Site research report bm (steel) corrected

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  • 1. SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING AND DESIGN BACHELOR OF QUANTITY SURVEYING (HONOURS) QSB1513 – Building Materials Site Research Reports - Metals April Semester 2013 Group Assignment Submission Date: 11/07/2013 Group members Student No. Marks Cheah Xing Nan 0314326 Jasmine Yong Li Ting 0314622 Reuel Chan Ernyi 0315150 Teo Jun Tang 0314667 Yap Hue Eng 0314857 Yap Zhi Xin 0314542
  • 2. Table of Content: 1. Introduction 2. Appropriate Usage/Application 3. Physical Properties and Chemical Properties 4. Advantages and Disadvantages 5. Sustainability 6. Aesthetical Value 7. Performance/Behavior 8. Maintenance 9. Conclusion 10. List of References
  • 3. 1. Introduction On the 7th of June, a trip was organized by our lecturers, Puan Hasmanira Mokhtar and Mr Teh Bin Sin to the Ajiya glass and metal factory which is located in Segamat, Johor. It was a 3 Days 2 Night trip from the 7th to the 9th of June, travelling from Taylor’s Lakeside University to the Segamat, Johor then to Malacca. The purpose of this trip is to create understanding of students of the choices in choosing building materials based on properties and experience more about the materials used in buildings and construction internally and externally. The Ajiya factory consists of 2 parts, the Ajiya Glass Industries Sdn Bhd and Ajiya Roofing Industries Sdn Bhd. Both factories were visited by us and materials were introduced before our eyes with details. In the end, the factory visit conclude with us learning new materials with brochure and the throughout process of molding glass, roof pieces and other materials. As a report assignment, we were given the title metal. After much discussion, our group decided to do the steel as type of metal which is an alloy that is widely use in constructions.
  • 4. 2. Appropriate Usage/Application The appropriate uses of steel in construction are: Steel floor deck It is made of steel Z26-27N by rolling. It usually apply in residential buildings, business premises, industrial buildings, schools and hospitals, public building in general, agricultural buildings, and bridges and other constructions used by traffic. Metal door& window frames It is made of Zincalume Steel, Electro Galvanized, Galvanneal, Hot-dipped Plain Galvanized Steel & Pre-primed Galvanized Steel. Custom designed door window joint combination frames are well suited for schools and public buildings. When an opening requires strength, durability, or maximum fire resistance in any combination, steel doors and frames provide the qualities to meet these needs. (Urbaniak, 2012) Steel truss system It is made of light-weight high-tensile galvanized or zinc/aluminium alloy coated steel. It is designed for optimum strength at minimum cost to meet building industrial demand and also to complement any roofing systems. With its many advantages over timber or mild steel truss, high-tensile steel truss system, which is more stable, durable and environmental-friendly, will certainly be the preferred choice of truss systems. M-clad Cladding It is manufactured from high-tensile steel substrate protected with corrosion inhibitive treatment. It can be used vertically and horizontally to allow creative and flexible designs. Suitable for use as wall cladding, fascias, feature wall garage door cladding and fencing. Metal roofing system Hi-tensile metal roofing sheet in pre-painted hot-dipped zinc-coated steel or pre-painted hot-dipped zinc-aluminium alloy-coated steel to be fixed with/without insulation, and come complete with necessary fittings and accessories. It is widely used for commercial and industrial project like shop offices, schools, multi-purpose halls, apartment, sprung curve roof, and etc.
  • 5. Purlins It is formed from high tensile zinc-coated steel. It is beneficial to install a new metal roof over an existing metal roof without tearing off the old metal. It is installed horizontally over the existing roof, and the new panels are attached directly to the purlins.(Taylor,n.d)
  • 6. 3. Physical and Chemical Properties The physical properties of an alloy depend on the percentage composition of the constituent elements and the manufacturing process. Steel is able to cool down rapidly after being subjected to water or oil. The physical properties is that it has high strength, low ratio of strength to weight, malleable, ductile, possesses luster textile and durable. For the high strength of steel, the product of AJIYA is manufactured from high tensile steel with corrosive-inhibitive treatment and coating. It has a long life performance and minimum maintenance. Furthermore, the light weight helps in easy handling and installation. Although it possesses malleability and ductility, the products of has its consistent quality for not wrapping, shrinking and twisting. The luster textile gives the products a stylish tile effect. The components making up steel are iron and carbon. The carbon content varies from 0.2% to 2.14% of the total weight. According to AJIYA, steel can also be found in other types of alloys including galvanized steel, Zincalume steel, pre-prime steel and pre-painted hot dipped zinc-aluminium alloy-coated steel. Steel grades are classified by many standard organizations, based on the composition and the physical properties of the metal. The deciding factor for the grade of steel is basically its chemical composition and the supplied condition. The higher the carbon content, the harder and stronger is the steel metal. (Sandhyarani, 2012) Earlier forms of steel consisted of more carbon, as compared to the present day steel. Today, the steel manufacturing process is such that less carbon is added and the metal is cooled down immediately, so as to retain the desirable physical properties. Rapid cooling (or quenching) of steel also alters the grain structure. (Sandhyarani, 2012)
  • 7. 4. Advantages The advantages of steel in constructions are: - High strength and weight ratio The weight of steel structures is relatively small which makes steel a very attractive structure material for high-rise buildings and long-span bridges. - Ductility Steel can undergo large plastic deformation before failure thus providing large reserve strength. Properly designed steel structures have high ductility which resisting shock loading such as blasts or earthquakes. Besides, it have energy-absorbing capacity and will not incur sudden failure. - Predictable material properties Properties of steel can be predicted with a high degree of certainty. Its shows relatively high elastic behavior up and well-defined stress level which does not change considerably with time. - Miscellaneous Steel have the ability to fasten together using welds and bolts. It have adaptation to prefabrication which suitable to mass production. Besides, it has speed of erection which would results quicker economic payoff. It also an ultimate recyclable materials as can remove possible structure which is disassembled. (Mc Momac, 1998) - Quality of construction Steel structures can be built with high quality workmanship and narrow tolerances.
  • 8. 5. Disadvantage The disadvantages of steel are: - General cost Steel structures are costly than other types of structures. - Fireproofing The strength of steel will reduced substantially when heated at temperatures commonly observed in building fires. Besides, steel conduct and transmits heat to the building. - Maintenance Steel structures exposed to air and water such as bridges is susceptible to corrosion and should be painted regularly. To eliminate this problem, application of weathering and corrosion-resistant steels can be used. (Mc Momac, 1998) - Susceptibility to buckling Due to high strength, steel compression members are in general more slender and consequently more susceptible to buckling than reinforced concrete compression members. As a result, considerable materials may have to be used just to improve the buckling resistance of slender steel compression members. (Hojjat, n.d)
  • 9. 6. Sustainability Steel have a massive strength to weight ratio, some steel can give an architect complete flexibility to innovate and change buildings that are beyond what other materials could provide. This advantage is exploited in building structures, giving low overall environment impacts. Construction steel can last much longer than the building itself. Therefore, steel’s strength and durability brings the occupants safety and long lasting functionality, which is a significant part of sustainable use of construction. The use of the building and all constructions activities generates more than 40% of all carbon dioxide emissions. But steel have a high rates of helping lessen CO2 emission, steel has a lower energy use and CO2 emissions per ton than aluminium, magnesium and among others (Steel Recycling Institute, 2013). In North America, the steel industry has made the initiative to protect our environment and preserve our resources by reducing overall energy consumption per ton of steel produced by 33% since 1990. The greenhouse gas including carbon dioxide is reduced by more than 25% from 1994 thru 2003 (American Iron And Steel Institute, 2013). Steel is the world’s most recycle material, and in North America alone, 80 million tons of steel are recycled and exported annually. Steel is recycled for the purpose of helping the economic and environmental reasons. In construction wise, steel is unique because it is fully recyclable, and the steel materials can be recycled over and over again without the loss of quality. The recovery rate for steel construction products today are 94%-97%, which is very high which shows the sustainability of steel. Steel are easily recovered, because steel is attracted to magnet, steel is easily and cost efficient to remove it from the waste stream.
  • 10. 7. Aesthetic Value Nowadays, many skyscrapers are using steel to be the exterior design of the building. Steel are not only being used as reinforcement of building but it is used in main structure in designing the building. This is because by using steel, architect has flexibility in design the building and creates many different shapes and unique building. There are some examples of building which using steel as the main component of building such as Chicago Willis Tower, John Hancock Centre and Minsheng Bank Building. These different types of building give different appearance and different usage. The design of building is based on the usage of the building such as China World Trade Centre III which consists of 5-star hotel, 1600 seats grand ball room, office space, retail and car park. This kind of multi-purpose building needs to have an appropriate and structure so that it is applicable to the usage.
  • 11. 8. Performance/Behaviour All common building materials lose strength when heated to high temperatures. The elastic modulus of steel is similarly reduced with increasing temperatures, but at a higher rate. This behaviour is similar for hot rolled reinforcing steels. For cold worked steels including reinforcement, there is a more rapid decrease of strength after 300°C (Lawson & Newman, 1990). In addition to the reduction of material strength and stiffness, steel displays a significant creep phenomenon at temperatures over 450°C. The phenomena of creep results in an increase of deformation (strain) with time, even if the temperature and applied stress remain unchanged (Twilt, 1988). The thermal properties of steel at elevated temperatures are found to be dependent on temperature and are less influenced by the stress level and heating rate. This simplified the consideration of the thermal properties of steel in design methods. The earthquake resistance of steel frames has been known to be tremendously reliable overall, with steel building collapses so far being the rare occurrence worldwide (Yanev et al. 1991). In January, 1994, Northridge earthquake, steel frames also sustained well the ground shaking, as no fatalities were attributed to unsatisfactory performance of steel structures and no collapses of steel buildings were reported (AISC 1994~a). Manufacturers produce acoustic studs which have unique characteristics for increased acoustic performance. The studs have specially developed profiles, particularly the web, which absorb sound energy and reduce sound transfer through walls. Acoustic studs can be used to upgrade the acoustic performance of wall systems. Sizes are similar to those for ‘C’ and ‘I’ section studs but the thickness is usually less. Acoustic studs are generally non load-bearing. Indicative acoustic performance values for various construction arrangements are tabulated below.
  • 12. 9. Maintenance There are several types of maintenance to prolong the lifespan and durability of the steel product. The common maintenance are coating of steel, avoid keeping steel with other types of metal or overlap and some cleaning method. First of all, coating of steel is one of the prevention and maintenance in steel. (Gurtzweiler, 2013) There are several types of coating such as paint coatings, metallic coatings, hot-dip galvanizing and thermally spray metal coatings. ‘Duplex’ coating system is usually used in the paint system which every layer has subsequently distinct function and the different types are applied in a particular sequence of primer followed by build coats and finally the top coat. (Hendy & Iles, 2010) There are four common methods for metallic coating such as hot-dip galvanizing, thermal spraying, electroplating and sherardizing. The latter two processes are not using for structural steelwork but are used for fittings, fasteners and other small items. Generally, corrosion preventive method afforded by metallic coatings is largely dependent upon the choice of coating metal and its thickness and is not greatly influenced by the method of application. (Hendy & Iles, 2010) Coated and painted steel surface can be cleaned using soap and water. Cleaning method given by manufacture should be followed and polishing frequently provides a shiny surface. Use of the steel product should avoid letting different types of steel in contact with each other because it will cause adverse chemical reaction between the steel products and leads to corrosion. Therefore, we should avoid letting different type of steel overlap with each other. (Hippard, 2010) Other than that, maintenance work can be completed by removing rust on the surface and wrapping corrosion tape on it. (Ship Building, 2010)By following these types of method, lifespan of steel can be prolong to the maximum and make full use of the steel products.
  • 13. 10. Conclusion In a nutshell, this site trip has truly benefits us in many ways. Not only lessons are taught, but the bonds between students have been greatly magnified. Many kinds of glasses and types of roofing were introduced. We, as students had the advantage to be exposed to the work life and routine of a factory worker. Not only that, we learnt how different types of glass and steel were produced and cut into shapes according to the consumer’s requests. The process of how a mere glass is molded and chemically changes into the specific type was shown to us step by step. In this assignment, we had chosen steel as our title because steel play an important role in the construction of a building. Throughout the assignment, we were given different field of research to search on and had grasped a better understanding towards steel. In conclusion, all in intended outcome in the assignment were achieved.
  • 14. 11. List of References 1. Acoustic performance of steel wall, http://www.steelconstruction.info/Acoustic_performance_of_walls 2. Al-Jabri, Khalifa (2007) Behavior of Steel-framed Buildings in a Fire, http://academia.edu/589211/Behavior_of_Steel-framed_Buildings_in_a_Fire 3. American Iron and Steel Institute, http://www.steel.org/Sustainability.aspx 4. Chatterjee, T. (2012). Steel properties, http://www.buzzle.com/articles/steel- properties.html 5. Gurtzweiler, H (2013) Ohio Steel Erectors | Structural Steel Erection. http://www.ohiosteelerectors.com/maintenance.php 6. Hendy, C.R.; Iles, D.C. (2010) Steel Bridge Group: Guidance Notes on best practice in steel bridge construction (5th Issue). (P185). Steel Construction Institute 7. Hippard, B (2010)Roofing - metalmag Magazine The Benefits of Well-Maintained Metal Roofs are Far Reaching, http://www.metalmag.com/roofing/up-up-and- away.aspx 8. Hojjat, Adeli (n.d) Advantages and Disadvantages of steel as a structural design material, http://hcgl.eng.ohio-state.edu/~ceg532/chap1/chap1_2.htm. 9. McMomac, J. C. (1998). Structural steel design lrfd method. (2nd ed., pg. 01-04). United States of America: Harper Collins College Publishers. 10. Na. (2006) Steel Can Recycling Information Bureau, http://www.scrib.org.uk/about_us/why_is_steel_sustainable.asp. 11. Performance of steel structures during the 1994 Northridge earthquake, http://www.eng.buffalo.edu/~bruneau/CJCE%201995%20Tremblay%20Timler%20 Bruneau%20Filiatrault.pdf 12. Sandhyarani, N. (2012). Physical properties of steel, http://www.buzzle.com/articles/physical-properties-of-steel.html 13. Ship building, O (2010). Oshima Ship Building Co. Ltd., http://www.osy.co.jp/english/steel/other.php 14. Sustainability of steel-framed buildings, http://www.sbi.nu/uploaded/dokument/files/SBI- Sustainability_of_steel_framed_buildings.pdf.
  • 15. 15. Structural Material Behaviour in Fire, http://www.mace.manchester.ac.uk/project/research/structures/strucfire/materialInF ire/Steel/default.htm?p=#0 16. Taylor, Glenda (n.d) Are Purlins Necessary for Proper Installation of Metal Roofing?, http://www.ehow.com/info_12201055_purlins-necessary-proper- installation-metal-roofing.html#ixzz2YCopawFh 17. Urbaniak, Al, Steel Doors and Frames Go With the System, http://www.encorewindows.com/default.asp?pID=94