.

.

Connectivity: Defaults and
Paralliziation

M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com --

Virtual Wireless User: Parallel Mu...
.

.

The Reality of Connectivity
LAN
WiFi
Direct
3G

Wireless
WINNER In presence of two connection
possibilities, default...
.

.

WiFi Direct: What Is It?
• a

new standard for local wireless connectivity 15

no access point

• direct wireless -◦...
.

.

Proposal: Basic Form
.
The Basic Idea is...
.
... to
external connections -- hence the multiconnect -- of group memb...
.

.

MultiConnect Paradigms

M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com --

Virtual Wireless User: Parallel MultiConnect Using Wi...
.

.

MultiConnect Paradigms
•

MPTCP: MultiPath TCP

◦ there is a Linux kernel 04
◦ well studied including wireless 03

•...
.

.

Real Life Experiments

M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com --

Virtual Wireless User: Parallel MultiConnect Using WiF...
.

.

Experiments: Settings
real 3G

• three
connections, several months
◦ one has a 300kbps cap (cheaper contract)
◦ one ...
.

.

3G Performance
ISP3

Color-filled area: +/- 1 sigma

ISP2

Holiday 1

•

1400
Throughput (kbps)

Throughput (kbps)

...
.

.

Standalone WiFi Direct
Other info

1m

10m
18

12

6

1m
10m

27

21.6

10m

WiFi Direct: Deterioration effect of di...
.

.

WiFi Direct + ( 3G | WiFi)
Gx: WiFi Direct and 3G for X files

G5

25

G10
Intranet throughput (Mbps)

Intranet thro...
.

.

VWU: Virtual Wireless User

M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com --

Virtual Wireless User: Parallel MultiConnect Usin...
.

.

MultiConnect Paradigms (again)
.
(new) Parallel Multiconnect Definition
.

multi-source/dest multi-connectivity para...
.

.

VWU: Putting It All Together
•

VWU: Virtual Wireless User -- the main proposal

• put 30Mbps of WiFi Direct to prac...
.

.

VWU: Visual Model
Service

Service
Provider

M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com --

Service
traffic

Application

Virt...
.

.

VWU: Another Visual Model
• as long as application (internal) traffic is

larger than aggregate service traffic, VWU...
.

.

VWU: The Realistic Model
best case, by interference

best case, by time of day, 3G only

25.5

70
60

Ratio (inter/i...
.

.

That’s all, thank you ...

M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com --

Virtual Wireless User: Parallel MultiConnect Using...
.

.

ADD: VWU + DTN = multihop

• modern

DTN is fit for delay-constrained messages 10

• P2P streaming is one example wh...
.

.

ADD: Another Model (Floor-Sky)
The
cloud

The
cloud
ISP3

ISP3
ISP1

ISP1

ISP2

ISP2

Master
copy
Clone

User B

Us...
.

.

ADD: Implementation as Middleware
Applications
aaggsync
(Asymmetric Aggregation Sync)
Wi-Fi
Direct
M.Zhanikeev -- ma...
.

.

[01] T.Hau+2 (2011)
Multihoming, Content Delivery Networks, and The Market for Internet Connectivity
Elsevier
[02] P...
.

.

Comparison of load-balancing approaches for multipath connectivity
Elsevier
[07]

(2013)
OpenVSwitch project
http://...
.

.

Wiley Book
[12] myself+0 (2013)
Experiments on practical WLAN designs for digital classrooms
IEICE ComEx
[13] myself...
Virtual Wireless User: A Practical Design for Parallel MultiConnect Using WiFi Direct in Group Communication
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Virtual Wireless User: A Practical Design for Parallel MultiConnect Using WiFi Direct in Group Communication

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Several MultiConnect technologies are actively discussed in research today. MultiPath TCP (MPTCP) is capable of splitting one flow into subflows and balance the load across multiple access technologies. Multihoming is an older technology that makes it possible for network providers to balance load across multiple up- and down-links dynamically. Finally, Software Defined Networking (SDN) achieves the ultimate flexibility of connection and routing decisions. However, none of these technologies enable true (network or otherwise) resource-pooling in communications within arbitrary size user groups such as occur in meetings, class discussions, and ad-hoc communities in the wild. This paper proposes the concept of a Virtual Wireless User (VWU) which represents the entire group and appears as single user to an over-the-network service. Each group member is capable of MultiConnect using Wi-Fi Direct in parallel with any other connection method. Modeling based on real measurements shows that VWUs can achieve throughput in the order of tens of Mbps even if throughput of individual users is very low. The paper also formulates a formal optimiation problem in relation to VWU.

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Virtual Wireless User: A Practical Design for Parallel MultiConnect Using WiFi Direct in Group Communication

  1. 1. . . Connectivity: Defaults and Paralliziation M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- Virtual Wireless User: Parallel MultiConnect Using WiFi Direct -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131204b --- 2 /22 2/22
  2. 2. . . The Reality of Connectivity LAN WiFi Direct 3G Wireless WINNER In presence of two connection possibilities, defaults to WINNER. The two connections can be JOIN used together ( joined ). M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- WLAN Virtual Wireless User: Parallel MultiConnect Using WiFi Direct -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131204b --- 3 /22 3/22
  3. 3. . . WiFi Direct: What Is It? • a new standard for local wireless connectivity 15 no access point • direct wireless -◦ for printers, file transfer, etc. simplify auth • attempt to routines -- remember this party for future use? • technologically the standard is twofold Hotspot 2.0 Specification ◦ P2P WiFi 1.0 Specification ◦ • implemented by many smartphones and tablets, but not many notebooks • incredibly fast! --- compared to Bluetooth 4.0 or even traditional WiFi 15 "Wi-Fi Peer-to-Peer: Best Practical Guide" Wi-Fi Alliance (2010) M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- Virtual Wireless User: Parallel MultiConnect Using WiFi Direct -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131204b --- 4 /22 4/22
  4. 4. . . Proposal: Basic Form . The Basic Idea is... . ... to external connections -- hence the multiconnect -- of group members pool using WiFi Direct as a glue that makes the group appear at one person . • a kind of virtualization -- different from virtualization on a single device 05 • WiFi Direct is sufficiently fast to stand up to the challenge • practical in many kinds of 12 group communications -- classes, discussions, etc. 05 K.Yap+6 "Making use of all the networks around us: a case study in android" ACM SIGCOMM CellNet (2012) 12 myself+0 "Experiments on practical WLAN designs for digital classrooms" IEICE ComEx (2013) M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- Virtual Wireless User: Parallel MultiConnect Using WiFi Direct -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131204b --- 5 /22 5/22
  5. 5. . . MultiConnect Paradigms M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- Virtual Wireless User: Parallel MultiConnect Using WiFi Direct -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131204b --- 6 /22 6/22
  6. 6. . . MultiConnect Paradigms • MPTCP: MultiPath TCP ◦ there is a Linux kernel 04 ◦ well studied including wireless 03 • P2P streaming -- aggregation of content from multiple peers 11 ◦ a fundamental concept ◦ can be applied to clouds 11, browsers 13, etc. • good overview/taxonomy in 06 . Shared feature... . ... is that both are . single source multiple route paradigms 04 "MultiPath TCP: Linux Kernel Implementation" http://multipath-tcp.org (2013) 03 Y.Chen+5 "A Measurement...of MultiPath TCP Performance over Wireless Networks" ACM SIGCOMM IMC (2013) 11 myself+0 "Multi-Source Stream Aggregation in the Cloud" Wiley Book (2013) 11 myself+0 "Multi-Source Stream Aggregation in the Cloud" Wiley Book (2013) 13 myself+0 "Experiments with application throughput in a browser with full HTML5 support" IEICE ComEx (2013) 06 A.Makela+2 "Comparison of load-balancing approaches for multipath connectivity" Elsevier (2012) M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- Virtual Wireless User: Parallel MultiConnect Using WiFi Direct -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131204b --- 7 /22 7/22
  7. 7. . . Real Life Experiments M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- Virtual Wireless User: Parallel MultiConnect Using WiFi Direct -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131204b --- 8 /22 8/22
  8. 8. . . Experiments: Settings real 3G • three connections, several months ◦ one has a 300kbps cap (cheaper contract) ◦ one is a new provider in Japan • simple throughput test -- download a 0.5M file ◦ but huge files (up to 1Gb) for WiFi Direct) • various combinations ◦ 3G only ◦ WiFi Direct only ◦ parallel connectivity M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- Virtual Wireless User: Parallel MultiConnect Using WiFi Direct -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131204b --- 9 /22 9/22
  9. 9. . . 3G Performance ISP3 Color-filled area: +/- 1 sigma ISP2 Holiday 1 • 1400 Throughput (kbps) Throughput (kbps) 1400 1050 700 350 0 1050 700 • 350 5 10 Hour 15 20 0 5 10 Hour 15 20 • Workday Saturday 1050 700 350 0 1050 700 • 350 0 0 5 10 Hour 15 M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- 20 0 5 10 Hour 15 20 trends: ◦ matters which day ◦ time of day, morning rise and fall, etc. 1400 Throughput (kbps) 1400 aggregation 1: week days, 1-day holidays (also Sunday), and 3+ day holidays plots aggregation 2: hour of day 0 0 Throughput (kbps) ISP1 Holiday 3+ biggest lesson: under 1Mbps throughputs, much lower in some cases! Virtual Wireless User: Parallel MultiConnect Using WiFi Direct -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131204b --- 10 /22 10/22
  10. 10. . . Standalone WiFi Direct Other info 1m 10m 18 12 6 1m 10m 27 21.6 10m WiFi Direct: Deterioration effect of distance (%) 24 Throughput ratio ( WiFi Direct / Bluetooth) Avg. throughput (Mbps) 1m 32.4 30 Bluetooth WiFi Direct 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 16.2 0 0 2 4 6 8 No. of files M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- 10 0 2 4 6 8 No. of files 10 0 2 4 6 8 No. of files Virtual Wireless User: Parallel MultiConnect Using WiFi Direct -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131204b --- 10 11 /22 11/22
  11. 11. . . WiFi Direct + ( 3G | WiFi) Gx: WiFi Direct and 3G for X files G5 25 G10 Intranet throughput (Mbps) Intranet throughput (Mbps) 25 20 G10 G5 15 G1 10 W5 5 G5 W1 W10 W10W5 W1 G1 0 25 15 10 W5 W1 W10 G1 0 0.09 0.12 0.15 0.18 0.21 Internet throughput (Mbps) M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- Distance: 10m G10 20 5 Wx: WiFi Direct and Tranditional WiFi for X files Distance:1m Intranet throughput (Mbps) All data 20 G10 G5 15 G1 10 5 W10W5 W1 0 0.09 0.12 0.15 0.18 0.21 Internet throughput (Mbps) 0.09 0.12 0.15 0.18 0.21 Internet throughput (Mbps) Virtual Wireless User: Parallel MultiConnect Using WiFi Direct -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131204b --- 12 /22 12/22
  12. 12. . . VWU: Virtual Wireless User M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- Virtual Wireless User: Parallel MultiConnect Using WiFi Direct -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131204b --- 13 /22 13/22
  13. 13. . . MultiConnect Paradigms (again) . (new) Parallel Multiconnect Definition . multi-source/dest multi-connectivity parallel ... is communications . • • • biggest change: single-source → multi-source example A: distributed sync 07 example B: shared cloud storage -- multi-source means different files through different users/peers/etc. 07 "OpenVSwitch project" http://openvswitch.org/ (2013) M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- Virtual Wireless User: Parallel MultiConnect Using WiFi Direct -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131204b --- 14 /22 14/22
  14. 14. . . VWU: Putting It All Together • VWU: Virtual Wireless User -- the main proposal • put 30Mbps of WiFi Direct to practical use -- intranet • pool internet connections of all users • virtualization: appear as one user to whatever the service ◦ could even be internal (locally shared files) M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- Virtual Wireless User: Parallel MultiConnect Using WiFi Direct -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131204b --- 15 /22 15/22
  15. 15. . . VWU: Visual Model Service Service Provider M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- Service traffic Application Virtual Wireless User Wireless User Wireless User Wireless User Virtual Wireless User: Parallel MultiConnect Using WiFi Direct -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131204b --- 16 /22 16/22
  16. 16. . . VWU: Another Visual Model • as long as application (internal) traffic is larger than aggregate service traffic, VWU works! Service Provider Virtual Virtual Users Real Users M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- Virtual Wireless User: Parallel MultiConnect Using WiFi Direct -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131204b --- 17 /22 17/22
  17. 17. . . VWU: The Realistic Model best case, by interference best case, by time of day, 3G only 25.5 70 60 Ratio (inter/intra, %) Ratio (inter/intra, %) 80 25 50 40 30 ... 20 10 0 20.4 5 10 15 Hour of day 0 20 ... 1 0 10 15 Hour of day M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- 20 10000 15000 20000 25000 worst case, by interference 14 cannot overwhelm the VWU • plots show performance 12 extremes for time day and wireless 10 8 25 6 2 1 0 of interference ... 4 0 5 5000 Intranet throughput (kbps) Ratio (inter/intra, %) Ratio (inter/intra, %) 25 • even 25-member groups 1 0 wost case, by time of day, 3G only 22.4 19.6 16.8 14 11.2 8.4 5.6 2.8 0 ... 5.1 real data -- presented above 25 10.2 1 0 • a model based on 15.3 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 Intranet throughput (kbps) Virtual Wireless User: Parallel MultiConnect Using WiFi Direct -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131204b --- 18 /22 18/22
  18. 18. . . That’s all, thank you ... M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- Virtual Wireless User: Parallel MultiConnect Using WiFi Direct -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131204b --- 19 /22 19/22
  19. 19. . . ADD: VWU + DTN = multihop • modern DTN is fit for delay-constrained messages 10 • P2P streaming is one example where flows consist of small pieces • VWU + DTN is currently in development 10 A.Balasubramanian+2 "DTN Routing as a Resource Allocation Problem" SIGCOMM (2007) M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- Virtual Wireless User: Parallel MultiConnect Using WiFi Direct -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131204b --- 20 /22 20/22
  20. 20. . . ADD: Another Model (Floor-Sky) The cloud The cloud ISP3 ISP3 ISP1 ISP1 ISP2 ISP2 Master copy Clone User B User B User A User A User C Virtual User Group leader User D User D M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- Virtual Wireless User: Parallel MultiConnect Using WiFi Direct -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131204b --- 21 /22 21/22
  21. 21. . . ADD: Implementation as Middleware Applications aaggsync (Asymmetric Aggregation Sync) Wi-Fi Direct M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- Legacy Wi-Fi 3G, LTE Land Line Virtual Wireless User: Parallel MultiConnect Using WiFi Direct -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131204b --- 22 /22 22/22
  22. 22. . . [01] T.Hau+2 (2011) Multihoming, Content Delivery Networks, and The Market for Internet Connectivity Elsevier [02] P.Schmidt+2 (2012) A first look at multi-access connectivity for mobile networking ACM CSWS [03] Y.Chen+5 (2013) A Measurement...of MultiPath TCP Performance over Wireless Networks ACM SIGCOMM IMC [04] (2013) MultiPath TCP: Linux Kernel Implementation http://multipath-tcp.org [05] K.Yap+6 (2012) Making use of all the networks around us: a case study in android ACM SIGCOMM CellNet [06] A.Makela+2 (2012) M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- Virtual Wireless User: Parallel MultiConnect Using WiFi Direct -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131204b --- 22 /22 22/22
  23. 23. . . Comparison of load-balancing approaches for multipath connectivity Elsevier [07] (2013) OpenVSwitch project http://openvswitch.org/ [08] E.Kohler+4 (2000) The Click Modular Router ACM TOCS [09] A.Vasilakos+2 (2011) Delay Tolerant Networks: Protocols and Applications CRC Press [10] A.Balasubramanian+2 (2007) DTN Routing as a Resource Allocation Problem SIGCOMM [11] myself+0 (2013) Multi-Source Stream Aggregation in the Cloud M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- Virtual Wireless User: Parallel MultiConnect Using WiFi Direct -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131204b --- 22 /22 22/22
  24. 24. . . Wiley Book [12] myself+0 (2013) Experiments on practical WLAN designs for digital classrooms IEICE ComEx [13] myself+0 (2013) Experiments with application throughput in a browser with full HTML5 support IEICE ComEx [14] myself+0 (2013) Experiences from Measuring Per-Packet Cost of Software Defined Networking IEICE SC Techreport [15] (2010) Wi-Fi Peer-to-Peer: Best Practical Guide Wi-Fi Alliance M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- Virtual Wireless User: Parallel MultiConnect Using WiFi Direct -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131204b --- 22 /22 22/22
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