SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING AND DESIGN
BACHELOR OF QUANTITY SURVEYING (HONOURS)
QSB1514 – Construction Technology 1
Petronas Twin Tower (KLCC)
April Semester 2013
Submission Date: 26/06/2013
Name Student ID Marks
Wong Choong Ling 0314504
Wong Ha Shiong 0309640
Yap Zhi Xin 0314542
A. Provide background information of the Petronas Twin Towers (not
more than 300 words).
The Petronas Twin Towers is twin skyscrapers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. According
to the CTBUH's official definition and ranking, they were the tallest buildings in the
world from 1998 to 2004 until surpassed by Taipei 101, but they remain the tallest
twin building in the world. An Argentine American architect, César Pelli, along with
Deejay Cerico, J.C. Guinto and Dominic Saibo designed it
of 88 levels with the height of 452m above street level
(http://www.petronastwintowers.com.my) .The project started on January 1992 and it
tooks 6 years in order to finish both of the towers. The towers cost about US$1.6
The aim to build the Petronas Twin Towers was to buld a landmark for Malaysia and
built up the confidence in every Malaysian. It represents Malaysia‟s increasing wealth
and the nation‟s desire to feature more prominently on the international stage.
"As an internationally recognised landmark, the PETRONAS Twin Towers symbolise
the courage, ingenuity, initiative, and determination, energy, confidence, optimism,
advancement and zest of a nation." Stated by Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad, Former
Prime Minister of Malaysia (1981-2003). (http://www.petronastwintowers.com.my)
Even though Malaysia is free to practise any various religion and custom, still, Islam
remains as the official religion for the largely Malay community.
(http://www.mir.com.my/leofoo/KLCC/indexprelude.htm). Therefore, the inspiration of
the design was from the tradition of the culture and the Islamic sysmbols, a geometric
eight-pointed star floor design. (http://www.akdn.org/architecture/pdf/1969_Mal.pdf)
Other than that, this building is unique with the skybridge that falls on 41st
floors; it helps to balance both the towers from the Monson Wind that happens in
Malaysia‟s weather. (Frankham, Steve (2008). Malaysia and Singapore. Bath:
Footprint Travel Guides). It was built not attaching to the main towers to prevent
breaking. The skybridge is situated 170m heights above the ground with 58m long
and weighing 750 tons. (Chang, Fu-Kuo (2005). Structural health monitoring, 2005:
advancements and challenges for implementation. Lancaster, PA: DEStech
B. The type of structure and main materials used for the towers construction (not
more than 500 words).
KLCC foundation system consists of a 4.5 metre thick piled raft supported on rectangular
friction piles called barrettes varying in depth from 40 metres to 105 metres to control
predicted settlement under different thicknesses of Kenny Hill formation underlain by
limestone. The concrete (contain admixtures) used is of grade M80, which means the
concrete can support up to 80 Newtons per square millimeter after it has been left to
cure for 28 days.
Figure 1: 4.5 metres thick piled raft used.
Figure 2: Barrettes used in foundation system.
The structure main materials are concrete as it is most cost effective. High-strength concrete
was used in the central core, perimeter columns, perimeter ring beams and outrigger beams
permitting vertical core and column elements. Concrete construction requires relatively light,
simple connections in joints of difficult geometry and providing fire-rated shaft walls in the
core which can reduces the building response to gusts of wind.
Figure 3: High strength concrete was used to reduces building response to wind.
The tower superstructure is supported by cylindrical columns linked by slightly arched
structural concrete ring beams of high-strength reinforced concrete. At the centre of each
tower is an approximately 23x23 metre concrete core with outrigger beams tie the perimeter
columns to the cores at the thirty-eighth and fortieth levels. The core and cylindrical tube
frame system is constructed entirely of in-situ high-strength concrete. Structural steel was
used for typical longspan floor beams supporting concrete-filled metal deck slabs. This
system is chosen for fast and flexible construction to meet an client ambitious schedule and
flexibility to accommodate special openings or loading requirement requested by the tenants.
Due to the innovative light weight steel framing system non-crane erection methods permits
while the decking provided required fire ratings without the usage of fire spray or thick or
lightweight concrete fill.
The towers and their base are clad with stainless steel extrusions and custom made 20.38
millimetre laminated light-green glass. The curtain wall of each of the triangular corners of
the towers is flat 90° corner at its extremity, while the curtain wall of the semicircular
protrusions is faceted. Each panel rises one floor and spans from sill to sill, with vision glass
below a stainless steel spandrel with a grey glass sprandel at the top. Horizontal „bullnose;
and „teardrop‟ sunscreen brackets provide shading which each sunscreen is the same width
as one of the curtain wall panels and together they give the appearance of a continous silver
ribbon around the building. Each of the sunscreen has cast aluminium end caps and are
fixed on brackets made of extruded aluminium and finished with oven-cured PVF2
Figure 4: Clad with steel extrusions and custom made laminated light green glass.
Local wood and Terengganu granite and marble were extensively used in finishing materials
It is using a double decker elevator system to accommodate the thousands of employees
housed within it with a sky lobby point situated at the 41st
Figure 5: Double decker elevator system.
C. Industrialized building systems (IBS) implemented during the construction of the
towers (not more than 300 words).
IndustrialisedBulding System (IBS) is a building which Junid (1986), defined it as a
process by which the parts of buiding are conceived, planned and fabricated, and then
they are transported and erected at the site. The IBS was used in the construction of the
Petronas Twin Tower as it saves times which was important as the construction was to
be finished in a tight schedule.
In the Petronas Twin Towers, the steel beams of the floor are made in steel plants in
Malaysia and then installed into each of the floors. The building used steel framing as it
is easy to fabricate and install. Most of the framing were fabricated by local steel plants.
Steel were used in beams between the core and the ring beams.
Another part of the building which has implemented the IBS is the skybridge. The
skybridge linking the 2 towers were fabricatedby Samsung Heavy Industries of South
Korea, as Malaysia does not have steel plants big enough to build the components. The
bridge was disassembled into 493 pieces and shipped to Malaysia. To put the pieces
into space more easily, the bridge was pre-assembled into 5 components. They were
built on the ground and then lifted into place.
The pinnacles on top of the building, which included a spire ball, the mast and a ring ball,
were also fabricated and then brought to site in pieces. The pieces were lifted and install
into place piece by piece.
D. Discuss on how IBS helped the construction of those buildings/ structures (not
more than 300 words).
First of all, the industrialized building system provides high quality products as the parts
can are fabricated in a factory, and this allows the product to be controlled easily and to
high degree of precision. The quality of the components can be maintained at a
consistent level. Overall, IBS ensures that the end product will be of high quality.
IBS also saves time and costs. With components fabricated off-site, less on site workers
are needed which reduces labor cost. Installing the components is simplified and fewer
workers are needed to complete the construction. There is also less wastage as parts
needed are created in factory to the size required. There will also be no need for timber
formworks as parts are pre-casted in the factory, another point that reduces cost.
Time is saved as preparations are done in advance and putting the pieces into place is
simple. For example, when a site is carrying on the earthwork, the pieces that the
construction needs can start its production. Weather will not be an issue during casting
as the components are casted in controlled environment in the factory. IBS allows faster
completion time for the construction to be achieved.
The construction will also be clean and neat as there will be less wetworks going on on
the site. With fewer unused materials on sites, such as timber, nails and steel, the site
will be neater and safety of the site is also improved.
1. Abada G.,(2004), “Petronas Office Towers”
2. Barrette Piles in Foundation System of Petronas Twin Tower, http://civil-engg-
3. Chang, Fu-Kuo (2005). Structural health monitoring, 2005: advancements
and challenges for implementation. Lancaster, PA: DEStech Publications.
4. Frankham, Steve (2008). Malaysia and Singapore. Bath: Footprint Travel
5. Junid,S.M.S (1986) Industrialised building system. Proceedings of a
UNESCO/FEISEAP Regional workshop, UPM Serdang.
6. Merchant C. (09 January, 2013), “The History and Construction of the
Petronas Twin Towers” (http://www.expatgomalaysia.com/article/878/the-
7. Petronas Twin Towers,
8. Petronas Twin Towers, KLCC,
9. Thornton C.H., Hungspuke U., Joseph L.M., (1997) The Structural Design of
Tall Buildings, Vol.6, 245±262