Chinese and singapore culture修改后 Presentation Transcript
Hangzhou Dec 1th 2010 Achieve Harmony In Global Context —— Chinese Culture Zhou Jia & Hora Tjitra
1 Guideline Of Chinese Culture 2
Confucian Harmony: Embodies Disagreement And Open Debates
Guan Xi: A Strong Network
Mian zi : Instrument To Maintain Harmonious
I Ching: Change and ZhogYong
8 2 Culture Guide People’s Behavior 10 3 Apply Chinese Culture Into Cross-Culture Situation 13 4 Reference 15 5 Project Information 19
Guideline Of Chinese Culture Confucianism Confucianism-I Ching Guanxi Change Zhongyong Family Other Authoritarian Face behavior Harmony
General Explanation of The Guideline Confucian cultural traditions is crucial to Chinese social behavior Confucian cultural traditions is crucial to Chinese social behavior understanding (Hwang, 2001) nderstanding The key value of Confucian culture include: face , guanxi , and Harmony (Luo, 2000; HWANG, 1987, 2001) mony I Ching, consists of two opposite forces, Yin and Yang ,is one part of Confucianism. ) ng a Maintaining a harmonious relationship is personal goal (Hwang, 1997-1998 ) intainig a harmonious relationship is personal goal(Hwang, 1997-1
Confucian Harmony: Embodies Disagreement And Open Debates
Confucian emphasis on harmony is better understood as the need to
Confucian view of harmony : Maintain a mutually respectful relationship and a common concern for humanity and morality rather than the need to avoid disagreement and confrontation, and to arrive at uniform view(Leung, 2002).
When compared to :
The Master said, ‘The gentleman agrees with others without being an echo. The small man echoes without being in agreement.’ 《子路篇第十三章》 Indonesian Chinese people Less relay on controlling self-display or passive tolerance; they exhibit a proactive approach to maintain harmony and achieve their goals (Tjitra&Deng, 2007 ) Western Countries Western countries more individualism, which concern themselves’ feeling ,but will pay less attention to group harmony
Guanxi: A Strong Network
The Concept of Gaunxi
Guanxi, the web of social connections, on which “two or more persons have a commonality of shared identiﬁcation” (Jacobs, 1979)
In China guanxi not only means ‘relationship’ but has a ‘special’ or ‘particularistic’ nature, (Yang, 1994), carries the extra meanings of power, social status and resource transmission(Hackley &Dong, 2001)guanxi is more obligation-bound than the Western conception of social relationship (Fiske, 1992).
Guanxi plays a important role in Chinese life
The most frequently discussed Chinese value in literature (Luo, 2000).
Influences Chinese reward allocation(Zhang, 1998).
Important for doing business in China(Falure, 2008, Shiau 2008).
In contrast to the Western emphasis on independent self-concept, a Chinese construction of self-concept is ‘interdependent’, based on his or her relationship or ‘ guanxi with others (Yang, 2001).
Mianzi : Instrument To Maintain Harmonious
The Concept of Face
Face refers to a claimed sense of favorable social self worth that a person wants others to have of her or him (Ting-Toomey, 1998) Coggin and Coggin (2001) define it as a mixture of an individual’s self-respect and confidence; ‘an individual’s external public appearance’ Amant (2001) ;
Chinese Concept of Face
Chinese concepts of face, based on two different sets of judgmental criteria: mianzi, achieved through success and ostentation; and lian, which represents the conﬁdence of society in the integrity of one’s moral character (Ho, 1944).
Face is a instrument to maintain the relationship (guanxi) harmonious
Protecting social face is especially valued in Chinese society to promote interpersonal harmony (Tjosvold, 2004)
Saving and giving face is important for Chinese people ,in interpersonal communication (Hofested 1980, Cardon, 2003)
Mianzi, was used in compliance gaining, conflict mediation ,and requesting(Paul, 1991; GAO, 1998; Hwang 1997, 1998; Cardon2003 ); used as a strategy in negotiation, taking a zero-sum perspective(Faure, 2000);
I Ching: Change and ZhogYong
The central theme of I Ching, or the book of
Change,is a fundamental principle of the universe
forms ontological assumptions of the Chinese
philosophy and was further developed into a set
of guidelines for Chinese beliefs and behavior(Chen, 2008).
Equilibrium of the two opposite forces is named zhong, when ppied to the human world, a person’s mind is said to be in the state of zhong when there are no stirrings of pleasure, anger, sorrow, or joy(chen, 2008)
Culture Guild People’s Behavior ——Researches under different contexts
Researches under Philosophy &Business Contexts
Some researchers talked about Chinese culture from Philosophy, such as Chen (2008), Hwang (1987, 1997, 2001)
Falure (2008, 2010)From Yin Yang perspective to explain the changing Chinese value when doing business;
Leung (2008):Chinese business behavior still guided by traditional value;
Gao (2010):Guanxi dilemmas occur in emerging Chinese–Western intercultural networks; (Shiau, 2008) Guanxi and cultural barriers become a problem for Taiwanese invest in mainland;
Graham & Lam (2003)Chinese negotiation behavior when doing business is different a lot from American. Eight element of Chinese business behavior were introduced: guanxi, zhongjaianren, social status, interpersonal Harmony, Holistic Thinking, Thrift, mainzi, Edurance.
Researches Under Management Context
About Confliction management
Chinese negotiation behavior is influenced by Chinese culture ,they tend to maintain harmony relationship with others(Shenkar & Ronen, 1987; Paul, 1991Tjosvold, Hui, Sun, 2004);
Several models of confliction management were proposed ： Huwang’s model (, Huang’s model , Chen’s model(Leung, 2002);
The guanxi and renqing influence Chinese 's reward allocation decision; reasonableness norm is adopted in Chinese reward allocation decision (Zhang&Yang ,1998);
Guanxi networks could better explain members 's effectiveness compared with relational demography, and different guanxi networks had different effects (Chou,2006);
Apply Chinese Culture Into Cross-Culture Situation
Bring Chinese Into Global Context
develop tradition Chinese culture :harmony into work context, be willing to accept diverse views, diverse cultural belief; this not only mean accept different ideas form others, but also from yourself
apply Change to oversea life , be flexible .when face conflict, be able to consider from other perspective, different culture perspective, not just from your own idea, your own culture value .
keep face sensitive. give face , but you ’ d better learn what kind of face is valued in this country, because different countries have different face value .
1987,Chinese values and the search for culture-free dimensions of culture . Journal of Cross-Cultural psychology , 18, 143-164.
Paul S. Kirkbride, Sara F. Y. Tang & Robert I. Westwood.,(1991). Chinese Conflict Preferences and Negotiating Behavior: Cultural and Psychological Influences. Organization Studies , 12, P365-386
Fang, T., &Faure, G. O.(2010). Chinese communication characteristics: A Yin Yang perspective. International Journal of Intercultural Relations , 1-13
Faure, G. O. (2008). Chinese society and its new emerging culture. Journal of Contemporary China , 17(56), 469–491.
Fang, T., Zhao, S., &Worm, V.(2008). Editorial: The changing Chinese culture and business behavior. International Business Review , 17(2), 141–145
Leung. K.,(2008).Chinese culture, modernization, and international business. international Business Review , 17, 184–187
Luo,Y.,(2008).The changing Chinese culture and business behavior: The perspective of intertwinement between guanxi and corruption. International Business Review , 17 , 188–193
Faure, G. O.,& Fang, T., (2008) , Changing Chinese values: Keeping up with paradoxes. International Business Review , 17, 194–207
King ,A. y.,& Bond ,M,H,(1985).The Confucian paradigm of man :A sociological view. Chinese culture and mental health ,29-45
Bedford. O.,&HWANG, K. K.,(2003).Guilt and Shame in Chinese Culture: A Cross-cultural Framework from the Perspective of Morality and Identity. Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior, 33, 127-144
Huang, X. L.,(2009)The Influence of National Culture, History and Institution on Strategic Management in Chinese Firms: A Complexity Based. International Journal of Business Studies , 17., 1-18. Alan, P. F.,(1992)The Four Elementary Forms of Sociality: Framework for a Unified Theory of Social Relations. Psychological Review , 99., 689-723. Yang, C. F. (2001) ‘Chinese view of self and other’ [in Chinese], in C.F. Yang (Ed.) How to Understand Chinese, Taipei: Yuan-liou Publication , pp.365–406. Hu, H. C. (1944). The Chinese concept of “face.” American Anthropologist, 46, 45-64 Faure, G. O. (2000). “Negotiations to set up joint ventures in China,” International Negotiation 5, 157–189. Cardon, P. W. & J. C. Scott. (2003). Chinese Business Face: Communication Behaviors and Teaching Approaches. Business Communication Quarterly 66, 9-22. Cogin, W. O. and B. F. Coggin. (2001). So you Want to Work in China? Technical Communication 48, 389-398 St. Amant, K. (2001). Considering China: a Perspective for Technical Communicators. Technical Communication 48, 385-388. Hwang, K.K. (1997–1998).  “Guanxi and Mientze: Conﬂict Resolution in Chinese Society.” In tercultural Communication Studies VII 1, 17–42 Boisot, M., & Child, J. (1999). Organizations as adaptive systems in complex environments: The case of China. Organization Science , 10(3), 237-252. Hackley, C.A. and Q. Dong. (2001). “American Public Relations Networking Encounters China’s Guanxi.” Public Relations Quarterly 46(2), 16–19. Jacobs,B.J. (1979). “APreliminaryModel of Particularistics inChinese PoliticalAlliances: ‘Renqing’ and ‘Guanxi’ in a Rural Taiwanese Township.” Chinese Quarterly 78, 237–273.
Hwang, K. K.,(2000) Chinese Relationalism: Theoretical Construction and Methodological Considerations . Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior , 30, 155-178
GAO, G.,(1998).An initial analysis of the effects of face and concern for "other" in Chinese interpersonal communication . Intercultural Rel. 22, 467-482
HWANG, K.K., (2001) The Deep Structure of Confucianism: a social psychological approach, Asian Philosophy , 11, 179-200
Bedford, O.A.,(2004) The Individual Experience of Guilt and Shame in Chinese Culture Chinese. Culture Psychology , 10, 29-52
Shiau, H. C., Fang , k. J.,& Lo, W. H.,(2008)Exploring guanxi and cultural barriers: a perspective from the Taiwanese SMS investors in China. Chinese Culture and Management , 1, 302-312.
Pan, F., & Zhang .Z. G.,Cross-cultural Challenges when Doing Business in China. Singapore Management review , 26.,81-92
Wah, S. S.,(2001)Cultural Values and their implication to Chinese Management. Singapore Management review , 75-83.
Ting-Toomey, S., & Kurogi, A.,(1998)Facework competence in intercultural conflict: an updated face-negotiation theory. In tercultural Journal Intercultural Relationship, 22., 187-225.
Chen, G. M.,(2008)Bian(Change): A perpetual Discourse of I Ching. Intercultural Communication Studies , 7-16.
Kwok, L., Pamela, T. & Lu, L.,(2002)A Dualistic Model of Harmony and its Implications for Conflict Management in Asia. Asia Pacific Journal of Management ,19., 201-220.
Hwang, K.,(1987),Face and Favor: The Chinese Power Game. The American Journal of Sociology , 92, 944-974
Global Competence for Asian Leaders
An applied research collaboration supported by the Human Capital Leadership Institute (Singapore) with the objective to derive a model for Asian leaders, which will lead to systematic global leadership development programs with Asian characteristics.
Built on our previous researches on Chinese and Indonesian intercultural sensitivity, we continue in this study by elaborating the cross-cultural experiences of the Chinese, Indonesian and Singaporean international assignees and their respective local co-workers in China and Indonesia. Intercultural sensitivity has been widely accepted as one of the most significant element of global competencies and one of the strongest predictor for global leaders and managers accomplishments.
The principal investigators of the project are Dr. Hora Tjitra, Dr. Hana Panggabean, and the research team of the the Zhejiang University (Hangzhou, China), Zhejiang University of Technology (Hangzhou, China) and the Atma Jaya Indonesia Catholic University (Jakarta, Indonesia).
Hora Tjitra Hana Panggabean Juliana Murniati Quan HE Jiewei ZHENG Chaohui ZHANG Teng SHENTU Jia ZHOU Xiaojuan WANG Dan ZHAO Xixie ZHANG Sebastian Partogi Yuanbo LIU Tayyibah Mushtaq Research Partners: Funding Partner: Zhejiang University China www.zju.edu.cn Zhejiang University of Technology China www.zjut.edu.cn Atma Jaya Catholic University Indonesia www.atmajaya.ac.id Human Capital Leadership Institute Singapore www.smu.edu.sg
Thank You Contact us via … Mail: [email_address] Follow:email@example.com Website: http://sinau.me/h i