A Method for Extremely Scalable and Low Demand Live P2P Streaming based on Variable Bitrate

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P2P streaming today uses constant bitrate video, primarily because it is easier to cut such video into fixed-throughput substreams and deliver it via multiple peers. This approach suffers from low reliability of end-to-end throughput which can cause playback freezes. It also suffers from extreme variation in throughput across peers. This paper proposes a variable-bitrate method for P2P streaming which solves these problems. The proposed method is designed for scalability as well as spontaneous network organization because of its low demand on resources.

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A Method for Extremely Scalable and Low Demand Live P2P Streaming based on Variable Bitrate

  1. 1. . . P2P Streaming: Models and Problems M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- Extremely Scalable ... Live P2P Streaming based on Variable Bitrate -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131205 --- 2 /25 2/25
  2. 2. . . P2P Streaming Models 1. ◦ many software products -- all based on default BitTorrent … Share BitTorrent model 11 , aka the pull paradigm 2. Content Provider (origin) P2P Network substream model 10 , aka the push paradigm ◦ several existing services 07 08 09 ◦ not limited to P2P networks, also work in clouds 03 03 myself+0 "Multi-Source Stream Aggregation in the Cloud" Wiley Book on Advanced Content Delivery ... Clouds (2013) 08 K.Park+4 "An Analysis of User Dynamics in P2P Live Streaming Services" ICC (2010) 09 C.Wu+2 "Diagnosing Network-wide P2P Live Streaming Inefficiencies" IEEE INFOCOM (2009) 10 Z.Li+4 "Towards Low-Redundancy Push-Pull P2P Live Streaming" QShine (2008) 11 C.Stais+1 "Realistic Media Streaming over BitTorrent" Future Network and Mobile Summit (2012) M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- Extremely Scalable ... Live P2P Streaming based on Variable Bitrate -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131205 --- 3 /25 3/25
  3. 3. . . P2P Substream Method …. P2P Connection shake hands than use continuously • basic idea: …. …. M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- …. Extremely Scalable ... Live P2P Streaming based on Variable Bitrate -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131205 --- 4 /25 4/25
  4. 4. . . Problems and Solutions • quality management 1. 2. • overhead 1. 2. • BitTorrent: RTT per piece substream: switching time at re-election optimization 1. 2. • BitTorrent: nothing substream: parent/child re-election BitTorrent: nothing, but some selection algorithms substream: multihop optimization is possible -- scheduling and flow problems the biggest problem: data unit has constant size! M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- Extremely Scalable ... Live P2P Streaming based on Variable Bitrate -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131205 --- 5 /25 5/25
  5. 5. . . P2P Streaming: Social Features M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- Extremely Scalable ... Live P2P Streaming based on Variable Bitrate -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131205 --- 6 /25 6/25
  6. 6. . . P2P Streaming: Social Features Scale Traffic flow • note: P2P delivery network is not really a tree • reality shows that your remote peers are power-law distributed in throughput ◦ gets harder to find good peers with longer lists … … … … M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- Extremely Scalable ... Live P2P Streaming based on Variable Bitrate -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131205 --- 7 /25 7/25
  7. 7. . . Bitrate: CBR, VBR, SVC M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- Extremely Scalable ... Live P2P Streaming based on Variable Bitrate -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131205 --- 8 /25 8/25
  8. 8. . . CBR, VBR, SVC • VBR and SVC are both part of ITU-T H264 12 VBR: really extreme variation in throughput • SVC: smoother distribution 13 , with some control over smoothness 14 • why: SVC is based on hierarchy of layers which can be moved around within GOP Block GOP CBR Time Block GOP Frame size Frame size GOP Frame size ◦ VBR Time Block SVC Time 12 "Advanced video coding for generic audiovisual services" ITU-T Recommendation H.264 (2012) 13 R.Kusching+2 "An Evaluation of TCP-based Rate-Control ... Streaming of H.264/SVC" ACM SIGMM MMsys) (2010) 14 M.Fidler+3 -M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com "Efficient Smoothing of Robust VBR ... LiveTraffic ... Slice-Based..." CCNC (2007) Extremely Scalable Video P2P Streaming based on Variable Bitrate -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131205 --- 9 /25 9/25
  9. 9. . . Bitrate Models and Distributions Frame size (kb) • real traces from 15 VBR versus single-layer SVC SVC 12 12 Frame size (kb) • 8 4 0 0 20 40 60 80 Time sequence 100 VBR 8 4 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Distribution sequence 15 P.Seeling+2 "Network Performance Evaluation with Frame Size and Quality Traces ..." IEEE Comm. Surveys... (2004) M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- Extremely Scalable ... Live P2P Streaming based on Variable Bitrate -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131205 --- 10 /25 10/25
  10. 10. . . The Proposal: VBR Subtreams M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- Extremely Scalable ... Live P2P Streaming based on Variable Bitrate -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131205 --- 11 /25 11/25
  11. 11. . . Recap: The Objectives . The Main Objective is... . ... to build a method which can . adapt to to any peer distribution in realtime • VBR is fixed, no control parameter • SVC can be controlled by switching between encoders ultimately: raw manipulation by shifting SVC blocks around the GOP • ideal success: distribution of throughput in peers = distribution of • framesize in GOP M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- Extremely Scalable ... Live P2P Streaming based on Variable Bitrate -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131205 --- 12 /25 12/25
  12. 12. . . Proposal: Substream Design • simple: pick a frame position in GOP and assign it to one peer ◦ positions: 1st, 2nd, .... • expected outcome: since 1st frame is normally the largest in GOP, that peer should be able to support high throughput ◦ by extension, most other peers carry much lower load ◦ size of GOP = number of peers, by design GOP CBR Time M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- Block GOP Frame size Block Frame size Frame size GOP VBR Time Block SVC Time Extremely Scalable ... Live P2P Streaming based on Variable Bitrate -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131205 --- 13 /25 13/25
  13. 13. . . Proposal: Dynamics Parent A Client Bigger frames (GOP pos x) Failed to receive Re -order parents Close connection Pick a better candidate Parent B Bigger frames (GOP pos x) Smaller frames (GOP pos y) M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- traditional substream: find a new peer for a substream • proposed: swap frame positions between two peers Only for changed frames/parents/GOP pos Connection close detected • Periodic check/update ◦ peers are initially selected close to the expected distribution, so no new peers are necessary Extremely Scalable ... Live P2P Streaming based on Variable Bitrate -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131205 --- 14 /25 14/25
  14. 14. . . Simulation M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- Extremely Scalable ... Live P2P Streaming based on Variable Bitrate -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131205 --- 15 /25 15/25
  15. 15. . . Simulation: Models and Parameters CBR SVC VBR 1 Value 0.8 1. pick VBR I-Frame size as set it to 1 0.6 2. pick I-Frame size of SVC as a 0.4 3. pick frame size of SBR as a fraction of 1 fraction of 1 0.2 4. use these fractions as parameters 0 0 10 M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- 20 30 Distribution sequence 40 50 Extremely Scalable ... Live P2P Streaming based on Variable Bitrate -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131205 --- 16 /25 16/25
  16. 16. . . Simulation: E2E Throughput Model drops in throughput longer paths experience more drops (not deeper!, more in number) a parameter defines the range of drop probabilities for sampling one's peers • throughput variation is modeled as • • Throughput Time slot 100% Simulation parameters parameter M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- 0% Time Extremely Scalable ... Live P2P Streaming based on Variable Bitrate -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131205 --- 17 /25 17/25
  17. 17. . . Ratio of VBR/CBR and SVC/CBR (freeze time) Results : Freeze Time SVC to CBR VBR to CBR 7 6 x=0.05 5 x=0.2 • x=1 4 3 simple lesson: framesize distributions are good, as long as they are not extreme • CBR can outperform VBR/SVC below frame size of 0.2 -- 1/5th of VBR I-Frame) only y=1 2 1 0 0 0.3 M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- 0.6 0.9 CBR level 1.2 1.5 Extremely Scalable ... Live P2P Streaming based on Variable Bitrate -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131205 --- 18 /25 18/25
  18. 18. . . Throughput gain (higher / lower) (kbps) Results : Gain (social) 1.9 • 1.7 SVC substream design? Slow peers 1.5 viewpoint: how much can a user benefit from a VBR/ • test various peer distributions and find out 1.3 • 1.1 gain: best SVC/VBR throughput divided by the number of CBR 0.9 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 Normalized lower throughput M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- 0.9 1 Extremely Scalable ... Live P2P Streaming based on Variable Bitrate -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131205 --- 19 /25 19/25
  19. 19. . . Wrapup • VBR/SVC substream design create a socially adequate method ◦ after all, is it your fault that your 3G shapes your throughput? • VBR/SVC substream design has to be a clean slate -- frame position assignment is proposed • results show that is smoother SVC is preferred because its framesize distribution ◦ even more becuase the distribution can, in theory, be controlled M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- Extremely Scalable ... Live P2P Streaming based on Variable Bitrate -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131205 --- 20 /25 20/25
  20. 20. . . That’s all, thank you ... M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- Extremely Scalable ... Live P2P Streaming based on Variable Bitrate -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131205 --- 21 /25 21/25
  21. 21. . . The PUSH vs PULL Argument • mathematical argument in [03] Client Server Client Server Pull M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- overhead = RTT for each piece • overhead can be overcome only by drastically increasing the number of remote peers -- Push …… • …… swarming Extremely Scalable ... Live P2P Streaming based on Variable Bitrate -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131205 --- 22 /25 22/25
  22. 22. . . Reference: Average Throughput Ratio of average throughput (-log(1/y) for y < 1) SVC/CBR VBR/CBR 3 1 unit I-Frame size is 50kb known fact: VBR/SVC can support the same quality 0.5 at 1/2 of CBR's throughput 15 2.5 • CBR < VBR 2 VBR < CBR 1.5 • VBR < 0.5 * CBR 0 • 1/2 of CBR's throughput is at about 20kb framesize -0.5 -1 of CBR -1.5 0 10 20 30 40 50 CBR Frame Size (kb) 60 70 15 P.Seeling+2 "Network Performance Evaluation with Frame Size and Quality Traces ..." IEEE Comm. Surveys... (2004) M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- Extremely Scalable ... Live P2P Streaming based on Variable Bitrate -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131205 --- 23 /25 23/25
  23. 23. . . Features: Taxonomy • is your data unit regular? Content BLOCK GOP FRAME Fixed Regular M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- adaptive in realtime? GOP BLOCK FRE and can it be FIR Fixed Irregular FRAME Adaptive Irregular AIR This method Extremely Scalable ... Live P2P Streaming based on Variable Bitrate -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131205 --- 24 /25 24/25
  24. 24. . . SVC in P2P: Disclaimer • SVC is considered for P2P in literature 1. BitTorrent with variable-size pieces 04 2. BitTorrent pieces as multiples of GOP 05 3. optimization for SVC layer repacking in small scale streaming tool called SPPM (Stanford) ◦ assignment by frame size positions is still the unique contributions ◦ socially, the proposed method will scale while SPPM will not 04 N.Capovilla+4 "...Distributing Scalable Content over P2P Networks" MMEDIA (2010) 05 P.Baccichet+3 "Low-delay Peer-to-Peer Streaming using Scalable Video Coding" Packet Video (2007) M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- Extremely Scalable ... Live P2P Streaming based on Variable Bitrate -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131205 --- 25 /25 25/25
  25. 25. . . [01] R.Buyya+3 (2008) Content Delivery Networks Springer LNEE, vol.9 [03] myself+0 (2013) Multi-Source Stream Aggregation in the Cloud Wiley Book on Advanced Content Delivery ... Clouds [04] N.Capovilla+4 (2010) ...Distributing Scalable Content over P2P Networks MMEDIA [05] P.Baccichet+3 (2007) Low-delay Peer-to-Peer Streaming using Scalable Video Coding Packet Video [06] C.Gurler+2 (2012) Variable chunk size ... and ... window for P2P streaming of scalable video ICIP M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- Extremely Scalable ... Live P2P Streaming based on Variable Bitrate -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131205 --- 25 /25 25/25
  26. 26. . . [07] B.Li+5 (2008) Inside the New Coolstreaming: Principles, Measurements and Performance Implications IEEE INFOCOM [08] K.Park+4 (2010) An Analysis of User Dynamics in P2P Live Streaming Services ICC [09] C.Wu+2 (2009) Diagnosing Network-wide P2P Live Streaming Inefficiencies IEEE INFOCOM [10] Z.Li+4 (2008) Towards Low-Redundancy Push-Pull P2P Live Streaming QShine [11] C.Stais+1 (2012) Realistic Media Streaming over BitTorrent Future Network and Mobile Summit M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- Extremely Scalable ... Live P2P Streaming based on Variable Bitrate -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131205 --- 25 /25 25/25
  27. 27. . . [12] (2012) Advanced video coding for generic audiovisual services ITU-T Recommendation H.264 [13] R.Kusching+2 (2010) An Evaluation of TCP-based Rate-Control ... Streaming of H.264/SVC ACM SIGMM MMsys) [14] M.Fidler+3 (2007) Efficient Smoothing of Robust VBR Video Traffic ... Slice-Based... CCNC [15] P.Seeling+2 (2004) Network Performance Evaluation with Frame Size and Quality Traces ... IEEE Comm. Surveys... [16] J.Surowiecki (2004) The Wisdom of Crowds Doubleday M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com -- Extremely Scalable ... Live P2P Streaming based on Variable Bitrate -- http://tinyurl.com/marat131205 --- 25 /25 25/25

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