MARC 21: prologue
Md. Zahid Hossain Shoeb
Independent University, Bangladesh
Friday, 05 July, 2013
Training programme on MARC 21
Bangladesh Association of Librarians, Information Scientists and Documentalists
• Bibliographic record and access point
• MARC record basics
• MARC record history and progression
• MARC 21 component, format and elements
• MARC 21 record example
• MARC 21 in Bangladesh
The Bibliographic Record
The description of an item of
recorded information, which
includes all the data necessary to
uniquely identify it, together with
The Bib Record and the Library Catalog
Description and Access: Summary
(Used to identify and collocate an item)
• Title proper
• Place of publication
• Uniform titles
• Topical terms
(Used to uniquely identify an item)
1. Title and statement of
3. Publication and manufacturing
4. Physical description
6. Notes of useful information
7. Standard numbers
What is MARC record?
• What is a MARC record?
– A MARC record is a MA chine-Readable Cataloging record.
– "Machine-readable" means that one particular type of
machine, a computer, can read and interpret the data in the
cataloging record (bibliographic record)
– “an assemblage of
formats, publications, procedures, people, standards, syste
ms, equipment, etc., that has evolved over the years
stimulating the development of library automation and
information networks…nationally and internationally.” -
Henriette Avram (1919-2006)
– A way ro share bibliographic data among libraries. It is used
for encoding metadata and transmitting it from one system
– All MARC standards conform to ISO 2709:1996 Information
and documentation -- Format for Information Exchange
Who uses MARC?
• Public, Academic, Research, Corporate
Libraries (and many more)
• Book vendors
• Library of Congress (Free)
• Bibliographic Utilities (Not Free)
Brief History of MARC 21
• 1966-1968: Dr. Henriette Avram leads the MARC development
project for the Library of Congress. The British National Biography
also develops a MARC format.
• 1970s-1980s: Some countries independently develop their own
MARC formats, while other countries base their MARC formats on
those of the US and UK.
• 1977: UNIMARC is developed as an exchange format, and some
countries later adapt it to operate as their national formats.
• 1990s: MARC-to-SGML DTDs developed, later followed by XML
DTDs and MCL schemas.
• 2000: US and Canadian MARC formats officially merge as MARC 21
• Present: Libraries across the world have adopted the MARC 21
Progression to MARC 21
MARC 21: components
• A leader
• A directory
• An assortment of content field
– Control fields
– Code and number fields
– Variable data fields
Variable data fields
• 1XX Main entry fields
• 2XX Title and edition fields
• 3XX Physical description fields
• 4XX Series fields
• 5XX Notes fields
• 6XX Subject fields
• 7XX Added entry and linking fields
• 8XX Series added entry and holding data fields
• 9XX Local data fields
MARC 21: formats
provide information about individual names, subjects, and
uniform titles. An authority record establishes an authorized
form of each heading, with references as appropriate from
other forms of the heading.
describe the intellectual and physical characteristics of
bibliographic resources (books, sound recordings, video
recordings, and so forth).
MARC records containing classification data. For example, the
Library of Congress Classification has been encoded using the
MARC 21 Classification format.
MARC records describing a service providing agency. For
example, the local homeless shelter or tax assistance
provide copy-specific information on a library resource (call
number, shelf location, volumes held, and so forth).
MARC 21: elements
245 14 $a The great cat massacre and other episodes in French
cultural history / $c Robert Darnton.
250 $a 2nd Vintage Books ed.
260 $a New York : $b Vintage Books, $c 1990.
300 $a xiii, 298 p. : $b ill. ; $c 21 cm.
504 $a Includes bibliographical references and index.
TAG INDICATOR DELIMITER SUBFIELD CODE FIELD
Example of MARC 21 record
=100 1$aRose, Peter S.
=245 10$aBank management & financial services /$cPeter S. Rose, Sylvia C. Hudgins.
=246 3$aBank management and financial services
=250 $a7th ed.
=260 $aNew York :$bMacmillan,$cc2008.
=300 $axxv, 722 p. :$bill. ;$c25 cm.
=504 $aIncludes bibliographical references and index.
=650 0$aFinancial institutions$zUnited States.
=650 0$aBank management$zUnited States.
=700 1$aHudgins, Sylvia Conway,$d1956-
MARC 21 in Bangladesh
Ananda Mohan College
Ayesha Abed Library, BRAC University
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Central Library
Bangladesh Agricultural University
Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Information and Statistic
Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies
Bangladesh National Museum
Bangladesh University of Health Sciences
Bir Shreshtha Noor Mohammad Public College
Centre for the Rehabilitation of the Paralysed
Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology (CUET)
Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
Daffodil International University
East West University
Green University of Bangladesh Library
Independent University, Bangladesh, Library
Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University
Khulna University of Engineering & Technology
Manarat International University
Martin Luther College
Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University
Ministry of Education Bangladesh Secretariate
Ministry of Foreign Affairs Library
National Academy for Educational Management (NAEM),
Ministry of Education.
Noakhali Science and Technology University
Northern University Bangladesh
Rajshahi University Library
Seminar Library-Dept. of Information Science and Library
Management, University of Dhaka
Shahjalal University of Science and Technology Library
1. Understanding MARC bibliographic
Clear and concise overview of (nearly) everything MARC.
2. Online Dictionary for Information Science
A useful LIS dictionary with many examples and external links.
3. OCLC Bibliographic formats and standards
Essential reference for all catalogers.
4. Library of Congress. MARC standards
Much more than just MARC. Essential reference.