PBL Scenario 2 Presented by: Chua Chong Yi Mario KeKaijie Justin Lin Zhiyi Yeo Zoe Yow Ying Ming Ivan
Hypothesis 1 When Jeremy’s parents give more autonomy to Jeremy, his behavior will become less externally regulated, allowing him to experience more subjective well-being and develop more self-esteem to do better in his studies.
Solutions Allow Jeremy to pursue his own interests: - So that he can exercise his volition that leads to motivation (Deci & Ryan, 2002; Teo, 2010) - Metacognitive development (Flavell, 1976) Memory-monitoring / Self – regulation Perform better in his work Awareness of effectiveness Modify learning strategies Active control of how he learns Autonomy
Solutions Focus on skill mastery rather than purely academic grades - Attribution theory (Graham, 1990) - Jeremy is more motivated to learn what he likes (Deci & Ryan, 2002) - Jeremy can be cultured as an efficient problem solver based on adaptive expertise theory (Hatano & Inagaki, 1986)
Hypothesis 2 When Jeremy receives more understanding, support and patience from his teacher, he will be more self-motivated to perform in his school exams and seek meaning in doing so.
Solutions Teachers should have positive expectations of Jeremy (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010) Why is there a need?
Increases self efficacy, motivation and achievement (Bandura 1986, 1997, 2004)
Solutions Teachers should have positive expectations of Jeremy (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010) How can the teacher show positive expectations? 3 ways (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010) By the demands she place on Jeremy,
in terms of expecting good quality work
emotional support she gives to Jeremy and
by being encouraging and pushing him on when he is not doing well
the way she interacts with Jeremy
by criticizing him less, praise more often etc
Solutions Teachers needs to be more caring towards Jeremy (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010) Why is there a need?
reduce need for belonging (as seen in Maslow’s hierarchy) (Maslow 1968, 1970)
meet needs for relatedness (supported by the self-determination theory) (Ryan & Deci, 2000)
Solutions Teachers needs to be more caring towards Jeremy (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010) How can the teacher show care towards Jeremy?
Commitment to Jeremy’s learning (Cornelius-White, 2007)
Showing respect to Jeremy (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010)
Show empathy and understanding (C.D. Batson, Dyck, Brandt, J.G. Batson, Powell , 1988)
Solutions Teacher should create a safe and positive classroom climate for Jeremy (Maslow, SDT) Why is there a need?
meet needs for safety (as seen in Maslow’s hierarchy) ( Maslow 1968, 1970)
meet needs for equilibrium (Piaget 1970, 1977)
meet needs for autonomy and relatedness (supported by the self-determination theory) (2: Brophy, 2006b; Roeser et al. 2006; R.Ryan & Deci, 2000)
Solutions Teacher should create a safe and positive classroom climate for Jeremy (Maslow, SDT) How can the teacher create a safe learning environment?
Modeling respect, courtesy and expecting students to do the same towards each other (2:Barth, 2002; Blum, 2005).
Modeling fairness to all students (Tan, Parsons, Hinson, Sardo-Brown, 2011)
Teacher should encourage and motivate - counsel Jeremy to see the value of his efforts (motivation theory) - set targets with Jeremy that are progressive and achievable Solutions
Hypothesis 3 When Jeremy is accepted and supported by his peers, he will experience care and support and gain agreeable personality characteristics such as altruism.
Solutions People around him being accepting and receptive of Jerermy
Friends show empathy and encouragement towards him via social exchange theory (Homans, 1958)
Teacher to reinforce good behaviours by being model of care and concern for all students via social learning theory (Bandura, 1977)
Hypothesis 4 When Jeremy understands causality, he will understand that competency is an end for his actions, whose behavior is volitional and determined from within.
Solutions More autonomy given to Jeremy to allow him to pursue his personal interests
Parents giving Jeremy options with tasks set for him but also spending time to know more about his interests and allowing him time to pursue them (Deci & Ryan, 2002)
Teachers understanding Jeremy’s current situation and vary the variety and difficulty of tasks Jeremy is to perform -expectancy x value theory (Fishbein, 1963)
Jeremy to reflect upon his ability in completing the work set by his parents, and attain a positive self-concept -attribution theory (Graham, 1990)
Hypothesis 5 When Jeremy’s parents and teachers establish a closer working relationship, he will have a stronger sense of belonging at home and in school.
Solutions Parents to be more participative in Jeremy’s school life
satisfy his safety and belongings need (Maslow 1968, 1970)
establish a functional mesosystem (Bronfenbrenner, 1979)
Formula for self-actualization
References Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.Bandura, A. (2004). Towards a psychology of human agency. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Society, Chicago.Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Brophy, J. (2006) Observational research on generic aspects of classroom teaching. In P.A. Alexander & P.H. Winnie (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (2nd ed.). New Jersey: Erlbaum Associates (pp. 755-780)Deci, E., & Ryan, R. (Eds.), (2002). Handbook of self-determination research. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.Eggen, P., & Kauchak, D. (2010). Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms (8th ed). New Jersey: Pearson.Flavell, J. H. (1976) Metacognitive aspects of problem solving. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), The nature of intelligence (pp. 231–236). Hillsdale, NJ: ErlbaumGraham, F. (1990). Attribution Theory: Applications to Achievement, Mental Health, and Interpersonal Conflict. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Hatano, G., & Inagaki, K. (1986). Two courses of expertise. Child development and education in Japan, (), 262–272.Levesque, C., Stanek, L., Zuehlke, A.N., & Ryan, R. (2004). Autonomy and competence in German and American university students: A comparative study based on self-determination theory. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96 (1), 68-84.Piaget, J. (1970). The science of education and the psychology of the child. New York: Orion Press.Piaget, J. (1977). Problems in equilibration. In M. Appel & L. Goldberg (Eds.), Topics in cognitive development: Vol. 1. Equilibration: Theory, research and application (pp. 3-13). New York: Plenum Press.Ryan, R. & Deci, E. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 54-67.Tan, O. S., Parsons, R. D., Hinson, S. L., & Sardo-Brown, D. (2011). Educational Psychology: A practitioner-researcher approach. An Asian Edition (2nded). Singapore: Thomson.Teo, C. T. (2010). Understanding student motivation through love, volition and neurotransmitters. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences Journal, 9,(), 1926-1932.Homans, G.C. (1958). Social Behavior as Exchange. American Journal of Sociology,63 (6), 597–606.Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. New York: General Learning Press.