Pbl presentation   zhiyi, mario, zoe, justin, ivan
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  • Teo, C. T. (2010). Understanding student motivation through love, volition and neurotransmitters. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences Journal, 9,(), 1926-1932.Deci, E., & Ryan, R. (Eds.), (2002). Handbook of self-determination research. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.Flavell, J. H. (1976) Metacognitive aspects of problem solving. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), The nature of intelligence (pp. 231–236). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum
  • Graham, F. (1990). Attribution Theory: Applications to Achievement, Mental Health, and Interpersonal Conflict. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Deci, E., & Ryan, R. (Eds.), (2002). Handbook of self-determination research. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.Hatano, G., & Inagaki, K. (1986). Two courses of expertise. Child development and education in Japan, (), 262–272.
  • Why is there a need for the teacher to show positive expectations?When teacher communicates positive expectations to students, this suggests to Jeremy that he will be successful.This will in make him feel competent (self-determination theory) (Levesque, Stanek, Zuehlke & Ryan, 2004; Ryan & Deci, 2000), increases his self-efficacy (Bandura 1986, 1997, 2004), motivation and achievement.Self-determination: the need to act on and control one’s environment (Pg 291 of Eggen). SDT assumes that people have 3 inate psychological needs: competence, autonomy and relatedness.Self-efficacy: the belief that one is capable of accomplishing a specific task (Bandura, 1986, 1997, 2004) (Pg 298, Chp 10 of Eggen)How can the teacher show positive expectations?Currently, the teacher’s treatment to Jeremy is an indicator to Jeremy how and what the teacher expects from him, which causes him to lose his motivation and volition to do well (Weinstein, 1998 Pg 83).References:Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.Bandura, A. (2004). Towards a psychology of human agency. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Society, Chicago.Brophy, J. (2006) Observational research on generic aspects of classroom teaching. In P.A. Alexander & P.H. Winnie (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (2nd ed.). New Jersey: Erlbaum Associates (pp. 755-780)Eggen, P., & Kauchak, D. (2010). Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms (8th ed). New Jersey: Pearson.Levesque, C., Stanek, L., Zuehlke, A.N., & Ryan, R. (2004). Autonomy and competence in German and American university students: A comparative study based on self-determination theory. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96 (1), 68-84.Ryan, R. & Deci, E. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 54-67
  • Why is there a need for the teacher to show positive expectations?When teacher communicates positive expectations to students, this suggests to Jeremy that he will be successful.This will in make him feel competent (self-determination theory) (Levesque, Stanek, Zuehlke & Ryan, 2004; Ryan & Deci, 2000), increases his self-efficacy (Bandura 1986, 1997, 2004), motivation and achievement.Self-determination: the need to act on and control one’s environment (Pg 291 of Eggen). SDT assumes that people have 3 inate psychological needs: competence, autonomy and relatedness.Self-efficacy: the belief that one is capable of accomplishing a specific task (Bandura, 1986, 1997, 2004) (Pg 298, Chp 10 of Eggen)How can the teacher show positive expectations?Currently, the teacher’s treatment to Jeremy is an indicator to Jeremy how and what the teacher expects from him, which causes him to lose his motivation and volition to do well (Weinstein, 1998 Pg 83).References:Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.Bandura, A. (2004). Towards a psychology of human agency. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Society, Chicago.Brophy, J. (2006) Observational research on generic aspects of classroom teaching. In P.A. Alexander & P.H. Winnie (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (2nd ed.). New Jersey: Erlbaum Associates (pp. 755-780)Eggen, P., & Kauchak, D. (2010). Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms (8th ed). New Jersey: Pearson.Levesque, C., Stanek, L., Zuehlke, A.N., & Ryan, R. (2004). Autonomy and competence in German and American university students: A comparative study based on self-determination theory. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96 (1), 68-84.Ryan, R. & Deci, E. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 54-67
  • Why is there a need for the teacher to show positive expectations?When teacher communicates positive expectations to students, this suggests to Jeremy that he will be successful.This will in make him feel competent (self-determination theory) (Levesque, Stanek, Zuehlke & Ryan, 2004; Ryan & Deci, 2000), increases his self-efficacy (Bandura 1986, 1997, 2004), motivation and achievement.Self-determination: the need to act on and control one’s environment (Pg 291 of Eggen). SDT assumes that people have 3 inate psychological needs: competence, autonomy and relatedness.Self-efficacy: the belief that one is capable of accomplishing a specific task (Bandura, 1986, 1997, 2004) (Pg 298, Chp 10 of Eggen)How can the teacher show positive expectations?Currently, the teacher’s treatment to Jeremy is an indicator to Jeremy how and what the teacher expects from him, which causes him to lose his motivation and volition to do well (Weinstein, 1998 Pg 83).References:Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.Bandura, A. (2004). Towards a psychology of human agency. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Society, Chicago.Brophy, J. (2006) Observational research on generic aspects of classroom teaching. In P.A. Alexander & P.H. Winnie (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (2nd ed.). New Jersey: Erlbaum Associates (pp. 755-780)Eggen, P., & Kauchak, D. (2010). Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms (8th ed). New Jersey: Pearson.Levesque, C., Stanek, L., Zuehlke, A.N., & Ryan, R. (2004). Autonomy and competence in German and American university students: A comparative study based on self-determination theory. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96 (1), 68-84.Ryan, R. & Deci, E. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 54-67
  • Why is there a need for the teacher to show positive expectations?When teacher communicates positive expectations to students, this suggests to Jeremy that he will be successful.This will in make him feel competent (self-determination theory) (Levesque, Stanek, Zuehlke & Ryan, 2004; Ryan & Deci, 2000), increases his self-efficacy (Bandura 1986, 1997, 2004), motivation and achievement.Self-determination: the need to act on and control one’s environment (Pg 291 of Eggen). SDT assumes that people have 3 inate psychological needs: competence, autonomy and relatedness.Self-efficacy: the belief that one is capable of accomplishing a specific task (Bandura, 1986, 1997, 2004) (Pg 298, Chp 10 of Eggen)How can the teacher show positive expectations?Currently, the teacher’s treatment to Jeremy is an indicator to Jeremy how and what the teacher expects from him, which causes him to lose his motivation and volition to do well (Weinstein, 1998 Pg 83).References:Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.Bandura, A. (2004). Towards a psychology of human agency. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Society, Chicago.Brophy, J. (2006) Observational research on generic aspects of classroom teaching. In P.A. Alexander & P.H. Winnie (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (2nd ed.). New Jersey: Erlbaum Associates (pp. 755-780)Eggen, P., & Kauchak, D. (2010). Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms (8th ed). New Jersey: Pearson.Levesque, C., Stanek, L., Zuehlke, A.N., & Ryan, R. (2004). Autonomy and competence in German and American university students: A comparative study based on self-determination theory. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96 (1), 68-84.Ryan, R. & Deci, E. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 54-67
  • Teacher should create a safe and positive classroom climate for Jeremy.What defines a safe and positive classroom climate? Is a place where teachers and students cooperate to help everyone achieve success (2: Palincsar, 1998; Rogoff, 1998)Defined by a place which creates a predictable learning environment and provides individuals with physical and emotional security (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010)Why is there a need for the teacher to create a safe learning environment?Helps meet Jeremy’s needs for safety (as seen in Maslow’s hierarchy) ( Maslow 1968, 1970)Helps meet Jeremy’s needs for equilibrium (Piaget 1970, 1977)Helps meet Jeremy’s needs for autonomy (supported by the self-determination theory) (2: Brophy, 2006b; Roeser et al. 2006)Helps meet Jeremy’s needs for relatedness (supported by the self-determination theory) ( R.Ryan & Deci, 2000)How can the teacher create a safe learning environment?Modeling respect, courtesy and expecting students to do the same towards each other (2:Barth, 2002; Blum, 2005).Modeling fairness to all students (teacher should look out for his/her verbal and nonverbal communication to students to prevent biasness) (Tan, Parsons, Hinson, Sardo-Brown, 2011)For more explanation on Why is there a need for the teacher to create a safe learning environment?Read pages 332, 333 of eggenReferences:Piaget, J. (1970). The science of education and the psychology of the child. New York: Orion Press.Piaget, J. (1977). Problems in equilibration. In M. Appel & L. Goldberg (Eds.), Topics in cognitive development: Vol. 1. Equilibration: Theory, research and application (pp. 3-13). New York: Plenum Press.Tan, O. S., Parsons, R. D., Hinson, S. L., & Sardo-Brown, D. (2011). Educational Psychology: A practitioner-researcher approach. An Asian Edition (2nded). Singapore: Thomson. 
  • Teacher should create a safe and positive classroom climate for Jeremy.What defines a safe and positive classroom climate? Is a place where teachers and students cooperate to help everyone achieve success (2: Palincsar, 1998; Rogoff, 1998)Defined by a place which creates a predictable learning environment and provides individuals with physical and emotional security (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010)Why is there a need for the teacher to create a safe learning environment?Helps meet Jeremy’s needs for safety (as seen in Maslow’s hierarchy) ( Maslow 1968, 1970)Helps meet Jeremy’s needs for equilibrium (Piaget 1970, 1977)Helps meet Jeremy’s needs for autonomy (supported by the self-determination theory) (2: Brophy, 2006b; Roeser et al. 2006)Helps meet Jeremy’s needs for relatedness (supported by the self-determination theory) ( R.Ryan & Deci, 2000)How can the teacher create a safe learning environment?Modeling respect, courtesy and expecting students to do the same towards each other (2:Barth, 2002; Blum, 2005).Modeling fairness to all students (teacher should look out for his/her verbal and nonverbal communication to students to prevent biasness) (Tan, Parsons, Hinson, Sardo-Brown, 2011)For more explanation on Why is there a need for the teacher to create a safe learning environment?Read pages 332, 333 of eggenReferences:Piaget, J. (1970). The science of education and the psychology of the child. New York: Orion Press.Piaget, J. (1977). Problems in equilibration. In M. Appel & L. Goldberg (Eds.), Topics in cognitive development: Vol. 1. Equilibration: Theory, research and application (pp. 3-13). New York: Plenum Press.Tan, O. S., Parsons, R. D., Hinson, S. L., & Sardo-Brown, D. (2011). Educational Psychology: A practitioner-researcher approach. An Asian Edition (2nded). Singapore: Thomson. 
  • Homans, G.C. (1958). Social Behavior as Exchange. American Journal of Sociology,63 (6), 597–606.Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. New York: General Learning Press.
  • Deci, E., & Ryan, R. (Eds.), (2002). Handbook of self-determination research. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.Fishbein, M. (1963). An investigation of relationships between beliefs about an object and the attitude toward that object. Human Relations, 16, 233-240.Graham, F. (1990). Attribution Theory: Applications to Achievement, Mental Health, and Interpersonal Conflict. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Pbl presentation   zhiyi, mario, zoe, justin, ivan Pbl presentation zhiyi, mario, zoe, justin, ivan Presentation Transcript

  • PBL Scenario 2
    Presented by:
    Chua Chong Yi Mario
    KeKaijie Justin
    Lin Zhiyi
    Yeo Zoe
    Yow Ying Ming Ivan
  • Hypothesis 1
    When Jeremy’s parents give more autonomy to Jeremy, his behavior will become less externally regulated, allowing him to experience more subjective well-being and develop more self-esteem to do better in his studies.
  • Solutions
    Allow Jeremy to pursue his own interests:
    - So that he can exercise his volition that leads to motivation (Deci & Ryan, 2002; Teo, 2010)
    - Metacognitive development (Flavell, 1976)
    Memory-monitoring / Self – regulation  Perform better in his work
    Awareness of effectiveness  Modify learning strategies
    Active control of how he learns  Autonomy
  • Solutions
    Focus on skill mastery rather than purely academic grades
    - Attribution theory (Graham, 1990)
    - Jeremy is more motivated to learn what he likes (Deci & Ryan, 2002)
    - Jeremy can be cultured as an efficient problem solver based on adaptive expertise theory (Hatano & Inagaki, 1986)
  • Hypothesis 2
    When Jeremy receives more understanding, support and patience from his teacher, he will be more self-motivated to perform in his school exams and seek meaning in doing so.
  • Solutions
    Teachers should have positive expectations of Jeremy (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010)
    Why is there a need?
    • feel competent (self-determination theory) (Levesque, Stanek, Zuehlke & Ryan, 2004; Ryan & Deci, 2000),
    • Increases self efficacy, motivation and achievement (Bandura 1986, 1997, 2004)
  • Solutions
    Teachers should have positive expectations of Jeremy (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010)
    How can the teacher show positive expectations?
    3 ways (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010)
    By the demands she place on Jeremy,
    • in terms of expecting good quality work
    emotional support she gives to Jeremy and
    • by being encouraging and pushing him on when he is not doing well
    the way she interacts with Jeremy
    • by criticizing him less, praise more often etc
  • Solutions
    Teachers needs to be more caring towards Jeremy (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010)
    Why is there a need?
    • reduce need for belonging (as seen in Maslow’s hierarchy) (Maslow 1968, 1970)
    • meet needs for relatedness (supported by the self-determination theory) (Ryan & Deci, 2000)
  • Solutions
    Teachers needs to be more caring towards Jeremy (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010)
    How can the teacher show care towards Jeremy?
    • Communicating unconditional positive regard (Cornelius-White, 2007)
    • Commitment to Jeremy’s learning (Cornelius-White, 2007)
    • Showing respect to Jeremy (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010)
    • Show empathy and understanding (C.D. Batson, Dyck, Brandt, J.G. Batson, Powell , 1988)
  • Solutions
    Teacher should create a safe and positive classroom climate for Jeremy (Maslow, SDT)
    Why is there a need?
    • meet needs for safety (as seen in Maslow’s hierarchy) ( Maslow 1968, 1970)
    • meet needs for equilibrium (Piaget 1970, 1977)
    • meet needs for autonomy and relatedness (supported by the self-determination theory) (2: Brophy, 2006b; Roeser et al. 2006; R.Ryan & Deci, 2000)
  • Solutions
    Teacher should create a safe and positive classroom climate for Jeremy (Maslow, SDT)
    How can the teacher create a safe learning environment?
    • Modeling respect, courtesy and expecting students to do the same towards each other (2:Barth, 2002; Blum, 2005).
    • Modeling fairness to all students (Tan, Parsons, Hinson, Sardo-Brown, 2011)
  • Teacher should encourage and motivate
    - counsel Jeremy to see the value of his efforts (motivation theory)
    - set targets with Jeremy that are progressive and achievable
    Solutions
  • Hypothesis 3
    When Jeremy is accepted and supported by his peers, he will experience care and support and gain agreeable personality characteristics such as altruism.
  • Solutions
    People around him being accepting and receptive of Jerermy
    • Friends show empathy and encouragement towards him via social exchange theory (Homans, 1958)
    • Teacher to reinforce good behaviours by being model of care and concern for all students via social learning theory (Bandura, 1977)
  • Hypothesis 4
    When Jeremy understands causality, he will understand that competency is an end for his actions, whose behavior is volitional and determined from within.
  • Solutions
    More autonomy given to Jeremy to allow him to pursue his personal interests
    • Parents giving Jeremy options with tasks set for him but also spending time to know more about his interests and allowing him time to pursue them (Deci & Ryan, 2002)
    • Teachers understanding Jeremy’s current situation and vary the variety and difficulty of tasks Jeremy is to perform -expectancy x value theory (Fishbein, 1963)
    • Jeremy to reflect upon his ability in completing the work set by his parents, and attain a positive self-concept -attribution theory (Graham, 1990)
  • Hypothesis 5
    When Jeremy’s parents and teachers establish a closer working relationship, he will have a stronger sense of belonging at home and in school.
  • Solutions
    Parents to be more participative in Jeremy’s school life
    • satisfy his safety and belongings need (Maslow 1968, 1970)
    • establish a functional mesosystem (Bronfenbrenner, 1979)
  • Formula for self-actualization
  • References
    Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.Bandura, A. (2004). Towards a psychology of human agency. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Society, Chicago.Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Brophy, J. (2006) Observational research on generic aspects of classroom teaching. In P.A. Alexander & P.H. Winnie (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (2nd ed.). New Jersey: Erlbaum Associates (pp. 755-780)Deci, E., & Ryan, R. (Eds.), (2002). Handbook of self-determination research. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.Eggen, P., & Kauchak, D. (2010). Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms (8th ed). New Jersey: Pearson.Flavell, J. H. (1976) Metacognitive aspects of problem solving. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), The nature of intelligence (pp. 231–236). Hillsdale, NJ: ErlbaumGraham, F. (1990). Attribution Theory: Applications to Achievement, Mental Health, and Interpersonal Conflict. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Hatano, G., & Inagaki, K. (1986). Two courses of expertise. Child development and education in Japan, (), 262–272.Levesque, C., Stanek, L., Zuehlke, A.N., & Ryan, R. (2004). Autonomy and competence in German and American university students: A comparative study based on self-determination theory. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96 (1), 68-84.Piaget, J. (1970). The science of education and the psychology of the child. New York: Orion Press.Piaget, J. (1977). Problems in equilibration. In M. Appel & L. Goldberg (Eds.), Topics in cognitive development: Vol. 1. Equilibration: Theory, research and application (pp. 3-13). New York: Plenum Press.Ryan, R. & Deci, E. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 54-67.Tan, O. S., Parsons, R. D., Hinson, S. L., & Sardo-Brown, D. (2011). Educational Psychology: A practitioner-researcher approach. An Asian Edition (2nded). Singapore: Thomson.Teo, C. T. (2010). Understanding student motivation through love, volition and neurotransmitters. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences Journal, 9,(), 1926-1932.Homans, G.C. (1958). Social Behavior as Exchange. American Journal of Sociology,63 (6), 597–606.Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. New York: General Learning Press.