. ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) TASAWWUR ISLAM BASIS
  • 49. “ THE SIGN OF THE TRULY LEARNED IS HUMILITY IN THE PRESENCE OF THE ALL-KNOWING – WHILE THE HEEDLESS AND ARROGANT MAY BREACH THE ADAB” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 50. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 51. “ We do raise to [high] degrees [of knowledge] whomever We will - but above everyone who is endowed with knowledge there is One who knows all.” ( Qur’an: Yusuf: 12: 76 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 52. “ And turn not thy cheek away from people in [false] pride, and walk not haughtily on earth: for, behold, God does not love anyone who, out of self- conceit, acts in a boastful manner.” ( Qur’an: Luqman: 31: 18 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 53. “ And turn not thy cheek away from people in [false] pride, and walk not haughtily on earth: for, behold, God does not love anyone who, out of self- conceit, acts in a boastful manner.” ( Qur’an: Luqman: 31: 18 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 54. “ Hence, be modest in thy bearing, and lower thy voice: for, behold, the ugliest of all voices is the [loud] voice of asses (donkeys).” ( Qur’an: Luqman: 31: 19 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 55. “ For, [true] servants of the Most Gracious are [only] they who walk gently on earth, and who, whenever the foolish address them, reply with [words of] peace.” ( Qur’an: Furqan: 25: 63 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 56. “ And remember the name of your Lord and devote yourself to Him with [complete] devotion. [He is] the Lord of the East and the West; there is no deity except Him, so take Him as Disposer of [your] affairs. And be patient over what they say and avoid them with gracious avoidance.” ( Qur’an: Muzzamil: 73: 8-10 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 57. “ Whoever seeks knowledge (intending) to argue with the learned (scholars), or to brag with the foolish; or with it to attract peoples’ attention to himself; Allah will make him to enter the Hell-fire.” ( Hadith also reported by Tirmidzi and Ibn Majah ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 58. “ Whosever has humility (tawaadhu’), Allah will raise his rank (and status); and whosoever is arrogant (proud - takabbur) Allah will humiliate him.” ( Hadith of our Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 59. “ The beginning of Wisdom is when you realize you do not know! ” *Extracted and elaborated from “Beginners’ Manual on Islam” by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj ismail (PERGAS) TASAWWUR ISLAM All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) IN THE NAME OF ALLAH MOST COMPASSIONATE MOST MERCIFUL
  • 60. The beginning of Wisdom is when you realize you do not know! *Extracted and elaborated from “Beginners’ Manual on Islam” by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj ismail (PERGAS) RED line (circumference) indicates our encounter with knowledge which we now realize we do not know; which motivates us to acquire them. The GREEN area represents whatever Knowledge that we have. BLACK space represents Infinite Knowledge “ We don’t even know that we don’t know them” TASAWWUR ISLAM All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 61. When new knowledge gain, the circle expands. But with this expansion the circumference (RED line) also increases. Remember : RED line (circumference) indicates our encounter with knowledge which we now realize we do not know. The GREEN area represents whatever Knowledge that we have. BLACK space represents Infinite Knowledge “ We don’t even know that we don’t know them” “ The more we know, the more will we encounter aspects of knowledge which we do not know. And only realization of this which motivates us to grow in learning” *Extracted and elaborated from “Beginners’ Manual on Islam” by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj ismail (PERGAS) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) TASAWWUR ISLAM
  • 62. &quot;Exalted are You (O Allah); we have no knowledge except what You have taught us. Indeed, it is You who is the Knowing, the Wise.&quot; All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  • 63. http://an-naseehah.blogspot.com/ http://introductiontotauhid.blogspot.com/ http://oyoubelievers.blogspot.com/ http://al-amthaal.blogspot.com/ http://zhulkeflee-archive.blogspot.com/ http://criteriaforaholybook-quran.blogspot.com/ http://with-the-truthful.blogspot.com/ http ://muqaddam-nurul.blogspot.com/ All welcome to visit my web-blog: All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)

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