Chap009 jpm-f2011(1)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Like this? Share it with your network

Share

Chap009 jpm-f2011(1)

on

  • 538 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
538
Views on SlideShare
538
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
1
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • Chapter 8: Inventories: Additional Issues. In this chapter we complete our discussion of inventory measurement by explaining the lower-of-cost-or-market rule used to value inventories. In addition, we investigate inventory estimation techniques, methods of simplifying LIFO, changes in inventory method, and inventory errors.
  • Inventories are to be valued on the balance sheet at lower-of-cost-or-market. Initially, inventory items are recorded at their historical costs, but a departure from cost is warranted when the utility of an asset (the probable future economic benefits) is no longer as great as its cost. Deterioration, obsolescence, changes in price levels, or any situation that might comprise the inventory’s salability causes us to use a measure of lower-of-cost-or-market. Using LCM causes losses to be recognized in the period the value of inventory declines below its cost rather than in the period that the goods ultimately are sold.
  • If replacement cost is greater than the ceiling, then market becomes ceiling. If replacement cost is less than the floor, then floor becomes market value. As long as replacement cost falls between the ceiling and the floor, it will be considered market value.
  • We can adjust the cost of an inventory item to market in one of two ways. When market is lower than cost, we can recognize a separate loss for the decline in value and make the adjustment to inventory directly (or by using an allowance account). As an alternative, we can record the loss as part of cost of goods sold, and either adjust inventory directly or use an allowance account.
  • Part I International standards require inventory to be valued at the lower of cast or market, but the process is slightly different for the U.S. method of applying LCM. Part II From the perspective of the FASB, LCM requires selecting market from replacement cost, net realizable value or NRV reduced by the normal profit margin. Designated market is compared to historical cost to determine LCM. However, IAS No. 2, states that the designated market will always be net realizable value.
  • Most companies estimate their inventories at interim periods. In some cases, when inventory is extremely large and spread out over a wide geographical area, inventory estimation may be used to determine year-end inventory. It may be impossible or impractical to physically count such inventories. Inventory estimation is less costly than a physical count and less time consuming. The two most popular methods are known as the gross profit method and the retail inventory method. Both method rely on the company maintaining good accounting records.
  • The gross profit method is perhaps the most popular method for estimating ending inventory. Companies use it when they develop interim reports, and auditors often use the gross profit method to determine the reasonableness of ending inventory. The gross profit method can be used by insurance companies to estimate lost, destroyed, or stolen inventory. We can use the gross profit method in the budgeting process. It is important to remember that the gross profit method is not acceptable for use in the annual report distributed to external users.
  • As indicated by its name, the retail method was developed for retail establishments such as department stores. There is a major difference between the gross profit and retail method. In the retail method, we need to know both cost and selling price of certain accounts. Our objective in the retail method is to calculate ending inventory at retail, and then convert it from retail to cost.
  • When a company changes to the LIFO inventory method from any other method, it usually is impossible to calculate the income effect on prior years. To do so would require assumptions as to when specific LIFO inventory layers were created in years prior to the change. As a result, a company changing to LIFO usually does not report the change retrospectively. Instead, the LIFO method simply is used from that point on. The base year inventory for all future LIFO determinations is the beginning inventory in the year the LIFO method is adopted. A disclosure note is needed to explain the nature and justification for the change as well as the effect of the change on current year’s income and earnings per share. The note also must explain why retrospective application was impracticable.
  • This slide explains the impact of errors in ending inventory on cost of goods sold and pretax income. Because the error impacts cost of goods sold and pretax net income, it also will impact the balance in retained earning.
  • Here we show the impact of errors in beginning inventory on cost of goods sold in pretax income.
  • End of Chapter 9.

Chap009 jpm-f2011(1) Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Inventories: Additional Issues 9 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2011 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 2. Five Major Topics
    • Lower of cost or market (LCM)
      • pages 448-456
    • Gross profit method (“inventory estimation”)
      • pages 456-457
    • Conventional retail method
      • pages 458-465
    • DVL retail method
      • pages 465-469
    • Change in method & errors
      • Pages 469-474
  • 3. 1) Lower of Cost or Market Inventories are valued at the lower-of-cost (e.g., FIFO) - or market. (replacement cost) LCM is a departure from historical cost . The method causes losses to be recognized in the period the value of inventory declines below its cost rather than in the period that the goods ultimately are sold.
  • 4. LCM Terminology
    • Replacement cost (RC) = cost to buy (or manufacture) another item of inventory
    • RC Ceiling = net realizable value (NRV):
      • selling price less cost to dispose
    • RC Floor = NRV less normal profit margin
    • Ceiling: RC should be no higher than this #
    • Floor: RC should be no lower than this #
  • 5. Determining Market Value (page 449) Ceiling NRV Replacement Cost NRV – NP Floor Designated Market Cost Not More Than Not Less Than Or Step 1 Determine Designated Market Step 2 Compare Designated Market with Cost Lower of Cost Or Market
  • 6. LCM: exercise 9-3 (page 481)
  • 7. Recording a LCM Adjustment: two choices
    • Record the Loss as a Separate Item in the Income Statement (if unusual)
      • Loss on write-down of inventory XX Inventory XX
    • Record the Loss as part of Cost of Goods Sold . (if commonplace) Cost of goods sold XX Inventory XX
  • 8. U. S. GAAP vs. IFRS
    • LCM requires market to be replacement cost , but with a ceiling/floor limitation.
    • LCM reversals (back to cost) are not permitted under GAAP.
    • IAS No. 2, states that the designated market will always be net realizable value .
    • If an inventory write-down is not longer appropriate, it must be reversed .
    International standards require inventory to be valued at the lower of cost or market , but the process is slightly different for the U.S. method of applying LCM.
  • 9. 2) Gross Profit Method (pages 456-457)
    • Estimate ending inventory instead of physically counting the inventory
      • Less costly / Less time consuming
      • Sometimes necessary (natural disaster)
    • Two popular methods of estimating ending inventory are the . . .
      • Gross Profit Method
      • Retail Inventory Method
  • 10. Gross Profit Method Useful when . . . Estimating inventory and COGS for interim reports . Determining the cost of inventory lost , destroyed, or stolen. Auditors are testing the overall reasonableness of client inventories. Preparing budgets and forecasts. NOTE: The Gross Profit Method is not acceptable for use in annual financial statements .
  • 11. Gross Profit Method: Exercise 9-9 (page 482)
  • 12. 3) Retail Inventory Method
    • This method was developed for retail operations like department stores who have ….
    • High volumes of sales over many inventory items
    The Method: Conver t ending inventory at retail to ending inventory at cost .
  • 13. Terminology
    • Initial markup - from cost to selling price
    • Additional markup - increase in selling price subsequent to #1
    • Markup cancellation - elimination of #2
    • Markdown – reduction in the selling price below the original selling price
    • Markdown cancellation – elimination of #4
  • 14. Retail Method Examples
    • Use Exercise 9-14 (p. 483) as example of:
      • “ conventional method” ( includes LCM )
      • another example of this method is Illust 9-6 (p. 461)
    • Use Illust 9-5 (p. 461) as example of:
      • “ average cost method” ( does not include LCM )
  • 15. Exercise 9-14 (p. 483)
  • 16. LIFO Retail Inventory Illustration 9-7 on page 462
    • Notice that there are two calculations of the cost-to-retail %:
      • For the beginning inventory
      • For the purchases
    • Therefore, we have “lifo layers” (as used in “regular LIFO” - Chapter 8)
    • In this illustration, the Ending inventory (and the next period’s beginning inventory) will have two layers!
  • 17. 4) Dollar Value LIFO Retail Example
    • Exercise 9-19 (page 484)
    • When studying, compare this Exercise to Exercise 8-23 (page 432) – dollar value lifo
  • 18. Exercise 9-19 (page 484)
  • 19. 5a) Changes in Inventory Method
    • Recall that most voluntary changes in accounting principles are reported retrospectively .
    • This means reporting all previous periods’ financial statements as though the new method had been used in all prior periods.
    • LIFO is the reason for the word “most”
  • 20. Change To The LIFO Method
    • When a company elects to change to LIFO, it is usually impossible to calculate the income effect on prior years.
    • As a result, the company does not report the change retrospectively . Instead, the LIFO method is used from the point of adoption forward.
    • disclosure note explains the effect of the change on current year’s income and earnings per share,
  • 21. 5b) Ending Inventory Errors
    • Over statement of ending inventory
      • Understates cost of goods sold and
      • Overstates pretax income.
    • Under statement of ending inventory
      • Overstates cost of goods sold and
      • Understates pretax income.
  • 22. 5c) Beginning Inventory Errors
    • Over statement of beginning inventory
      • Overstates cost of goods sold and
      • Understates pretax income.
    • Under statement of beginning inventory
      • Understates cost of goods sold and
      • Overstates pretax income.
  • 23. Inventory error in 2010 is discovered late in 2011
    • The 2010 financials were incorrect
    • Hence, when comparative 2011/2010 financials are presented, we must (retrospectively) restate the 2010 figures:
      • Ending inventory on balance sheet
      • Cost of goods sold & net income on income statement
      • Ending retained earnings on balance sheet
  • 24. Inventory error in 2010 is discovered in 2012 (or later)
    • When comparative 2012/ 2011/ 2010 financials are presented, we must (retrospectively) restate the 2010 figures:
      • Inventory on balance sheet
      • Cost of goods sold & net income on inc. statement
      • Retained earnings (“prior-period adjustment”) on balance sheet
    • And, we must restate the 2011 figures:
      • Cost of goods sold & net income – because the beginning inventory was misstated!
      • Balance sheet is OK
  • 25. End of Chapter 9