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  • http://static.wix.com/media/30670f500534191dd70504c97ee4aea6.wix_mp_128
  • Teo, C. T. (2010). Understanding student motivation through love, volition and neurotransmitters. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences Journal, 9 ,(), 1926-1932. Deci, E., & Ryan, R. (Eds.), (2002). Handbook of self-determination research . Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press. Flavell, J. H. (1976) Metacognitive aspects of problem solving. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), The nature of intelligence (pp. 231–236). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum
  • Graham, F. (1990). Attribution Theory: Applications to Achievement, Mental Health, and Interpersonal Conflict . New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Deci, E., & Ryan, R. (Eds.), (2002). Handbook of self-determination research . Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press. Hatano, G., & Inagaki, K. (1986). Two courses of expertise. Child development and education in Japan , () , 262–272.
  • Homans, G.C. (1958). Social Behavior as Exchange. American Journal of Sociology , 63 (6), 597–606. Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory . New York: General Learning Press.
  • Deci, E., & Ryan, R. (Eds.), (2002). Handbook of self-determination research . Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press. Fishbein, M. (1963). An investigation of relationships between beliefs about an object and the attitude toward that object. Human Relations , 16 , 233-240. Graham, F. (1990). Attribution Theory: Applications to Achievement, Mental Health, and Interpersonal Conflict . New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Maslow, A. (1968). Toward a psychology of being (2 nd ed.). New York: Van Nostrand. Maslow, A. (1970). Motivation and personality (2 nd ed.). New York: Harper & Row. (Original work published 1954).

Pbl presentation   zhiyi, mario, zoe, justin, ivan updated by zoe Pbl presentation zhiyi, mario, zoe, justin, ivan updated by zoe Presentation Transcript

  • PBL Scenario 2 Presented by: Chua Chong Yi Mario Ke Kaijie Justin Lin Zhiyi Yeo Zoe Yow Ying Ming Ivan
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  • Problem Analysis
    • Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory
      • To situate the problematic areas
    • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
      • Deficiency needs  Self-actualisation
  • Hypothesis 1
    • When Jeremy’s parents give more autonomy to Jeremy, his behavior will become less externally regulated , allowing him to experience more subjective well-being and develop more self-esteem to do better in his studies.
  • Solutions
    • Allow Jeremy to pursue his own interests:
    • - So that he can exercise his volition that leads to motivation (Deci & Ryan, 2002; Teo, 2010)
    • - Metacognitive development (Flavell, 1976)
    •  Memory-monitoring / Self – regulation  Perform better in his work
    •  Awareness of effectiveness  Modify learning strategies
    •  Active control of how he learns  Autonomy
  • Solutions
    • Focus on skill mastery rather than purely academic grades
    • - Attribution theory (Graham, 1990)
    • - Jeremy is more motivated to learn what he likes (Deci & Ryan, 2002)
    • - Jeremy can be cultured as an efficient problem solver based on adaptive expertise theory (Hatano & Inagaki, 1986)
  • Hypothesis 2
    • When Jeremy receives more understanding, support and patience from his teacher, he will be more self-motivated to perform in his school exams and seek meaning in doing so.
  • Solutions
    • Teachers should have positive expectations of Jeremy (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010)
    • Why is there a need?
    • feel competent (self-determination theory) (Levesque, Stanek, Zuehlke & Ryan, 2004; Ryan & Deci, 2000),
    • Increases self efficacy, motivation and achievement (Bandura, 1986, 1997, 2004)
  • Solutions
    • Teachers should have positive expectations of Jeremy (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010)
    • How can the teacher show positive expectations?
    • 3 ways (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010)
      • By the demands she place on Jeremy,
        • in terms of expecting good quality work
      • emotional support she gives to Jeremy and
        • by being encouraging and pushing him on when he is not doing well
      • the way she interacts with Jeremy
        • by criticizing him less, praise more often etc
  • Solutions
    • Teachers needs to be more caring towards Jeremy (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010)
    • Why is there a need?
    • reduce need for belonging (as seen in Maslow’s hierarchy) (Maslow, 1968, 1970)
    • meet needs for relatedness (supported by the self-determination theory) (Ryan & Deci, 2000)
  • Solutions
    • Teachers needs to be more caring towards Jeremy (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010)
    • How can the teacher show care towards Jeremy?
    • Communicating unconditional positive regard (Cornelius-White, 2007)
    • Commitment to Jeremy’s learning (Cornelius-White, 2007)
    • Showing respect to Jeremy (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010)
    • Show empathy and understanding (C.D. Batson, Dyck, Brandt, J.G. Batson, Powell , 1988)
  • Solutions
    • Teacher should create a safe and positive classroom climate for Jeremy
    • Why is there a need?
    • meet needs for safety (as seen in Maslow’s hierarchy) ( Maslow, 1968, 1970)
    • meet needs for equilibrium (Piaget, 1970, 1977)
    • meet needs for autonomy and relatedness (supported by the self-determination theory) (Brophy, 2006; Roeser et al. 2006; Ryan & Deci, 2000)
  • Solutions
    • Teacher should create a safe and positive classroom climate for Jeremy (Maslow, SDT)
    • How can the teacher create a safe learning environment?
    • Modeling respect, courtesy and expecting students to do the same towards each other (Barth, 2002; Blum, 2005).
    • Modeling fairness to all students (Tan, Parsons, Hinson, Sardo-Brown, 2011)
    • Teacher should encourage and motivate
    • - counsel Jeremy to see the value of his efforts (motivation theory)
    • - set targets with Jeremy that are progressive and achievable
    Solutions
  • Hypothesis 3
    • When Jeremy is accepted and supported by his peers, he will experience care and support and gain agreeable personality characteristics such as altruism .
  • Solutions
    • People around him being accepting and receptive of Jerermy
    • Friends show empathy and encouragement towards him via social exchange theory (Homans, 1958)
    • Teacher to reinforce good behaviours by being model of care and concern for all students via social learning theory (Bandura, 1977)
  • Hypothesis 4
    • When Jeremy understands causality , he will understand that his behaviour is volitional, which if exercised properly, will lead to competency .
  • Solutions
    • Jeremy to reflect upon his ability in completing the work set by his parents, and attain a positive self-concept - attribution theory (Graham, 1990)
    • Parents giving Jeremy options with tasks set for him but also spending time to know more about his interests and allowing him time to pursue them (Deci & Ryan, 2002)
    • Teachers understanding Jeremy’s current situation and vary the variety and difficulty of tasks Jeremy is to perform - expectancy x value theory (Fishbein, 1963)
  • Hypothesis 5
    • When Jeremy’s parents and teachers establish a closer working relationship , he will have a stronger sense of belonging at home and in school.
  • Solutions
    • Parents to be more participative in Jeremy’s school life
    • satisfy his safety and belongings need (Maslow 1968, 1970)
    • establish a functional mesosystem (Bronfenbrenner, 1979)
  • Social Emotional Learning
    • Self-awareness : Self efficacy / Spirituality (Jeremy will be more aware of self to understand his potential and this will build up on his belief in himself)
    • Self Management : Impulse and stress management / Goal setting and organisation skills / Self-motivation and discipline (Jeremy needs to control his anger and think rationally. Rational thinking allows him to build good relationship with others and goal setting allows Jeremy to know how to manage himself. Therefore, he will be more motivated and disciplined to learn)
    • Relationship Management : Social engagement / Seeking help (With adequate level of self management, Jeremy will be able to build good relationship with parents, teachers, and students. He also needs to open himself to others and stop indulging in a fictional figure, Dino)
    • Responsible Decision Making : Personal, moral and ethical responsibility / VOLITION (With volition, Jeremy will be able to uphold his integrity and be more responsible in his learning)
  • Formula for self-actualization
  •  
  • References
    •  
    • Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theor y. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
    • Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman. Bandura, A. (2004). Towards a psychology of human agency . Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Society, Chicago.
    • Barth, R. (2002). The culture builder. Educational Leadership, 59 (8), 6-12.
    • Batson, C. D., Dyck, J. L., Brandt, J. R., Batson, J. G,; Powell, A. L. (1988). "Five Studies Testing Two New Egoistic Alternatives to the Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 55 (1), 52–77.
    • Blum, R. (2005). A case for school connectedness. Educational Leadership, 62 (8), 16-19.
    • Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    • Brophy, J. (2006). History of research on classroom management. In C.M.Evertson & C.S.Weinstein (Eds.), Handbook of classroom management: Research, practice and contemporary issues (pp. 17-43). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    • Cornelius-White, J. (2007). Learner-centered teacher-student relationships are effective. A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 77, 113-143.
    • Deci, E., & Ryan, R. (Eds.), (2002). Handbook of self-determination research . Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.
  • References
    • Eggen, P., & Kauchak, D. (2010). Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms (8 th ed). New Jersey: Pearson.
    • Flavell, J. H. (1976) Metacognitive aspects of problem solving. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), The nature of intelligence (pp. 231–236). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum
    • Graham, F. (1990). Attribution Theory: Applications to Achievement, Mental Health, and Interpersonal Conflict . New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    • Hatano, G., & Inagaki, K. (1986). Two courses of expertise. Child development and education in Japan , () , 262–272.
    • Levesque, C., Stanek, L., Zuehlke, A.N., & Ryan, R. (2004). Autonomy and competence in German and American university students: A comparative study based on self-determination theory. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96 (1), 68-84.
    • Maslow, A. (1968). Toward a psychology of being (2 nd ed.). New York: Van Nostrand.
    • Maslow, A. (1970). Motivation and personality (2 nd ed.). New York: Harper & Row. (Original work published 1954).
    • Piaget, J. (1970). The science of education and the psychology of the chil d. New York: Orion Press.
    • Piaget, J. (1977). Problems in equilibration. In M. Appel & L. Goldberg (Eds.), Topics in cognitive development: Vol. 1. Equilibration: Theory, research and application (pp. 3-13). New York: Plenum Press.
    •  
  • References
    •  
    • Roeser, R.W., Peck, S.C., & Nasir, N.S. (2006). Self and identity processes in school motivation, learning and achievement. In P.A. Alexander & P.H. Winnie (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (2 nd ed., pp.391-424). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    • Ryan, R. & Deci, E. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25 , 54-67.
    • Tan, O. S., Parsons, R. D., Hinson, S. L., & Sardo-Brown, D. (2011). Educational Psychology: A practitioner-researcher approach . An Asian Edition (2 nd ed). Singapore: Thomson.
    • Teo, C. T. (2010). Understanding student motivation through love, volition and neurotransmitters. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences Journal, 9 ,(), 1926-1932.
    • Homans, G.C. (1958). Social Behavior as Exchange. American Journal of Sociology, 63 (6), 597–606.