CT Assignment Written Report


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

CT Assignment Written Report

  1. 1. SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING AND DESIGN BACHELOR OF QUANTITY SURVEYING (HONOURS) QSB1514 – Construction Technology 1 Petronas Twin Tower (KLCC) April Semester 2013 Group Assignment Submission Date: 26/06/2013 Name Student ID Marks Wong Choong Ling 0314504 Wong Ha Shiong 0309640 Yap Zhi Xin 0314542
  2. 2. A. Provide background information of the Petronas Twin Towers (not more than 300 words). The Petronas Twin Towers is twin skyscrapers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. According to the CTBUH's official definition and ranking, they were the tallest buildings in the world from 1998 to 2004 until surpassed by Taipei 101, but they remain the tallest twin building in the world. An Argentine American architect, César Pelli, along with Deejay Cerico, J.C. Guinto and Dominic Saibo designed it (http://www.emporis.com/complex/petronas-towers-kuala-lumpur-malaysia). Consist of 88 levels with the height of 452m above street level (http://www.petronastwintowers.com.my) .The project started on January 1992 and it tooks 6 years in order to finish both of the towers. The towers cost about US$1.6 billion. (http://www.mir.com.my/leofoo/KLCC/indexprelude.htm) The aim to build the Petronas Twin Towers was to buld a landmark for Malaysia and built up the confidence in every Malaysian. It represents Malaysia‟s increasing wealth and the nation‟s desire to feature more prominently on the international stage. (http://www.mir.com.my/leofoo/KLCC/indexprelude.htm) "As an internationally recognised landmark, the PETRONAS Twin Towers symbolise the courage, ingenuity, initiative, and determination, energy, confidence, optimism, advancement and zest of a nation." Stated by Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad, Former Prime Minister of Malaysia (1981-2003). (http://www.petronastwintowers.com.my) Even though Malaysia is free to practise any various religion and custom, still, Islam remains as the official religion for the largely Malay community. (http://www.mir.com.my/leofoo/KLCC/indexprelude.htm). Therefore, the inspiration of the design was from the tradition of the culture and the Islamic sysmbols, a geometric eight-pointed star floor design. (http://www.akdn.org/architecture/pdf/1969_Mal.pdf) Other than that, this building is unique with the skybridge that falls on 41st and 42nd floors; it helps to balance both the towers from the Monson Wind that happens in
  3. 3. Malaysia‟s weather. (Frankham, Steve (2008). Malaysia and Singapore. Bath: Footprint Travel Guides). It was built not attaching to the main towers to prevent breaking. The skybridge is situated 170m heights above the ground with 58m long and weighing 750 tons. (Chang, Fu-Kuo (2005). Structural health monitoring, 2005: advancements and challenges for implementation. Lancaster, PA: DEStech Publications). (289 words)
  4. 4. B. The type of structure and main materials used for the towers construction (not more than 500 words). KLCC foundation system consists of a 4.5 metre thick piled raft supported on rectangular friction piles called barrettes varying in depth from 40 metres to 105 metres to control predicted settlement under different thicknesses of Kenny Hill formation underlain by limestone. The concrete (contain admixtures) used is of grade M80, which means the concrete can support up to 80 Newtons per square millimeter after it has been left to cure for 28 days. Figure 1: 4.5 metres thick piled raft used. (www.allaboutskyscrapers.com) Figure 2: Barrettes used in foundation system. (http://civil-engg-world.blogspot.com) The structure main materials are concrete as it is most cost effective. High-strength concrete was used in the central core, perimeter columns, perimeter ring beams and outrigger beams permitting vertical core and column elements. Concrete construction requires relatively light, simple connections in joints of difficult geometry and providing fire-rated shaft walls in the core which can reduces the building response to gusts of wind.
  5. 5. Figure 3: High strength concrete was used to reduces building response to wind. The tower superstructure is supported by cylindrical columns linked by slightly arched structural concrete ring beams of high-strength reinforced concrete. At the centre of each tower is an approximately 23x23 metre concrete core with outrigger beams tie the perimeter columns to the cores at the thirty-eighth and fortieth levels. The core and cylindrical tube frame system is constructed entirely of in-situ high-strength concrete. Structural steel was used for typical longspan floor beams supporting concrete-filled metal deck slabs. This system is chosen for fast and flexible construction to meet an client ambitious schedule and flexibility to accommodate special openings or loading requirement requested by the tenants. Due to the innovative light weight steel framing system non-crane erection methods permits while the decking provided required fire ratings without the usage of fire spray or thick or lightweight concrete fill. The towers and their base are clad with stainless steel extrusions and custom made 20.38 millimetre laminated light-green glass. The curtain wall of each of the triangular corners of the towers is flat 90° corner at its extremity, while the curtain wall of the semicircular protrusions is faceted. Each panel rises one floor and spans from sill to sill, with vision glass below a stainless steel spandrel with a grey glass sprandel at the top. Horizontal „bullnose; and „teardrop‟ sunscreen brackets provide shading which each sunscreen is the same width as one of the curtain wall panels and together they give the appearance of a continous silver ribbon around the building. Each of the sunscreen has cast aluminium end caps and are fixed on brackets made of extruded aluminium and finished with oven-cured PVF2 flurocarbon paint.
  6. 6. Figure 4: Clad with steel extrusions and custom made laminated light green glass. Local wood and Terengganu granite and marble were extensively used in finishing materials It is using a double decker elevator system to accommodate the thousands of employees housed within it with a sky lobby point situated at the 41st floor. Figure 5: Double decker elevator system. (499 words)
  7. 7. C. Industrialized building systems (IBS) implemented during the construction of the towers (not more than 300 words). IndustrialisedBulding System (IBS) is a building which Junid (1986), defined it as a process by which the parts of buiding are conceived, planned and fabricated, and then they are transported and erected at the site. The IBS was used in the construction of the Petronas Twin Tower as it saves times which was important as the construction was to be finished in a tight schedule. In the Petronas Twin Towers, the steel beams of the floor are made in steel plants in Malaysia and then installed into each of the floors. The building used steel framing as it is easy to fabricate and install. Most of the framing were fabricated by local steel plants. Steel were used in beams between the core and the ring beams. Another part of the building which has implemented the IBS is the skybridge. The skybridge linking the 2 towers were fabricatedby Samsung Heavy Industries of South Korea, as Malaysia does not have steel plants big enough to build the components. The bridge was disassembled into 493 pieces and shipped to Malaysia. To put the pieces into space more easily, the bridge was pre-assembled into 5 components. They were built on the ground and then lifted into place. The pinnacles on top of the building, which included a spire ball, the mast and a ring ball, were also fabricated and then brought to site in pieces. The pieces were lifted and install into place piece by piece.
  8. 8. D. Discuss on how IBS helped the construction of those buildings/ structures (not more than 300 words). First of all, the industrialized building system provides high quality products as the parts can are fabricated in a factory, and this allows the product to be controlled easily and to high degree of precision. The quality of the components can be maintained at a consistent level. Overall, IBS ensures that the end product will be of high quality. IBS also saves time and costs. With components fabricated off-site, less on site workers are needed which reduces labor cost. Installing the components is simplified and fewer workers are needed to complete the construction. There is also less wastage as parts needed are created in factory to the size required. There will also be no need for timber formworks as parts are pre-casted in the factory, another point that reduces cost. Time is saved as preparations are done in advance and putting the pieces into place is simple. For example, when a site is carrying on the earthwork, the pieces that the construction needs can start its production. Weather will not be an issue during casting as the components are casted in controlled environment in the factory. IBS allows faster completion time for the construction to be achieved. The construction will also be clean and neat as there will be less wetworks going on on the site. With fewer unused materials on sites, such as timber, nails and steel, the site will be neater and safety of the site is also improved.
  9. 9. References 1. Abada G.,(2004), “Petronas Office Towers” (http://www.akdn.org/architecture/pdf/1969_Mal.pdf) 2. Barrette Piles in Foundation System of Petronas Twin Tower, http://civil-engg- world.blogspot.com/2013/03/Barrette-Piles-Foundation-System-Petronas- Twin-Tower-Part-1.html 3. Chang, Fu-Kuo (2005). Structural health monitoring, 2005: advancements and challenges for implementation. Lancaster, PA: DEStech Publications. 4. Frankham, Steve (2008). Malaysia and Singapore. Bath: Footprint Travel Guides. 5. Junid,S.M.S (1986) Industrialised building system. Proceedings of a UNESCO/FEISEAP Regional workshop, UPM Serdang. 6. Merchant C. (09 January, 2013), “The History and Construction of the Petronas Twin Towers” (http://www.expatgomalaysia.com/article/878/the- history-and-construction-of-the-petronas-twin-towers) 7. Petronas Twin Towers, http://www.allaboutskyscrapers.com/property/petronas-twin-towers 8. Petronas Twin Towers, KLCC, http://www.propwall.my/klcc/petronas_twin_towers 9. Thornton C.H., Hungspuke U., Joseph L.M., (1997) The Structural Design of Tall Buildings, Vol.6, 245±262